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The TARES test: Five principles for ethical persuasion

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Abstract

Whereas professional persuasion is a means to an immediate and instrumental end (such as increased sales or enhanced corporate image), ethical persuasion must rest on or serve a deeper, morally based final (or relative last) end. Among the moral final ends of journalism, for example, are truth and freedom. There is a very real danger that advertisers and public relations practitioners will play an increasingly dysfunctional role in the communications process if means continue to be confused with ends in professional persuasive communications. Means and ends will continue to be confused unless advertisers and public relations practitioners reach some level of agreement as to the moral end toward which their efforts should be directed.In this article we advance a five-part test (the TARES test) that defines this moral end, establishes ethical boundaries that should guide persuasive practices, and serves as a set of action-guiding principles directed toward a moral consequence in professional persuasion. The TARES Test consists of five principles: Truthfulness (of the message), Authenticity (of the persuader), Respect (for the persuadee), Equity (of the persuasive appeal) and Social Responsibility (for the common good). We provide checklists to guide the practitioner in moral reflection and application of TARES Test principles.

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... This approach grows out of influences such as the Scottish moral philosopher W. D. Ross ([1930] 2002) and neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics philosophers such as Philippa Foot (1978) and Rosalind Hursthouse (1999). It entails defining and recommending a core set of virtues or ethical duties that should take priority over less important considerations (Baker, 1999(Baker, , 2008Baker & Martinson, 2001;Couldry, 2012;Edgett, 2002;Plaisance, 2015). Compared to deontological and consequentialist ethics, the virtue ethics approach tends to acknowledge a broader diversity of moral priorities. ...
... It emphasizes that public relations professionals' primary obligation is to gain social esteem for their client, and that their communications with the public should prioritize information that puts the client or their cause in a favorable light. This controversy has persisted unresolved for decades, and it has been addressed from a variety of normative perspectives, including professionalism (Barney & Black, 1994), deontological emphasis on duties (Baker, 1999;Baker & Martinson, 2001;Edgett, 2002), and virtue ethics (Baker, 2008). The perspective of the sociology of critique enables us to see that this controversy persists because proponents for either side do not want to completely reject the type of worth advocated by the other side. ...
... Boltanski and Thévenot call such formulas "composite constructions" because they refer simultaneously to different orders of worth. In our sample clash, examples include "ethical persuasion" (Baker & Martinson, 2001), "ethically desirable advocacy" (Edgett, 2002), and the "socially conscious" public relations professional and "legitimate" advocate (Barney & Black, 1994, p. 241, p. 247). Other well-known composite constructions in public relations are "enlightened self-interest" and "corporate social responsibility," both of which combine civic, market, and sometimes other orders of worth (see Edwards, 2018b, pp. ...
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... At the same time, he recognizes that these languages cannot always help us reconcile the competing influences that different hypergoods have over us: "The really important question may turn out to be how we combine in our lives two or three or four different goals, or virtues, or standards, which we feel we cannot repudiate but which seem to demand incompatible things" (Taylor, 1985b, p. 236). Baker and Martinson (2001) identified a similar problem that they argue professional persuaders need to face: ...
... The TARES Test that Baker later collaborated on with Martinson also defines ethical persuasion from the perspective of the civic regime, and it issues several direct critiques of reputational and commercial worth (Baker & Martinson, 2001). Along with the writers they approvingly cite, Baker and Martinson often refer to the "common good" (pp. ...
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... When translating ethical theory into practice, communication guidelines typically focus on the communicators, who are encouraged to reflect on their motivations and behaviour, keeping in mind their obligation to the common good (e.g. Baker & Martinson, 2002;Baker & Martinson, 2001;Edgett, 2002). There is also a responsibility on researchers and organisations involved in advocacy to consider the interests of those who may receive their messages (Heath, 2007), who may be affected by the message or the action it is designed to encourage. ...
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... These obligations are associated with people's intrinsic right to autonomy, or to make informed decisions on matters that pertain to their lives or matters that affects them, as long as such decisions do not bring harm to others. Related stipulations can be found in the advertising literature concerning the obligation to truthfulness, authenticity of the persuader, respect for the intended audiences, equity of the persuasive appeal, and social responsibility for the common good (Baker & Martinson, 2001). These stipulations draw on major principles prominent in the bioethics literature: specifically, the obligations to do good while avoiding doing harm, respect for personal autonomy, respect for privacy and dignity, and justice and fairness (Beauchamp & Childress, 1994). ...
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... The reason for this is that factual feedback matches the ideal of 'convincing through arguments', as it attempts to be as objective and neutral as possible. Psychological research has shown, however, that factual feedback is difficult to process and less motivating than social or evaluative feedback [e.g., 35,36]. This seems to be thus a case where what is psychologically effective and what is morally preferable does not automatically match. ...
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... This interactional perspective fits with Baker and Martinson (2001)'s position that respect for the persuaded ought to be a fundamental principle of ethical persuasion. Mutual respect also underlies Habermas (1984)'s theory of communicative action, which Spahn (2012) builds on to assert the importance of respect for the persuaded in designing PT. ...
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... Our focus groups were convened in three different countries (France, the Netherlands and the UK). Maintien en Autonomie à Domicile des Personnes Agées 1 Carebots programmed to discourage urgent squeezes and with the power temporarily to ignore shouted or rude commands may seem to raise questions about the ethics of persuasive technology [5,6] but the usual framework for this ethics -the norms of an idealized speech community [5], or a set of criteria for judging samples of persuasive speech and writing [7] are out of place in the kind of case we consider. We assume that the presence in the home of the carebot is with the user's consent, and also that its various functions, including keeping the user in touch with social norms, are known to the user before they consent to the presence of the robot. ...
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... For example, authenticity, defined as "personal integrity and virtue" requires the communicators to believe sincerely themselves in the product or service they promote or in the idea/cause they defend. 27 Therefore, ethical persuasion is closely linked to cultivating/developing dispositions, motivations and attitudes indispensable to correct, just actions. But such a requirement is an echo of Aristotle's theory from which we learn that what we do depends to a great extent on who we are: we can achieve the correct thing only when we have the necessary dispositions and intentions to do the correct thing, when we are inclined to act morally. ...
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... For ethical promotion, authenticity and respect for the message receiver is needed (Baker & Martinson, 2001). Avoiding deception, eschewing secrecy, disclosing the nature of content, and emphasizing clarity are further encouraged (Bowen & Stacks, 2013). ...
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... The concept of respect fits into the relationship management perspective of public relations (Grunig, 2000;Ledingham, 2000), which argues that communication, including in the sport [ 7 _ T D $ D I F F ] realm, should be based on two-way symmetrical dialogue between organisations and their stakeholders as a way of developing "trusting and reliable relationships" (Hopwood, 2010, p. 21). Only in the ethical perspective on public relations is the specific concept of respect acknowledged as one of the pillars to effectively enhance two-way symmetrical communication and dialogue between parties (Baker & Martinson, 2001;Grunig, 2000;Hove, 2013;Van Es & Meijlink, 2000). The argument is that ethical communication based on respect helps public relations professionals develop and maintain positive relationships with communities (Smith, 2013) or between PR agencies and clients (Hinrichsen, 2013, p. 124-125). ...
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... Com a diversificação de formatos comerciais cada vez mais subtis, várias questões éticas se colocam em torno da credibilidade e veracidade das mensagens, assim como, com a transparência da sua divulgação (Baker & Martinson, 2001;Messina, 2007). Atendendo à necessidade de respeitar o destinatário da mensagem torna-se essencial perceber quanta informação pública é necessária para haver transparência (Bowen, 2013). ...
... Most advertising is, however, not subject to restrictive legal regulation other than the Federal Trade Commission's deceptive and unfair advertising standards, and this makes ethical questions even more vital to the conversation. A five-part test called TARES is one way of operationalizing ethics; this test guides advertising practitioners and researchers in reviewing five principles that should be part of an ethical ad (Baker & Martinson, 2001). These principles include "Truthfulness (of the message), Authenticity (of the persuader), Respect (for the persuadee), Equity (of the persuasive appeal), and Social Responsibility (for the common good)" (p. ...
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... Based on this evidence, it is therefore necessary to introduce communication models and strategies based on ethical principles in food label designing, with aims to increase the human factor. According to ref. [66], ethical communication is founded on five principles: truthfulness, authenticity (sincerity), respect, equity, and social responsibility; also because consumers expect that companies communicate sincerely, and hence appreciate more a vulnerable response than a defensive one [67]. ...
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... Baker & Martinson [7] determine five principles in working place such as truthfulness, authenticity, respect, and social responsibility. For the principle of truth, PR practitioners are in strict control especially by journalists who consider PR practitioners as enemies. ...
... The mere fact that technology is not neutral and has mediating effects can thus still be seen as compatible with the idea that designers should avoid paternalism and try to maximize user autonomy and free choices (Anderson 2010;Hausman and Welch 2010;John 2011). A growing field of literature therefore tries to sketch guidelines about how to take mediation and/or persuasion into account in technology design, mainly trying to balance (individual) user autonomy on the one side and design for (social) values on the other side (e.g., Berdichevsky and Neunschwander 1999;Baker and Martinson 2001;Brey 2006b;Pettersen and Boks 2008;Verbeek 2009b;Kaptein and Eckles 2010;Spahn 2011;Smids 2012;Karppinen and Oinas-Kukkonen 2013). ...
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... In contrast, the spin doctor is someone who advocates for causes based on one's own or client's selfinterests without consideration of the actions' impact on others (Baker, 2008;Baker & Martinson, 2001). The model is a continuum meaning as a practitioner moves from one end of the scale, he/she moves toward the other extreme (Gert, 1998). ...
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... Step 5, implement the decision; Step 6, assess the decision. Baker and Martinson (2001) proposed the TARES model, which stands for five embedded principles: Truthfulness, Authenticity, Respect, Equity, and Social Responsibility. Those principles together should guide the actions of the decision-making process. ...
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... According to Austin & Jin (2015), there are some major ethical tenets or guidelines for crisis reporting that must be followed such as respect, objectivity/neutrality, sensitivity, empathy/compassion, accuracy, timeliness, verification of facts/sources, honesty, transparency, and a strong focus on public interest [11]. The TARES Rule, according to Sherry Baker and David Marlinson (2001) draws attention to the 5 principles of professional persuasion, that apply in case of crisis: 1. Truthfulness of the message (honesty, trustworthyness, nondeceiptiveness); 2. Authenticity of the persuader (genuineness, integrity, ethical character,); 3. Respect for the interlocutor (regard for his rights, dignity and well being); 4. Equity (fairness, justice, nonexploitation of the vulnerability of others); 5. Social responsibility for the common good (concern for the public interest) [12]. ...
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... Likewise, the five TARES principles for ethical persuasion (Baker and Martinson, 2001) articulate the moral duties of PR practitioners. These principles are (i) truthfulness (of the message); (ii) authenticity (of the persuader); (iii) respect (for the persuadee); (iv) equity (of the appeal) and (v) social responsibility (for the common good). ...
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Postprint available here: http://hdl.handle.net/10230/47682
... Among many others, some authoritative views are represented by Crisp [Cri87], who blames amorality on all forms of advertising that override the autonomy of consumers; Arrington, who makes it a question about what level of persuasion is the standard person assumed to withstand [Arr82]; and Aylsworth, who allows for manipulations, but only for ends that people accept and by means they endorse [Ayl20]. As the theoretical debate develops, some tried to create practical methodologies to distinguish ethical from unethical persuasions [BM01], but new research is needed to keep pace with the digital evolution [CS12]. ...
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Despite the increasing awareness from academia, civil society and media to the issue of child manipulation online, the current EU regulatory system fails at providing sufficient levels of protection. Given the universality of the issue, there is a need to combine and further these scattered efforts into a unitary, multidisciplinary theory of digital manipulation that identifies causes and effects, systematizes the technical and legal knowledge on manipulative and addictive tactics, and to find effective regulatory mechanisms to fill the legislative gaps. In this paper we discuss manipulative and exploitative strategies in the context of online games for children, suggest a number of possible reasons for the failure of the applicable regulatory system, propose an "upgrade" for the regulatory approach to address these risks from the perspective of freedom of thought, and present and discuss technological approaches that allow for the development of games that verifiably protect the privacy and freedoms of players.
... Likewise, the five TARES principles for ethical persuasion (Baker and Martinson, 2001) articulate the moral duties of PR practitioners. These principles are (i) truthfulness (of the message); (ii) authenticity (of the persuader); (iii) respect (for the persuadee); (iv) equity (of the appeal) and (v) social responsibility (for the common good). ...
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... Etapa 1, definir o problema; Etapa 2, identificar soluções alternativas disponíveis para a questão; Etapa 3, avaliar as alternativas identificadas; Etapa 4, tomar decisão; Etapa 5, implementar decisão; Etapa 6, avaliar decisão. [Baker e Martinson 2001] propuseram o modelo TARES, que representa cinco princípios embutidos: Veracidade, Autenticidade, Respeito, Equidade e Responsabilidade Social. Esses princípios juntos devem orientar as ações do processo de tomada de decisão. ...
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As surely as the bio-enterprise can benefit from positive media coverage, it cannot thrive in the face of unanswered negative and/or inaccurate media attention. On all counts, the bio-enterprise must be able to strategically engage with the media at every stage in its life cycle. This article describes the global science-business media landscape, including traditional media and emergent social media and information in the online space. Current research is used to document the interdependence of media, how sources of information feed media coverage, the challenges of science communication in the broader context of business, and the effect of media engagement by the CEO. A strategic model is presented which relates the bio-enterprise to global media, providing a larger framework within which to develop media action plans at critical junctures in the life of the bio-enterprise. Further documented is the difference between journalistic and non-journalistic media, and how journalistic ethics and standards guidelines work with ethical persuasion practices to the benefit of the bio-enterprise.
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This paper responds to Daniel Dennett's 2012 Praemium Erasmianum Essay Erasmus: Sometimes a Spin Doctor is Right in which he makes a distinction between manipulation and non-manipulative influence. Dennett argues that influence on an individual's decision-making process is not manipulative so long as that individual's rationality is involved. In this work we show that Dennett's account of this distinction is, at best, incomplete. He fails to consider the many factors that implicitly weigh on a person's rational decision-making process. That is, there are a number of manipulable factors that will always have some bearing on one's rationality, ultimately influencing what reasons the individual ends up endorsing. We conclude that in order to make a clear distinction between 'mere influ-ence' and manipulation, an appeal to rationality alone is not sufficient.
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Irreführende Kampagnen, tendenziöse Studien, Frontorganisationen und Medienkooperationen – Public Affairs und Lobbying sind trotz geltender Ethikkodizes mit einigen moralischen Problemen konfrontiert. Ungleich verteilte Chancen auf Interessenvertretung, die Vernetzung von Interessenorganisationen und Dynamiken der Online-Kommunikation führen zu weiteren Herausforderungen. Dieser Beitrag stellt Formen der Selbstregulierung vor und ethische Ansätze dazu, wie moralische Entscheidungen anhand verpflichtender Prinzipien, durch Diskurse oder situative Abwägung getroffen werden können.
Article
BP’s Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 2010 was a major test of the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which the United States federal government mandates for response to all disasters. At the time, this disaster was perhaps the greatest event in scope and duration under NIMS disaster management guidelines since they were revised in 2008 (the third edition was published in 2017). Ten years later, NIMS provides procedures for operating a joint information center (JIC), but still offers no guidelines for ethical communication. This case study examines the ethical implications of 178 news releases distributed by the Deepwater Horizon Incident JIC. Qualitative analysis found that communication was conducted in an open, ethical manner, with few exceptions. Conflicts emerged, however, that may have compromised ethical standards. The authors conclude with recommendations to inform ethical decision making by JIC communicators.
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The chapter introduces a distinction between a person-related and a circumstance directed type of happiness in order to investigate in which way modern technology can contribute to human happiness. This distinction is elaborated as the difference between ‘achiever’s happiness’ and ‘spectator’s happiness’. Looking at the ethical tradition, it is argued that moral philosophers have certain expectations about what should count as true happiness for human beings, who can act in accordance with moral values. The essay presents three arguments for the superiority of achiever’s happiness from a moral point of view. Looking at modern technology it is argued that we find both in an optimistic and a pessimistic evaluation of modern technology valuable insights into the role that technology can (and can not) play for the human striving for happiness. Finally persuasive technologies are presented as one type of recent technologies that promises to contribute to achiever’s happiness if developed while taking ethical requirements into account.
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In diesem Kapitel gehe ich vier verschiedenen Grundbegriffen der Medienethik nach. Es geht also nicht um Grundbegriffe der Ethik allgemein, sondern um Grundbegriffe, die im weitesten Sinn für die Erfassung einer Medienethik, speziell einer Ethik der mediatisierten Welt, notwendig sind. Es geht dabei um Medienethik als „angewandte Ethik“. In diesem Zusammenhang sind unter dem Blickpunkt der Medialität zu berücksichtigen: die Authentizität medialer Kommunikation, die entgegen der gängigen Deutung dieses Begriffs an der Kompetenz der Rezipient_innen festgemacht wird, daraus abgeleitet der auf den ersten Blick eher erziehungswissenschaftliche Begriff der Medienkompetenz, dann der Begriff der Medienqualität, der, entsubstantialisiert, nicht als Eigenschaft des Medienangebots, sondern ebenfalls als eine Kompetenz der Rezipient_innen verstanden wird, sowie, etwas ausholend, der Begriff der Wahrhaftigkeit, der vor allem im Hinblick auf die aktive Medienproduktion der Nutzer_innen selbst unter den Bedingungen der Digitalisierung heute weiter gefasst werden und vom Begriff der Wahrheit unterschieden werden muss.
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Ever since advertising emerged, both its functions and threats have been debated. The themes of advertising ethics and critique are multifaceted; the majority relate to the depiction of violence, hypersexualization and various “-isms” (e.g. ageism). The digital environment has added new aspects to the topic; respondents primarily worry about their loss of control, transparency and privacy. At the same time, the Internet provides a platform for critical voices - from keeping informed via the signing of petitions against certain advertising practices, to becoming an advertising activist her-or himself. This chapter addresses the current state of advertising critique in this digital environment. It will give an overview of the dominant themes and important actors and drivers of advertising critique. Furthermore, obstacles and stumbling stones for both research and practice are discussed and challenges identified.
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This article argues that advertising ethics, traditionally focused on ad contents and vulnerable audiences, should be also applied to ad format intrusiveness. The increasingly appearance of highly intrusive advertising formats resulted in an extraordinarily growth of ad blocking systems. To fight the economic costs of the ad blocker phenomenon, the most relevant agents of the industry have created a never seen Coalition for Better Ads including marketers, publishers and agencies worldwide. This article analyses the experiments carried out by the Coalition to create Better Ads Standards establishing the limits of ad format intrusiveness to be implemented worldwide by means of self-regulation. Based on classical and current approaches to advertising ethics, this work explains that highly annoying ads should not only be banned for practical reasons but for overpassing ethical limits in terms of respect for the persuadee, equity of the persuasive appeal and social responsibility for the common good. A basic exploratory replication study is presented to simulate further research on the ethical limits of intrusive advertising. Establishing which ad formats are allowed to continue and which ones should gradually disappear is such a relevant process for many stakeholders that it requires further discussion by consumers and scholars.
Article
The social marketing campaign is a value-laden communicative process aiming to change individual behavior and public policy. Due to its normative nature and implications, this process has to be assessed for its ethicality. The existing evaluative matrices focus on corporate marketing, largely neglecting the public value aspect that nongovernmental organizations promote through social marketing campaigns. The integrative model proposed here assesses the ethicality of social marketing campaigns by non-profits. Its theoretical framework draws on Rawls’s concept of veil of ignorance . The model is tested on the “I Stand with Planned Parenthood” campaign, demonstrating that it qualifies as an ethical campaign, even though some elements raise important questions.
Article
Research on sport sponsorship–fan relationships rarely explores the duration of fans’ feelings towards a sponsor, even though research demonstrates that management of this relationship is crucial. In addition, little research in management, sponsorship, marketing, or public relations explores contexts in which sponsorship involves a national sports team that attracts significant patriotic sentiment. The purpose of this study was to address these absences by exploring the longevity of public responses to a sponsor transgression crisis. The results identify the central role played by perceptions of respect and disrespect in New Zealanders’ responses to a jersey-pricing crisis and the sponsor’s response to public criticisms. The results indicate that national team sponsors who explicitly galvanize intense feelings of patriotism need to understand and respect the national public’s emotional stake in their national team rather than narrowly pursuing sales or the bottom line. The study also highlights the importance of implementing respectful crisis management strategies during a crisis involving patriotic feelings.
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Este trabalho procura refletir sobre a relação entre a comunicação, a ética e a responsabilidade social organizacional (RSO) no contexto empresarial. Alertadas pelo tratamento frequente do assunto nos meios de comunicação social, pelas expressões públicas dos comportamentos organizacionais éticos, pela multiplicação de códigos de ética internos, pela profusão de programas de formação em ética e RSO, e até pelas maiores exigências públicas de transparência organizacional, colocamos a ética no cerne desta pesquisa teórica, que partiu da seguinte questão de investigação: como descodificamos a expressão da ética e da responsabilidade social na comunicação das organizações contemporâneas? Para responder a esta preocupação, mergulhámos na literatura sobre a matéria e traduzimos aqui aquilo que é o nosso pensamento sobre a comunicação ética e da ética nas organizações empresariais. Para esta análise contribuíram diferentes autores e estudos, que nos permitiram chegar a uma proposta de modelo para uma comunicação empresarial responsável. Sem a pretensão de exprimir uma posição absolutamente normativa sobre o assunto, buscamos levantar algumas questões e analisar práticas positivas que ajudem as empresas a ser ‘organizações-cidadãs’ responsáveis.
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Os códigos deontológicos são uma reflexão moral centrada nos deveres e direitos de uma profissão, que estabelecem as normas morais mínimas exigíveis à sua atividade. Neste artigo, debate-se a ética das Relações Públicas à luz dos códigos de conduta cunhados pelas associações profissionais de Relações Públicas. Na primeira parte do texto, analisam-se os principais códigos éticos internacionais de Relações Públicas, com o intuito de mapear os principais valores defendidos. Na segunda parte do texto, estreita-se a análise até ao caso português. Os códigos deontológicos das duas principais associações profissionais de comunicação — a APCE e a APECOM — serão alvo de análise de conteúdo comparativa, entre si e em relação aos valores previamente identificados nos códigos internacionais. Honestidade/verdade, lealdade, integridade, transparência, defesa da livre circulação de informação e enobrecimento da profissão são os valores e princípios-guia identificados nos códigos de Relações Públicas que, tanto a nível nacional como internacional, contribuem para a sua afirmação profissional.
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O presente artigo empreende uma reflexão crítica, baseada essencialmente em pesquisa bibliográfica e análise documental, acerca do ensino da ética jornalística. Assente na premissa de que, em Jornalismo, a ética não tem uma natureza acessória — pelo contrário: é essencial ao exercício profissional, porque se cruza com a dimensão técnica — propõe-se a adoção de metodologias pedagógicas suscetíveis de valorizar a problematização e o questionamento de condutas, em detrimento da transmissão passiva de conhecimentos. Nesta perspetiva, defende-se que habilitar os estudantes à tomada de decisões éticas devidamente ponderadas quanto ao tratamento noticioso pressupõe a discussão de abordagens concretas. Daí a necessidade de reproduzir, tanto quanto possível, as condições de produção jornalística, para que percecionem os constrangimentos e condicionalismos que a influenciam.
Article
La comunicación con un propósito comercial, desarrollada para promover marcas y vender productos, servicios o ideas, entra en el campo del análisis ético, ya que el objetivo comercial del contenido pagado y patrocinado debe ser revelado en aras de la transparencia y el respeto a los lectores. Con la pregunta inicial: "¿Cuál es la opinión de los productores de contenido sobre las prácticas éticas en su producción?" esta investigación busca evaluar las opiniones de los profesionales de la comunicación con respecto a las prácticas éticas y poco éticas que surgen de la relación con los blogueros y personas influyentes en las redes sociales en línea. Se utilizó el método cualitativo, y se llevaron a cabo siete entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas con profesionales de las relaciones públicas y periodistas, así como un análisis interpretativo de los resultados. En términos específicos, se definieron los siguientes objetivos: comprender qué requisitos debe tener el uso de personas influyentes en las redes sociales en línea (incluidos los blogs) para considerarse una práctica ética y comparar las opiniones de los productores de contenido pago y de los periodistas sobre las prácticas éticas en un entorno digital. Se concluyó que cada vez hay más inquietudes éticas relacionadas con la credibilidad de los productores de contenido, los blogueros y los influenciadores digitales
Book
Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning challenges readers to think analytically about ethical situations in mass communication through original case studies and commentaries about real-life media experiences. This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theoretical principles of ethical philosophies, facilitating ethical awareness. It introduces the Potter Box, with its four dimensions of moral analysis, to provide a framework for exploring the steps in moral reasoning and analyzing the cases. Focusing on a wide spectrum of ethical issues faced by media practitioners, the cases in this Tenth Edition include the most recent issues in journalism, broadcasting, advertising, public relations, and entertainment.
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Great philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Sartre have clearly been preoccupied by the possibility of authenticity. In this study, Jacob Golomb looks closely at the literature and writings of these philosophers in his analysis of their ethics. Golomb's writings shows his passionate commitment to the quest for the authenticity - particularly in our climate of post-modern scepticism. He argues that existentialism is all the more pertinent and relevant today when set against the general disillusionment which characterises the late twentieth century. This book is invaluable reading for those who have been fascinated by figures like Camus's Meursault, Sartre's Matthieu and Nietzsche's Zarathustra. © 1995 Jacob Golomb Phototypeset in Garamond by Intype, London All rights reserved.
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Contents: Prologue Part I: The Seedbed Years of Counseling, 1900-1919. The Nation's First Publicity Agency. The First Washington Agencies. First Parker and Lee, Then Lee, Harris, and Lee. The Hamilton Wright Organization -- The First International Agency. Pendleton Dudley Starts Fifth Agency in 1909. Part II: Public Relations Booms in the Booming Twenties, 1919-1930. Ivy Lee Returns to New York Joined by T.J. Ross. Edward L. Bernays: Pioneer, Philosopher, Centenarian. Bernays: The Counselor and His Genius and His Role in the Profession. John Price Jones Tries to Ride Two Horses. Steve Hannagan: Super Press Agent. Harry Bruno: Aviation and Public Relations Pioneer. William H. Baldwin: Counselor and Citizen. Ben Sonnenberg: Sui Generis. Clarke and Tyler: Builders of the Ku Klux Klan. John W. Hill: Builder of an Enduring Legacy. John Hill's Two Major Battles: Steel and Tobacco -- and the Person. Part III: The Depression and the Years Beyond. Carl Byoir: The Little Giant of Public Relations. Carl Byoir: Years of Success and Storm. Whitaker & Baxter: Architects of the New Politics. Earl Newsom: Counselor to Corporate Giants. Earl Newsom and the Auto Giants: Ford and GM. Earl Newsom and the Ford Foundation. Epilogue.
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WITH OFFICES IN NEW YORK, LONDON, AND VANCOUVER Breaking down complex philosophical issues into a step-by-step guide, Rushworth Kidder shows us how to grapple with everyday issues and problems. How Good People Make Tough Choices is a unique, anecdote-rich, and articulate program that teaches us to think for ourselves rather than supplying us with easy, definitive answers. Offering concrete guidelines and principles, Kidder enables us to resolve ethical dilemmas and to make the tough choice between what are usually two "right" values. All of us face tough choices. Sometimes we duck them. Sometimes we address them. Even when we address them, however, we don't always decide to resolve them. Sometimes we simply brood endlessly over possible outcomes or agonize about paths to pursue. And even if we do try to resolve them, we don't always do so by energetic self-reflection. Sometimes we simply bull our way through to a conclusion by sheer impatience and assertive self-will—as though getting it resolved were more important than getting it right. This is a book for those who want to address and resolve tough choices through energetic self-reflection. Those are the people, after all, whom we often think of as "good" people. They are good, we say, because they seem to have some conscious sense of vision, some deep core of ethical values, that gives them the courage to stand up to the tough choices. That doesn't mean they face fewer choices than other people. Quite the opposite: Those who live in close proximity to their basic values are apt to agonize over choices that other people, drifting over the surface of their lives, might never even see as problems. Sound values raise tough choices; and tough choices are never easy.
Article
Theory is usually assumed to precede practice but ‘Practice preceding theory’ is the telling sub-title to Patrick Hodgkinson's essay on Leslie Martin on p. 297 of this issue. It is a full year since we published an extended celebration of Martin's work together with his essay ‘The grid as generator’ (arq 4/4). Kenneth Frampton's subsequent Postscript (arq 5/1) placed Martin in a historical perspective. Spurred by Frampton's assessment, Hodgkinson now reminds us how Martin's later theoretical work can be said to have had its origins in the studio's early work. This thought-provoking reminder comes at a time when, in the UK, architecture's standing as a research-led university discipline remains as low as ever. Once again in the government's recent Research Assessment Exercise no architecture school achieved the highest rating. This was unremarked upon both by the professional press (which was much more interested in the upsets at the top end of the league-table) and by the RIBA (which probably hasn't even noticed and has certainly never grasped the significance of university research). It seems that neither much of the ‘theory’ which so many architecture academics expound nor the odd bit of practice that they manage to undertake is highly rated by the assessors. This, of course, is not the outcome intended by the 1958 Oxford Conference on Architectural Education (master-minded by Martin) which determined that in future all architects should be educated within the research-led university system. But does the RAE debacle matter? It certainly does. Research-rich schools are better resourced — and that benefits both teaching and practice. We need to take a hard look at why architecture fares so badly — and to question its grouping with construction management and surveying. We must also consider the very nature of university-based architectural research. Hodgkinson is right when he concludes, ‘much thought still needs to be given to architectural theory if it is to raise itself from being purely academic — and therefore practically useful.’ But take a look, too, at the articles on pp. 305 and 312 of this issue. The first, by occasional practitioner and academic Peter Blundell Jones, sets out the case for ‘Working with the given’. In the second, ‘New meanings from old buildings’, Blundell Jones and another practitioner/academic, John Sergeant, appraise three very modest house conversions and extensions designed by them and by David Lea. These architects have evolved their position over many years — developing, through building, discussion and writing, a genuinely sustainable approach to the use of resources. Their buildings may be modest but, together with their writing, they eloquently encapsulate an approach or theory that is increasingly relevant — and utterly practical.
Article
Just as the social trends of the past quarter of a century have created an increasing need for strategic communication between organizations and their publics, so too have these trends resulted in increasing focus on ethics in practice. Emphasis on social responsibility of organizations has resulted in communications programs designed to adjust to the demands of the marketplace often placing the public relations practitioner at the interface between the organization and its responsibility as a good corporate citizen. All of these factors have conspired to generate conflicts between the loyalties now faced by practitioners.Ethical decision-making involves not only values clarification and application of appropriate principles, but the choosing of priorities between conflicting duties to specific parties. This article identifies and discusses four loyalties of the modern public relations practitioner—self, organization, profession and society— in the context of the increasing emphasis on the “common good” in North American society. Further, it presents a framework which may be used in discussions of ethical decision-making among public relations students and applied in practical situations by the practicing public relations professional.Patricia Houlihan Parsons is assistant professor in the Department of Public Relations at Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Article
In this, the 1983 Farley Manning Fellowship Address, Daniel J. Edelman reports on his own view of the future and those of others he surveyed in preparation for composing this Address. “Upward mobility”—of individuals in public relations and of the profession as a whole—will be a key emphasis among those with management oversight in public relations firms, he predicts. Upgrading training with formal programs, making employee and client recruitment more effective by making it more sophisticated, and staying abreast of state-of-the-art communications technology—all of these will be important factors in managing the next century's public relations organization. The author is the president of Daniel J. Edelman, Inc., with offices in Chicago, New York, Washington, Los Angeles, Miami, St. Louis, London and Frankfurt.
Article
The marketplace of ideas theoy has been utilized as one means to justify,from a societal perspective, contempora y public relations practice. Proponents confend that practitioners serve society in true Miltonian fashion by helping clients inject their views into that marketplace. One must question, however, whether afunctional marketplace of ideas exists relative to the public relations process. Further, by focusing ethical questions on individualistic practitioner behavior relative to that marketplace, practitioners may not be paying sulyicient attention to the demands of distributive and social justice.
Article
The surface appeal of the Social Responsibility theory of the press emerging in the report of the Commission on Freedom of the Press in 1947 has made Social Responsibility theory broadly acceptable. Yet, I declare it inconsistent with the American social system. Three concepts are discussed—societal obligation, individual rights, and interpersonal relationships—as necessary for a new moral theory that serves valid societal goals.
Article
Before being executed by the Nazis at the age of 39, Dietrich Bonhoeffer had produced enough material, according to Howell (1995), to fill 16 volumes of theological reflections. Nevertheless, Howell noted, Dietrich Bonhoeffer is not a household name. That is unfortunate. One of Bonhoeffer's most inspiring efforts-from the perspective of mass media ethics-centered around his unfinished attempt to define "what is meant by telling the truth." As is often the case with truly outstanding thinkers, his reflections in this regard appear even more timely today than when he composed them well over 50 years ago.
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A framework is introduced consisting of five baselines of ethical justification for professional persuasive communications. The models (self-interest, entitlement, enlightened self-interest, social responsibility, and kingdom of ends) provide a conceptual structure by which to identify and analyze the ethical reasoning, underlying justifications, motivations, and decision making in professional persuasive practices (advertising, public relations, marketing). Although the emphasis of this article is on defining the constructs, their ethical soundness as justification for persuasive practices and their usefulness in establishing direction and methodologies for research in persuasive also are addressed.
Truthfulness in communication is both a reasonable and achievable goal for public relations practitioners
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Martinson, D. L. (1996–1997). Truthfulness in communication is both a reasonable and achievable goal for public relations practitioners. Public Relations Quaterly, 41(4), 42–45.
The common good as first principle The Idea of public journalism
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Martinson, D. L. (1997–1998, Winter). Public relations practitioners must not con-fuse consideration of the situation with " situational ethics. " Public Relations Quarterly, 42(4),39–43.
The right and the good SPJ Code of Ethics The ethics of authenticity
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In public relations, ethical conflicts pose continu-ing problems Free speech for sale
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Committed journalism: An ethic for the profession Tradition and authenticity in the search for ecumenic wisdom. Colum-bia
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Lambeth, E. B. (1986). Committed journalism: An ethic for the profession. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Baker & Martinson Langan, T. (1992). Tradition and authenticity in the search for ecumenic wisdom. Colum-bia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
Understanding mass communication
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DeFleur, M. L., & Dennis, E. E. (1998). Understanding mass communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
A list of acid tests
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Waltz, S. L. (1999). A list of acid tests. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 14, 127–128.
The common good and universal values Mixed news: The public/civic/communitarian journalism debate
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Christians, C. (1997). The common good and universal values. In J. Black (Ed.), Mixed news: The public/civic/communitarian journalism debate (pp. 18–35).
Ethics: Discovering right and wrong
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Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering right and wrong. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Media ethics: Issues & cases
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Patterson, P., & Wilkins, L. (1998). Media ethics: Issues & cases (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Lying: Moral choice in public and private life Common values. Columbia: University of Missouri Press Ethics
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Bok, S. (1989). Lying: Moral choice in public and private life. New York: Vintage. Bok, S. (1995). Common values. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Bonhoeffer, D. (1962). Ethics. New York: Macmillan.
The public interest must take precedence
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Martinson, D. L. (1999). The public interest must take precedence. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 14, 120–122.
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Persuasion: Theory and practice Five baselines for justification in persuasion
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Andersen, K. E. (1978). Persuasion: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Baker, S. (1999). Five baselines for justification in persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 14, 69–81.
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Tradition and authenticity in the search for ecumenic wisdom
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Langan, T. (1992). Tradition and authenticity in the search for ecumenic wisdom. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
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Expose myths and focus on the miracle
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Raper, M. (1999). Expose myths and focus on the miracle. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 14, 123–125.
Common values. Columbia
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Bok, S. (1995). Common values. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
Remarks in discussion among Fellows The Ethics of Persuasion
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A theory of justice The right and the good SPJ Code of Ethics The ethics of authenticity
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Communication ethics: Methods of analysis
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Jaksa, J. A., & Pritchard, M. S. (1994). Communication ethics: Methods of analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.