ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to Turkish. Third, it recommends three methods for the adaptation resulting from research findings. Finally, it discusses the implications of the adaptation for educators worldwide and for future research.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of Science Education ISSN 09500963 print/ISSN 14645289 online © 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd
http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals
DOI: 10.1080/0950069032000070270
INT
.
J
.
SCI
.
EDUC
.,
NOVEMBER
2003,
VOL
. 25,
NO
. 11, 1299–1311
RESEARCH REPORT
Concept maps and language: a Turkish experience
Gulsen Bagci Kilic, Department of Elementary Science Education, School of
Education, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280, Bolu, Turkey; e-mail:
gbk@ibu.edu.tr
Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four
goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak’s style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic
differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt
concept maps to Turkish. Third, it recommends three methods for the adaptation resulting from research
findings. Finally, it discusses the implications of the adaptation for educators worldwide and for future
research.
Introduction
Many techniques have been developed to understand learners’ cognitive structure
and to organize the knowledge as described in Preece (1978). Semantic networks
(Quillan 1967), roundhouse diagrams (Trowbridge and Wandersee 1998), concept
circles (Wandersee 1987), Vee Diagram (Novak and Gowin 1984), and concept maps
(Novak and Gowin 1984, Novak 1998) are just a few of them. This paper focuses on
the problems arising in developing Novak’s style concept maps in Turkish.
Concept maps are two-dimensional representations of a set of concepts. The
concepts are arranged in a hierarchy with a superordinate concept at the top and
subordinate concepts below. Examples of concepts are presented at the bottom of a
concept map. The related concepts are linked by lines labeled with linking words
that form the propositions uniting the concepts. There are cross-links that bridge
branches of the map to create insightful propositions (Novak 1990, Trowbridge and
Wandersee 1998).
An enormous body of research has been published concerning concept maps.
For instance, a key-word search of ‘concept map’ in the Educational Resources
Information Center (ERIC) database resulted in 649 hits including 376 journal
articles for years 19802001. In science education, concept maps have been mostly
used in the study of biology (Pearson and Hughes 1986, Lloyd 1990, Okebukola
1990, Schmid and Telaro 1990, Briscoe and LaMaster 1991), chemistry (Cullen
1990, Zoller 1990, Wilson 1994, 1996, Markow and Lonning 1998), physics
(Pankratius 1990, Roth and Roychoudhury 1993), and earth science (Ault 1985).
Concept mapping is used for several purposes including determining students’
alternative conceptions (Zoller 1990, Ross and Munby 1991, Abrams and Wandersee
1992, Roberts 1999), examining changes in cognitive structure (Novak and
Wandersee 1990, Wallace and Mintzes 1990, Novak and Musonda 1991, Trowbridge
1300
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
and Wandersee 1994), and for assessment and evaluation purposes (Moreira 1985,
Barenholz and Tamir 1992, Gaffney 1992, Roth 1992, Holmes and Leitzel 1993,
Markham et al. 1994, Laffey and Singer 1997, Rice et al. 1998, Edmondson 2000,
Stoddart et al. 2000).
In recent years, concept maps have also been used as a qualitative research tool
(Raymond 1997, Rye and Rubba 1998) and in learning groups to extend the
exchange of ideas during collaboration (Roth and Roychoudhury 1993; Van Boxtel
et al. 1997, 2000).
Concept mapping was originally developed in the US for use in the English
language, but it is now being used in other countries. There have been some
publications on the use of concept maps in China (Huai 1997), in Taiwan (Chou
and Lin 1997), in Germany (Rhoneck 1985, Lang and Olson 2000), in the
Netherlands (Boschhuizen 1988), in Italy (Regis and Albertazzi 1996, Matricardi et
al. 2000), in Spain (Aleixandre and Gayoso 1996, Gonzalez 1997), and in Israel
(Hashweh 1986, Barenholz and Tamir 1992). These publications did not report any
problem using concept maps in their language. On the other hand, Lee (1999)
examined the use of concept mapping with Korean-speaking students in the US,
adapting the technique to the Korean language whose sentence structure is different
from that of English. Educators in Turkey have also begun to use concept maps in
science education (Kaptan 1998, Gunay and Hamurcu 2000, Sokmen and Bayram
2000, Bagci Kilic 2001). However, the author has experienced problems in using
concept maps in Turkish, arising from linguistic differences between Turkish and
English.
The problems
In a concept map, concepts are organized in a hierarchy and related concepts are
connected by lines. The relationships between these concepts are expressed by
writing connecting words on the connecting lines. Writing the relationships between
concepts makes the concept maps more meaningful by showing how students relate
concepts to each other in their cognitive structure. In English, complete and
meaningful sentences are formed if one works through a concept map; reading a
concept first, then the connecting words, then the next concept, and so on. In
Turkish, however, complete and meaningful sentences are not formed in this
paradigm because of the linguistic structure of Turkish. This is caused by two
differences between Turkish and English. One of the differences is the fundamental
word order. The second difference is the system in Turkish of attaching suffixes to
words and using postpositions rather than prepositions.
English language has a basic word order of subjectverbobject (SVO). In
addition, suffixes are not added to words in English to nearly the degree they are
in Turkish. In English, the relationship between two concepts is easily expressed
by writing the verb or a preposition on a connecting line. As a concept map is
read, the basic SVO structure of the sentence is established and a correct sentence
is formed. For example, suppose two concepts, children and mother, are placed in
a concept map as in figure 1 and linked by using the verb love. The reader will
read the sentence: Children love their mother. This is a complete and meaningful
sentence in English. Because basic SVO word order is established, the adjectival
pronoun their was not combined with mother, but rather could be written on the
connecting line.
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1301
On the other hand, the basic word order in Turkish is subjectobjectverb
(SOV). As a SOV language where objects precede the verb, Turkish has
postpositions and suffixes rather than prepositions and adjectival pronouns.
Moreover, unlike English, relative clauses precede the verb. Turkish is also
agglutinative; that is, grammatical functions are indicated by adding various suffixes
to stems (UCLA Language Materials Project, 2000). The same concepts expressed
in figure 1 are represented in Turkish in figure 2.
Çocuklar means children, Anne means mother, and sever means love in
Turkish. If one reads figure 2 through first conceptconnecting wordssecond
concept order, the resulting sentence is Çocuklar sever anne. This is not a complete
and meaningful Turkish sentence. This is merely a group of Turkish words placed
into an English grammatical structure. The meaningful and correct Turkish
sentence would be Çocuklar annelerini severler. Now, the Turkish SOV order is
established. The subject is at the beginning of the sentence, the verb comes at the
end of the sentence, and object is between the two. The suffixes -ler in annelerini
and -ler in severler are added to make them plural. The tense of the sentence is
indicated by combining a suffix -er in severler to the end of the verb.
In order to represent the problem on real concept maps, an English concept
map on atom concept is shown in figure 3. A Turkish concept map on the same
Figure 1. An illustration of complete sentence formation in English when
one reads through first conceptconnecting wordssecond concept.
Children love their mother’ is a complete English sentence.
Figure 2. An illustration of incomplete sentence formation in Turkish
when one reads first conceptconnecting wordssecond concept.
Çocuklar sever anne’ is an incomplete Turkish sentence.
Figure 3. An English concept map on the atom concept.
1302
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
concept is represented in figure 4 for comparison. The concept maps were kept
simple so as to prevent the reader from getting lost in long sentences.
If one reads the concept map in figure 3, the following complete sentences are
formed.
[An] Atom consists of neutrons, protons, and electrons.
Neutrons and protons exist in nucleus.
Nucleus is at the center of the atom.
Protons and electrons attract each other.
Electrons rotate around nucleus.
If an English-speaking student were asked to describe the relationships between the
concepts in figure 3, he/she would explain relationships in similar, but complete,
sentences. In English, it is not difficult to locate these sentences in the concept map.
It is also easier for the reader to understand the concept map since complete
sentences are formed as one reads through the concept map.
For comparison, a Turkish concept map on atom concept is represented in
figure 4. As one reads through the concept map in figure 4, the following phrases are
formed.
Atom olusur n¨otronlar, protonlar ve elektronlar.
,
N¨otronlar ve protonlar bulunurlar çekirdek.
Çekirdek merkezindedir atom.
Elektronlar etrafında d¨onerler çekirdek.
Protonlar birbirlerini çekerler elektronlar.
These phrases are not grammatically correct and meaningful Turkish sentences. If
a native Turkish speaker were asked to express the relationship between concepts
represented by the concept map, the following sentences would emerge.
Atom, n¨otronlar, protonlar ve elektronlardan olusur.
,
N¨otronlar ve protonlar çekirdekte bulunurlar.
Çekirdek atomun merkezindedir.
Elektronlar çekirde˘gin etrafında d ¨onerler.
Protonlar ve elektronlar birbirlerini çekerler.
When the last set of Turkish sentences are compared with the previous set of Turkish
phrases read from the concept map in figure 4, it can be seen that the Turkish
concept map breaks the sentence structure and obscures the meaning for the
Figure 4. A Turkish concept map on the atom concept.
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1303
Turkish user. This occurs because the verbs (olusur, bulunurlar, d¨onerler, çekerler)
,
come at the end of the Turkish sentences, but are written and read in the middle on
the concept map. Furthermore, Turkish language has suffixes rather than prefixes.
Suffixes (-dan in elektronlardan, -te in çekirdekte, -un in atomun, -in in
çekirde˘gin) are added to concept words to define grammatical relationships. In
addition, the tense of each sentence is indicated by a suffix (-ur in olusur and
,
bulunurlar, -er in d¨onerler, -er in ‘çekerler) added to the stem of the verb.
Suffixes indicating plural (-lar in bulunurlar, -ler in ‘çekerler and d¨onerler) are
also added to verbs.
Because of these linguistic differences, Turkish students using concept maps
developed strictly on the English model are reading incomplete Turkish phrases.
They must cognitively manipulate each phrase to grasp its meaning. A student
encountering an unknown concept might form misconceptions by misinterpreting
such phrases. After recognizing these shortcomings in Turkish concept maps, the
author conducted a research study to find ways of adapting concept mapping into
Turkish.
Research question
How would native Turkish speakers represent relationships on a concept map if they
are not taught a method of writing such relationships?
Method
Participants
Participants in this study were 134 third-year undergraduate elementary education
students registered to four sections of an Elementary Science Teaching Methods
course. Participation in the study was voluntary.
Procedure
This research study is a qualitative enquiry into how native speakers of Turkish
would express relationships between concepts in a concept map. This research study
was applied in a 2-hour class session for each section of the course. The researcher
explained the steps for developing a concept map in the following order, but in
Turkish:
1. Choose a concept.
2. Write a list of concepts related to the main concept.
3. Organize the concepts in a hierarchy placing the superordinate concept at
the top and subordinate concepts below. Circle each concept. Write the
examples of the concepts at the bottom.
4. Connect related concepts with lines.
5. Write the relationship between two concepts on the line connecting the two
concepts. Do the same thing for each pair of connected concepts.
6. Revise your concept map until you are satisfied with it.
Although the researcher explained these directions, she did not teach the
participants how to write the relationships between concepts. The assumption here
1304
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
was that if participants were not instructed on how to write the relationships
between concepts, they would find a way that seemed the most logical to them. The
researcher also asked them to indicate on their paper whether they had prior
knowledge about concept mapping. Since concept maps developed on the English
model are being published in textbooks, students who were already familiar with
such concept maps could be expected to construct theirs on this model.
After students stated that they had no more questions and were ready to begin,
they were asked to develop a concept map of a concept that is familiar to themselves.
The researcher did not set any time limits. The 2-hour class session was enough for
all participants. When each participant was satisfied with his/her concept map, he/
she handed in to the researcher. The researcher quickly examined the concept maps
as they were handed in. If a participant wrote relationships between concepts on his/
her concept map, he/she handed in the concept map and left the classroom. If no
relationships between concepts were written on a concept map, the researcher
conducted a short, unstructured interview with the participant to establish the
reason(s) for not writing any relationship. The researcher took interview notes on
each interviewees concept map.
Analyses
The researcher started with 134 concept maps. The researcher first excluded the
concept maps developed by participants who indicated on their paper that they had
prior knowledge about concept mapping. The remaining concept maps were then
analyzed. Since this was a first-time experience for the participants, some of the
concept maps actually looked like flow charts. These flow charts were also
excluded from the analyses. In the end, the researcher analyzed 55 concept maps,
which were developed by participants who had no prior knowledge about concept
mapping.
The researcher applied the content analysis technique in analyzing the concept
maps. As a first step, the researcher examined the concept maps to decide the codes
emerged from students concept maps. Some of the students stated the relationships
between concepts by writing a few words on the connecting lines as is done in the
English model. Some of the students wrote relationships between concepts on the
connecting lines as complete sentences. As mentioned earlier, some other students
did not represent any relationship on their concept map. Thus, three codes emerged
from students concept maps. They were a few words, complete sentence, and no
representation. The second step was to determine the frequency of each code. The
researcher examined the concept maps again, matched concept maps to each code,
and tabulated the number of concept maps falling into each category. The last step
was to analyze the interview data of participants who did not represent the
relationships between concepts.
Results
In total, 55 concept maps were analyzed. Eighteen students (32.7%) wrote the
relationships as a few words on their concept map as it is in English. Twenty-nine
students (52.7%) wrote complete sentences on the connecting lines. Eight students
(14.5%) did not write any relationship between concepts on their concept map.
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1305
The following information was obtained from the interviews conducted with
eight students who did not represent any relationship. Two participants said that
writing the relationships would have taken too much time. This might imply the
difficulty of writing the relationships in Turkish. Four students replied that it was
easy to explain relationships between concepts verbally but difficult to depict them
on a concept map. The researcher then asked them to describe the relationships
between the concepts. The participants were able to verbally describe the
relationships between the concepts. These interview results showed that those
participants have the relationships in their cognitive structure, but could not write
them on their concept map. Two of the students who did not write any relationship
on their concept map said that they could not figure out a way to write the
relationships on connecting lines and thus preferred explaining the relationships
between concepts in a few short paragraphs just below the concept map.
Interview data indicated that some of the students had difficulty in writing the
relationships between concepts. Four of them preferred to state the relationships
verbally, while two others preferred to write them out in paragraph form.
Discussion
Only 18 of 55 students wrote the relationships between concepts as a few words as
in English concept maps. Twenty-nine students wrote the relationships as complete
sentences, four students preferred to explain the relationships verbally, and two
students explained the relationship between concepts in paragraph form below their
concept map. In total 35 (29 + 4 + 2) out of 55 students (63.6%) found other ways
of expressing relationships in their Turkish concept maps. Since they did not get any
instruction in writing the relationships between concepts on a concept map, these
students might have been expected to find what seemed to them the most logical
way to express the relationships on their concept map.
Based on the research results, the researcher proposes three recommendations
for writing relationships between concepts on Turkish concept maps.
Recommendation 1: writing relationships between concepts on connecting
lines as complete sentences
In this research, more than one-half of the students (29 out of 55) wrote the
relationships between concepts as complete sentences. This method, then, would be
one option for Turkish students. As a concrete example, the concept map in figure
4 has been reorganized and is presented in figure 5.
In figure 5, relationships between concepts were written as complete sentences
on the connecting lines. The reader no longer has to read incomplete Turkish
sentences and then reorganize them. Grammatically correct and meaningful
sentences are displayed on the lines connecting the concepts. Writing the complete
sentence on the connecting lines is also easier for the developers of concept map.
They just write the complete sentence in their cognitive structure to represent the
relationship between two concepts. The concept map in figure 5 seems to cause
cognitive overload at first look, but as one starts to read the map it becomes easier
to comprehend because the reader does not have to manipulate incorrect sentences
to grasp the meaning. In order to prevent cognitive overload, the concept map may
be drawn on larger size paper. Another way of preventing cognitive overload would
1306
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
be assigning numbers to connecting lines on a concept map and then writing the
sentences that represent the relationships with corresponding number below the
concept map.
Recommendation 2: writing relationships between concepts in short
paragraphs below a concept map
Two of the students who did not write any relationship between concepts on their
concept map preferred explaining relationships in a few short paragraphs below
their concept map. This could be another option for Turkish students. Indeed, if one
collects the sentences read from an English concept map, these sentences could be
organized into paragraphs. Because of the sentence structure of English language,
these sentences in the paragraphs can be displayed on a concept map in English.
However, in Turkish, it is not possible to spread those sentences throughout the
concept map without breaking the sentence structure and, thus, the meaning.
Therefore, it would be more meaningful in Turkish to explain the relationships
between concepts as short paragraphs below a concept map rather than spreading
them throughout the concept map in a meaningless way. The concept map in figure
4 was reorganized to be an example for this recommendation, and is represented in
figure 6.
In the concept map in figure 6, concepts were organized in a hierarchy and
related concepts connected by lines. Relationships between concepts were described
in a paragraph below the concept map.
Recommendation 3: explaining the relationships between concepts verbally
Four students who do not write any relationship between concepts on their concept
map said that it was easier to state relationships verbally, but it is difficult to place
them on a concept map. Indeed, they verbally described the relationships between
Figure 5. Option one for Turkish concept map: relationships between
concepts are written as complete sentences on the connecting lines.
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1307
concepts on their concept map to the researcher in the interviews. Thus, another
option for Turkish students might be to draw the concept map by organizing the
concepts, connecting the related concepts, and then explaining the relationships
between concepts on their concept map verbally to the teacher and other
students.
Conclusion and implications
Research findings indicate that there are reasonable methods for expressing
relationships on concept maps developed in the Turkish language. Writing the
relationships between concepts as complete sentences on connecting lines,
explaining relationships between concepts in short paragraphs below a concept
map, or explaining the concept map verbally are three methods that emerged from
this study. These would be choices for the use of a concept map in the Turkish
language, but more research studies should be conducted in adapting concept maps
to Turkish. There might be more options for expressing relationships on Turkish
concept maps. In addition, the three methods emerged from this research study
should be tested with experimental research to find out which option is more
effective for Turkish students.
This research study also has implications for educators worldwide. In the world
that is becoming global everyday, there may be Turkish speakers in any country. For
example, over one million Turkish speakers live in Bulgaria, Macedonia, and
Greece; over 1.5 million Turkish speakers live in Germany and other northern
European countries (Grimes 1992). About 24,000 Turkish speakers live in the US
(Grimes 1992). Most probably, Turkish is the language spoken at home by those
people. In most of these countries, concept maps are used in science education at
all levels for learning, instruction, assessment and evaluation purposes. If their
teachers are using concept maps, Turkish students may have additional difficulties
in developing concept maps. This might not be a problem if the students are very
competent in English. Less competent students would probably try to develop a
Figure 6. Option two for Turkish concept map: relationships between
concepts are written as a paragraph below a concept map.
Explanation of Relationships between Concepts: Atom n¨otronlar, protonlar ve elek-
tronlardan olusur. N¨otronlar ve protonlar atomun merkezinde yeralan çekirdekte
,
bulunurlar. Elektronlar ise çekirde˘gin etrafında d¨onerler. Protonlar ve elektronlar
birbirlerini çekerler.
1308
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
concept map in Turkish first and then translate it into English. The language
characteristics being different for Turkish and English could cause such students to
have additional problems in developing concept maps. Turkish students might be
given the chance to explain their concept map either verbally or in writing to be sure
that they have clearly represented the concepts and the relationships between the
concepts as they have them in their cognitive structure. Future research in
multicultural classrooms needs to be conducted to find out whether bilingual
Turkish children experience similar problems with concept mapping.
The problems in developing concept maps in Turkish have their origin in the
language characteristics of Turkish being different from English language. Thus,
similar problems may arise in the use of concept maps in other countries whose
language characteristics being different from English language. Languages spoken
in the world are classified according to their characteristics by linguists. In this
classification, English belongs to the Anglo-Frisian group of the Western Germanic
languages. Western Germanic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European
languages (Encarta 2001a). Other members of the Indo-European language family
are French, Italian, Russian, Greek, Hindi, Polish, Persian, Dutch, Spanish,
Swedish, Norwegian, Indian, Armenian, Icelandic, Kurdish, Albanian, and the
Baltic languages (Encarta 2001b). Since these languages share many of their
characteristics with English there may be much less of a problem in using concept
maps in these languages. This also explains wide use of concept maps in Europe. On
the other hand, Turkish belongs to the Turkic language family (Encarta 2001c). The
Turkic language family includes Azerbaijani (Azeri), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar,
Turkmen, Uighur, and Uzbek languages. The Turkic languages are a subgroup of
the Altaic language family (UCLA Language Materials Project 2000). Although
some dispute the point, many linguists also include Korean and Japanese in the
Altaic family (Encarta 2001d). In any case, educators in these countries should be
careful in using concept maps in their language, seeking ways to adapt concept maps
for use in their language. Hopefully, the Turkish experience with concept mapping
and this paper would provide some ideas for adapting concept maps into other
languages, particularly those that are not in the Indo-European family.
Limitations of the study
The main limitation of the study is that it was the first experience with concept maps
for all those students whose concept maps were included in the analyses. This was
done for several reasons. First, the researcher wanted to explore the natural
tendency of native Turkish speakers to represent the relationships on their concept
map. If the researcher told the participants how to represent the relationships, they
would represent the relationships on their concept map in the way they were taught.
Second, many concept maps are being developed and published in textbooks by
some Turkish educators in an English model. Students who saw such concept maps
would develop theirs on this model without trying to figure out any other way. This
is again did not reveal their natural tendency.
Another limitation of the study is providing short training on developing
concept maps. It may take 810 weeks for students to become fully accustomed to
concept mapping (Wandersee 1990). However, it is impossible to provide more
training and experience for students without teaching how to write relationships
between concepts on a concept map. On the other hand, the quality of the students
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1309
concept maps was not examined in this study. The purpose was to examine the
relationships; thus, it was enough to see how the students preferred to write
relationships on their concept map.
Although it has limitations, this study extracted some insights from native
Turkish speakers. Some students found out alternative ways of expressing
relationships on their concept map without breaking the sentence structure of
Turkish.
References
A
BRAMS
, E. and W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1992). How to use a concept map to identify students
biological misconceptions. Adaptation, XIV, 46.
A
LEIXANDRE
, M. P. J. and G
AYOSO
, I. G. R. (1996). An approach to introducing environmental
education into the science methods course in teacher education. Environmental Education
Research, 2, 2739.
A
ULT
, C. R. (1985). Concept mapping as a study strategy in earth science. Journal of College Science
Teaching, 15, 3844.
B
AGCI
K
ILIC
, G. (2001). Kavram haritalari ve T ¨urkçe (Concept maps and Turkish). Paper presented
at the X. (National Educational Sciences Conference, Abant Izzet Baysal University, School
of Education, Bolu, Turkey).
B
ARENHOLZ
, H. and T
AMIR
, P. (1992). A comprehensive use of concept mapping in design of
instruction and assessment. Research in Science and Technological Education, 10, 3752.
B
OSCHHUIZEN
, R. (1988). The hierarchical ordering of conceptual systems in biology: problems of
student teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 11, 177184.
B
RISCOE
, C. and L
A
M
ASTER
, S. U. (1991). Meaningful learning in college biology through concept
mapping. American Biology Teacher, 53, 214219.
C
HOU
, C. and L
IN
, H. (1997). Navigation maps in a computer-networked hypertext learning system.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Educational Communications
and Technology, Albuquerque, NM (ERIC ED403882).
C
ULLEN
, J. (1990). Using concept maps in chemistry: an alternative view. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 27, 10671068.
E
DMONDSON
, K. M. (2000). Assessing science understanding through concept maps. In J. J.
M
INTZES
, J. H. W
ANDERSEE
and J. D. N
OVAK
(Eds.), Assessing science understanding. A human
constructivist view (San Diego, CA: Academic Press), 1540.
E
NCARTA
(2001a). English language. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001, © 19972001
Microsoft Corporation, http://encarta.msn.com.
E
NCARTA
(2001b). Indo-European Languages. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001, ©
19972001 Microsoft Corporation, http://encarta.msn.com.
E
NCARTA
(2001c). Turkish Language. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001, ©
19972001 Microsoft Corporation, http://encarta.msn.com.
E
NCARTA
(2001d). Altaic Languages. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001, © 19972001
Microsoft Corporation, http://encarta.msn.com.
G
AFFNEY
, K. E. (1992). Multiple assessment for multiple learning styles. Science Scope, 15,
5455.
G
ONZALEZ
, F. M. (1997). Evidence of rote learning of science by Spanish University Students.
School Science and Mathematics, 97, 419428.
G
RIMES
, B. F. (1992). Ethnologue, languages of the world (Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of
Linguistics).
G
UNAY
, Y. and H
AMURCU
, H., (2000). Ilk¨ogretim fen ¨ogretiminde kavram haritalari (Concept maps in
elementary science education). Paper presented at the IV National Science and Mathematics
Education Conference, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
H
ASHWEH
, M. Z. (1986). Effects of subject-matter knowledge in the teaching of biology and physics.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
San Francisco, CA (ERIC ED275502).
H
OLMES
, G. A. and L
EITZEL
, T. C. (1993). Evaluating learning through a constructivist paradigm.
Performance and Instruction, 32, 2830.
1310
G
.
BAGCI KILIC
H
UAI
, H. (1997). Concept mapping in learning biology: theoretical review on cognitive and
learning styles. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8, 325340.
K
APTAN
, F. (1998). Fen ¨ogretiminde kavram haritasi y¨onteminin kullanilmasi (The use of concept
map technique in science education). Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 14,
9599.
L
AFFEY
, J. M. and S
INGER
, J. (1997). Using mapping for cognitive assessment in project-based
science. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8, 363387.
L
ANG
, M. and O
LSON
, J. (2000). Integrated science teaching as a challenge for teachers to develop
new conceptual structures. Research in Science Education, 30, 213224.
L
EE
, J. J. (1999). The impact of Korean language accommodations on concept mapping: tasks for Korean
American English Language Learners. Paper presented at American Educational Research
Association annual meeting, Montreal, Canada.
L
LOYD
, C. V. (1990). The elaboration of concepts in three biology textbooks: facilitating student
learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 10191032.
M
ARKHAM
, K. M., M
INTZES
, J. J. and J
ONES
, M. G. (1994). The concept map as a research and
evaluation tool: further evidence of validity. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31,
91101.
M
ARKOW
, P. G. and L
ONNING
, R. A. (1998). Usefulness of concept maps in college chemistry
laboratories: students perceptions and effects on achievement. Journal of Research in Science
Teaching, 35, 10151029.
M
ATRICARDI
, G., M
URATORI
, R., P
ORRO
, R., P
IROLA
, E. and C
APOZZA
, A. (2000). Science education
and controversial issues: a case study. Paper presented at Technological Education and
National Development Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (ERIC
ED447305).
M
OREIRA
, M. (1985). Concept mapping: an alternative strategy for evaluation. Assessment and
Evaluation in Higher Education, 10, 159168.
N
OVAK
, J. D. (1990). Concept mapping: a useful tool for science education. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 27, 937949.
N
OVAK
, J. D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: concept maps as facilitative tools in schools
and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
N
OVAK
, J. D. and G
OWIN
, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn (New York: Cambridge University
Press).
N
OVAK
, J. D. and M
USANDA
, D. (1991), A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept
learning. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 117153.
N
OVAK
, J. D. and W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1990). Perspectives on concept mapping. Journal of Research
in Science Teaching, 27, 10.
O
KEBUKOLA
, P. A. (1990). Attaining meaningful learning of concepts in genetics and ecology: an
examination of the potency of the concept-mapping technique. Journal of Research in Science
Teaching, 27, 493504.
P
ANKRATIUS
, W. J. (1990). Building an organized knowledge base. Concept mapping and
achievement in secondary school physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27,
315333.
P
EARSON
, J. T. and H
UGHES
, W. J. (1986). Designing an a-level genetics course: identifying the
necessary concepts and considering their relationships. Journal of Biological Education, 20,
4755.
P
REECE
, P. F. W. (1978). Exploration of semantic space: review of research on the organisation of
scientific concepts in semantic memory. Science Education, 63, 547562.
Q
UILLAN
, M. R. (1967). Word concepts: a theory and simulation of some basic semantic
capabilities. Behavioral Sciences, 12, 41430.
R
AYMOND
, A. M. (1997). The use of concept mapping in qualitative research: a multiple case study
in mathematics education. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 19, 128.
R
EGIS
, A. and A
LBERTAZZI
, P. G. (1996). Concept maps in chemistry education. Journal of
Chemical Education, 73, 10841088.
R
HONECK
, C. V. (1985). Semantic structures describing the electric circuit and their influence for the
improvement of teaching. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, Chicago, IL (ERIC ED254751).
R
ICE
, D. C., R
YAN
, J. M. and S
AMSON
, S. M. (1998). Using concept maps to assess student
learning in the science classroom: must different methods compete? Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 35, 11031127.
CONCEPT MAPS AND TURKISH LANGUAGE
1311
R
OBERTS
, L. (1999). Using concept maps to measure statistical understanding. International
Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 30, 707717.
R
OSS
, B. and M
UNBY
, H. (1991). Concept mapping and misconceptions: a study of high-school
students understanding of acids and bases. International Journal of Science Education, 13,
1123.
R
OTH
, W. and R
OYCHOUDHURY
, A. (1993). The concept map as a tool for the collaborative
construction of knowledge: a microanalysis of high school physics students. Journal of
Research in Science Teaching, 30, 503534.
R
OTH
, W. M. (1992). Dynamic evaluation. Science Scope, 15, 3740.
R
YE
, J. A. and R
UBBA
, P. A. (1998). An exploration of the concept map as an interview tool to
facilitate the externalization of students understandings about global atmospheric change.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 521546.
S
CHMID
, R. F. and T
ELARO
, G. (1990). Concept mapping as an instructional strategy for high
school biology. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 7885.
S
OKMEN
, N. and B
AYRAM
, H. (2000). Egitimde kavram haritalarinin ¨onemi (The importance of
concept maps in education). Education and Science, 25, 115.
S
TODDART
, T., A
BRAMS
, R., G
ASPER
, E. and C
ANADAY
, D. (2000). Concept maps as assessment in
science inquiry learning-a report of methodology. International Journal of Science Education,
22, 12211246.
T
ROWBRIDGE
, J. E. and W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1994). Using concept mapping in a college course on
evolution: identifying critical junctures in learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,
31, 459475.
T
ROWBRIDGE
, J. E. and W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1998). Theory-driven graphic organizers. In J. J.
M
INTZES
, W
ANDERSEE
J. H. and J. D. N
OVAK
(Eds.), Teaching science for understanding. A
human constructivist view (San Diego, CA: Academic Press), 95131.
U
CLA
Language Materials Project (2000). Learning resources for less commonly taught languages of the
world, http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/.
V
AN
B
OXTEL
, C., V
AN
D
ER
L
INDEN
, J. and K
ANSELAAR
, G. (1997). Collaborative construction of
conceptual understanding: interaction processes and learning outcomes emerging from a
concept mapping and a poster task. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 8, 341361.
V
AN
B
OXTEL
, C., V
AN
D
ER
L
INDEN
, J. L. and K
ANSELAAR
, G. (2000). Collaborative learning tasks
and elaboration of conceptual knowledge. Learning and Instruction, 10, 311330.
W
ALLACE
, J. P. and M
INTZES
, J. J. (1990). The concept map as a research tool: exploring
conceptual change in bilogy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 10331052.
W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1987). Drawing concept circles. A new way to teach and test students. Science
Activities, 27, 923936.
W
ANDERSEE
, J. H. (1990). Concept mapping and the cartography of cognition. Journal of Research
in Science Teaching, 27, 923936.
W
ILSON
, J. M. (1994). Network representations of knowledge about chemical equilibrium:
variations with achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 11331147.
W
ILSON
, J. (1996). Concept maps about chemical equilibrium and students achievement scores.
Research in Science Education, 26, 169185.
Z
OLLER
, U. (1990). Students misunderstandings and misconceptions in college freshman
chemistry (general and organic). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 10531065.
... This immense difference between English and Turkish lingual syntax causes problems in preparing Novakian concept maps in Turkish (Turan & Ekmekci, 2011;İngeç, 2009;Sağlam, 2009;Ünlü, İngeç, & Taşar, 2006;Bağcı Kılıç, 2003). Ünlü et al. (2006) reported in their study that they had had too many problems due to the syntaxial differences between Turkish and English and that the expressions between the concepts describing their relationship were often not compatible with Turkish grammar. ...
... In the study carried out by Bilici, Doğan, and Avcı (2015) where they investigated the effectiveness of concept maps in Turkish as an education tool most students were found to have a hard time writing relational phrases between concepts. Bağcı Kılıç (2003), in his study carried out upon 134 primary education students, realized that 63.6% of students had difficulty writing relational clauses between concepts and that they had resorted to alternative methods, such as writing a complete sentence above the concepts, writing the relationship in textual form under the map, or trying to make oral explanations. Although all three methods remedied the problems stemming from writing the relationship in a one-or two-word phrase in Turkish, they had certain limitations (Sağlam, 2009). ...
... Therefore, the reliability and validity of assessments are largely dependent upon the clarity of phrases on the maps. People who claim that preparing Novakian maps in Turkish is highly problematic point to the problem of reading maps in Turkish as evidence of their claim (Bağcı Kılıç, 2003;Didis et al., 2014;Sağlam, 2009;Turan & Ekmekci, 2011;Ünlü et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
People who claim that applying Novakian concept maps in Turkish is problematic base their arguments largely upon the structural differences between the English and Turkish languages. This study aims to introduce the indexing method to eliminate problems encountered in Turkish applications of Novakian maps and to share the preliminary results of its application. For this purpose, 20 pre-service chemistry teachers who had mastered the concept-mapping method after seven weeks of intense education were asked to prepare concept maps on the topic of atoms by using both the Novakian and indexing methods. The maps were qualitatively assessed by experts regarding informational content. The participants were asked to state in writing their opinions about the indexing method. The resulting analysis revealed that the participants were able to express the relation between two concepts more realistically when they used the indexing method, and the resulting maps were much richer in informational content. Almost all participants (95%) stated that the new method was more convenient in terms of reflecting the necessary mental information. The results of the study show the indexing method to be a much more convenient and informative way of preparing concept maps for both teachers and students.
... Another reason for this may be the difficulties experienced by the students in the creation of concept maps. Turkish sentence structure that is different from English can also be shown as a reason for the difficulty experienced in creating propositions in concept maps (Bahar, 2001;Bağcı Kılıç, 2003;Ünlü, İlgeç, & Taşar, 2006). In English, the relationship between any two concepts can easily be written due to the English sentence structure (subject-verb-object). ...
Article
Full-text available
Concept maps are used to assess and improve prospective teachers' conceptual understanding levels. In this research, the aim was to describe prospective science teachers' conceptual understanding of the atom by using concept maps. The research employed the case study approach, one of the qualitative research patterns. The research group consisted of 15 fourth-year prospective science teachers. The concept maps drawn by the participants were used to describe their conceptual understanding of the atom. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis method, one of the qualitative analysis methods, was used. The data obtained from the concept maps were divided into the categories previously defined by the researcher. The created categories were evaluated by two academics with expertise in physics education, and a correspondence analysis was conducted. As a result of the research, it was concluded that prospective teachers could establish successful and meaningful propositions in concept maps, however, most of the propositions were collected in the categories of "meaningless," "improvable," or "acceptable."
... The gap filling type has two versions which are conceptual and relationship. It was noted that problems do arise in the Turkish application of the Novak type (Bağcı, 2003;Turan, 2016). However, given the advantages provided by concept maps, it is understood why it is preferred despite these problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the ability of physics teacher candidates’ to read a concept map previously prepared by the researchers about a light topic and then convert the concept map into the appropriate text. The study was carried out in the form of case study method in a Turkish University in the Black Sea Region with 32 physics teacher candidates in the 2016–2017 academic years. To collect data, the concept map about light was given to the physics teacher candidates and they were asked to convert this concept map into meaningful text. The meaningful texts that teacher candidates tried to transform according to the concept map were evaluated according to a reference text. The reference text was prepared by experts. When the findings obtained from the study were examined in general, it was concluded that 78.123% of these physics teacher candidates could read the concept map related to light subjects and concepts at medium level. According to the results of this study, it is recommended that studies related to reading concept maps should be studied for different subjects and concepts. KEY WORDS: concept map; light; physics teacher candidates; reading concept map.
... The gap filling type has two versions which are conceptual and relationship. It was noted that problems do arise in the Turkish application of the Novak type (Bağcı, 2003;Turan, 2016). However, given the advantages provided by concept maps, it is understood why it is preferred despite these problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the ability of physics teacher candidates’ to read a concept map previously prepared by the researchers about a light topic and then convert the concept map into the appropriate text. The study was carried out in the form of case study method in a Turkish University in the Black Sea Region with 32 physics teacher candidates in the 2016–2017 academic years. To collect data, the concept map about light was given to the physics teacher candidates and they were asked to convert this concept map into meaningful text. The meaningful texts that teacher candidates tried to transform according to the concept map were evaluated according to a reference text. The reference text was prepared by experts. When the findings obtained from the study were examined in general, it was concluded that 78.123% of these physics teacher candidates could read the concept map related to light subjects and concepts at medium level. According to the results of this study, it is recommended that studies related to reading concept maps should be studied for different subjects and concepts.
... Öğretmen adaylarından gelen dönütlere göre bağlantı cümlelerini yazmakta zorlandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Bağcı (2003), Türkçede cümle içindeki söz dizisinin İngilizceye göre farklılıklar göstermesinden dolayı Novak tarzında Türkçe kavram haritaları yaparken zorluklar yaşandığını belirtmiştir. Bu sebeple bağlantı cümlelerini doğru kullanamayan öğrencilerde bir başarısızlık hissi oluşmuş olabilir. ...
... A constructivist view of learning calls for educators to understand what cognitive structures are and how they function, as well as use the principles to explore and assess learners' cognitive structures. Educational studies continue to use different techniques such as word association testing (Derman and Eilks 2016;Nakipoğlu 2008), concept mappings (Edmondson 2000;Kilic 2003), and individual interviews (e.g., Ebenezer and Fraser 2001;Harrison and Treagust 1996). After eliciting the cognitive structures, teachers help learners to make sense of the new information. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of multiple knowledge representations of physical and chemical changes on the development of primary pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures. The study took place in an introductory general chemistry laboratory course in a four-year teacher education program. Multiple knowledge representations in chemistry refer to the macroscopic (visible), sub-microscopic (invisible), and symbolic (formulas and equations). The study adopted one group pretest-posttest design supported by qualitative data. Forty primary pre-service teachers participated in this study. The results revealed that enabling the primary pre-service teachers to learn multiple representations of physical and chemical changes was effective in developing both groups of pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures, low and high-level understanding of particulate nature of matter, the latter benefitting the most. This finding was instructive because it emphasizes the difficulty that some primary pre-service teachers had on the particulate and symbolic representations of physical and chemical changes. The improvement in primary pre-service teachers’ cognitive structures of physical and chemical change by the use of multiple representations.
... Concept maps are, like many other assessment tools, only a partial representation of students' conceptual frameworks, and an incomplete concept map does not automatically mean a student's incomplete construction of knowledge on the topic (Jonassen, Reeves, Hong, Dyer, & Peters, 1997). In addition, students' spatial thinking ability, language skills, level of guidance, and familiarity with the concept mapping procedure also influence the construction of their concept maps (Bagci Kilic, 2003;Jonassen, 1987;Ruiz-Primo et al., 2001;Wilson, 1994). Most importantly, researchers have found inconsistent results of reliability and validity of concept mapping as an assessment method (McClure et al., 1999;Ruiz-Primo et al., 2001;Ruiz-Primo & Shavelson, 1996;Schecker & Klieme, 2000). ...
Article
In this study, we investigated the value of a concept map marking guide as an alternative formative assessment tool for science teachers to adopt for the topic of energy. Eight high school science teachers marked students’ concept maps using an itemized holistic marking guide. Their marking was compared with the researchers’ marking and the scores of a multiple-choice diagnostic test. Statistical analysis revealed that teachers evaluated students’ concept maps consistently, but the concept map scores were only mildly correlated with the multiple-choice test scores. We explored what each assessment method revealed in terms of students’ understanding with one student’s performance as a showcase. Teachers’ views on using the marking guide of concept maps as an assessment tool were also included. We discuss the value of the concept map marking guide as a formative assessment tool for science teachers to create and modify in order to encourage students’ conceptual learning.
Thesis
Full-text available
Matematik ders etkinlikleri düzenleme ve geliştirme konusunda, öğretmenlerin ve öğrencilerin yararlanabilecekleri kaynaklar yok denecek kadar az olup bu konudaki gereksinimleri karşılayacak çalışmaların yapılması çok yararlı olacaktır (Ersoy ve Ardahan, 2004). Bu araştırma, öğretmen adaylarının hazırlanan ders etkinliklerini yaparak fonksiyonlarla ilgili kavramları anlamlı ve kalıcı öğrenmelerini amaçlayan deneysel bir çalışmadır. Öğrenme ürünlerini karşılaştırmak için deney ve kontrol grupları kullanılmış ve toplanan veriler betimlemeli istatistik ve t-karşılaştırma testi yoluyla analiz edilmiştir. Derive ve Excel eğitim yazılımlarına dayalı üretilen ders etkinlikleri ile kavram haritaları oluşturarak öğrenmek, araştırmanın esasını teşkil eder. Bu çalışma, 2006–2007 öğretim yılı güz yarıyılında Selçuk Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, Matematik Anabilim Dalında Analiz-I dersini ii alan 42 öğrenci ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın başlangıcında, öğrencilerin durumunu belirlemek amacıyla hazırlanan ön test bütün gruplara uygulanmış ve daha sonra rasgele olarak 21 kişi deney grubuna, 21 kişi de kontrol grubuna ayrılmıştır. Hazırlanan etkinlikler, 6 haftalık süre ile deney grubuna uygulanmış ve öğrenme ürünlerini ölçmek amacıyla son test uygulanmıştır. Ön ve son testlerden elde edilen veriler, istatistiksel yöntemlerle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın başlangıcında ortaya konulan dört hipotez ve geleneksel yollarla öğrenme ve kavram haritaları oluşturarak öğrenme sonuçlarını karşılaştırmak için t-testi kullanılmıştır. Hipotezler ve test maddelerine ilişkin veriler, sonuçlar ve yorumlar tablolar halinde sunulmuştur. Ayrıca, deney grubuna Kavram Haritaları Tutum Ölçeği ve Bilişim Teknolojileri Tutum Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Özet olarak, deney grubu ve kontrol grubu sonuçları karşılaştırıldığında, deney grubu lehine t-testine göre anlamlı fark olduğu belirlenmiştir (p= 0,01). Buna ek olarak, öğrenme sürecinde, ders etkinlikleri ve kavram haritaları kullanımı, öğretmen adaylarında derse katılım ve motivasyon bakımından olumlu tutumların kazanılmasını sağlamıştır.
Article
Full-text available
There are many studies on citizens' subjective perceptions. What these studies have in common is the notion of "mental image" which is something intangible and intangible. Images, the result of the interaction between humans and the environment includes a person's mental awareness of their environment. Cognitive maps and mental images is an important issue in the fields of urban design and urban contemporary. And, more recently, has become one of the important issues in architecture. Mental images and cognitive maps are considered as kinds of tool to achieve internal representation of the environment. Eligible, manipulated and even empty mental images and cognitive maps in urban landscape makes the formation of landscape which could be defined as any parts of environment that is limited to knowledge and conscious of place, a problematic issue. Although mental maps, also called cognitive maps, are a centerpiece of geographic research, they are perhaps most widely associated with Kevin Lynch, an architect and planner. Mental maps are cartographic representations of how people differ in their evaluation of places. Our mental maps become more complex over time when we incorporate information derived from indirect as well as direct experience. In addition to the personal experience the mental map is influenced by the reputation of the area in general. A variety of methods and techniques have been derived and experienced in recent decades. Several methods have been used in cognitive mapping to elicit the organized representations of a given environment. These include the direct-mapping procedure adopted by Lynch and others, construction of preference maps and the use of questionnaires in more sophisticated statistical procedures multidimensional scaling procedures and computer scanning techniques. The direct-mapping technique is marked by attempts on the part of the individual to create a map of an environment as mental image. It is thus distinguished from other methods involving maps constructed on the basis of information provided by respondents and drawn indirectly by the investigator. This diversity makes comparative study of methods of extracting images a necessary work and makes such work essential in investigating and comprehensive understanding of their strengths and weaknesses in particular represents. In this study, by using a combination of strategies, such as qualitative strategy and classification of data new typology has been derived from many sources of data. Literature review and analysis of relevant aspects of the transfer and an attempt has been fully studied yet concisely and is mentioned. The hypothesis is based on the similarities and differences between methods that can be extracted from cognitive maps as a way to classify images which enables building theoretical model or models. Finally, explained the model to provide a comprehensive representation of the environment. This model emphasizes on the strengths and weaknesses of the grounds that will be reduced. Finally, the results of the analysis and evaluation are evolving in interpretive approach. The results of this study showed that different species of concepts in the field of mental - Conceptual maps could be recognizable which could be divided in to two categories; "Topological representation" and "conceptual representations". The methodology for obtaining images and cognitive maps are indivisible in two categories; first "Design - drawing models (reproductive)" and "recognition-assessment models - (non-reproductive)". Analyzing the methods of representing mental maps in general led to a comprehensive model for the representation of landscape and urban environment which in terms of the methodology consists of "mental maps" and "conceptual maps". Extraction of cognitive maps in order to achieve "the common cognitive map" of the represented environment is dealing with some weakness. First of all is “weakness of simplification process" which removes the elements of graphic quality and its details as a result. And other is "weak graphics system" which is limited to the five elements of Lynch and the two scale of measurement in definition. In general, this visual system for representation of the natural factors in urban landscape and the quality of the drawing could not be extended. In this sense, the research on the urban landscape requires its own graphical language definition. Finally, "the impossibility of comparing results in different ways", especially because of the nature and methodology of the evaluation procedures and graphics that only can be used in parallel. The use of new technology tools such as global communication networks (Internet and media) and computer software and simulation, and as in the near future as the primary tool and then take shape as a new way. Today, there exists traces of it in the visible public preference studies. However, these studies indicate that these tools and methods are not used in research. Keyword(s): MENTAL IMAGES, COGNITIVE MAPS, LANDSCAPE, ENVIRONMENT, METHODOLOGY, TYPOLOGY
Chapter
Concept maps are widely used as assessment tool in research projects but do not seem to be often used for diagnostic purposes in school practice. Their evaluation is regarded to be too time consuming and of lower reliability compared to written tests. Therefore, different computer-based approaches are reviewed which have the opportunity to improve the reliability and to reduce the effort of evaluation. Their options for formative assessment on an individual and class level are discussed with the intention to foster achievement through diagnostic feedback. Finally, ideas how to enhance the available software solutions are derived. For this chapter especially research on digital concept mapping published in the German language has been reviewed in order to make this body of knowledge accessible to the international community
Article
Full-text available
In this study, concept mapping was assessed as an instructional strategy for use by high school students in learning biology concepts. Concept mapping, which requires learners to plot concepts and their interrelations in a meaningful organizational network, was compared with an established curriculum approach and tested in an interaction with learners of varying verbal ability. The design emphasized external validity. As hypothesized, concept mapping facilitated low-ability learners’ performance, but only on higher level, relational knowledge. The usefulness of the technique was discussed in terms of its ability to individualize and raise the quality of learning with little extra effort or resource costs to the instructional system.
Article
The problem addressed by this study is that first-year college chemistry students learn little of the conceptual material associated with chemistry experiments they perform. The thesis of this research is that the construction of prelab and postlab concept maps help students understand the concepts involved in the experiments they perform. The study was conducted using 32 non-science majors enrolled in a first-year chemistry course. The experimental group constructed prelab and postlab concept maps, while the control group wrote essays explaining the conceptual chemistry of the four experiments used in this study. Both groups took 25-item achievement tests 1 week after each experiment. Prelab and postlab concept maps were scored and evaluated for significant differences. Five students were interviewed to investigate their perceptions regarding the usefulness of concept maps in chemistry laboratories. No significant differences were found between treatment groups with respect to students' conceptual understanding as determined by the multiple choice achievement tests. Students responded very positively toward the use of concepts maps in the laboratory. They felt strongly that constructing prelab and postlab concept maps helped them understand the conceptual chemistry of the experiments.
Chapter
The development of semantic networking and concept mapping has interesting parallels and important distinctions. They both have a substantial research base demonstrating their effectiveness as research and metacognitive tools. While grid systems for drawing structures may be familiar to the engineer and the artist, they have also been demonstrated to be useful in biology education. Roundhouse diagrams are named after the circular buildings with central turntables that are used by railroads for housing and switching locomotives. Another graphic metacognitive tool is Gowin's epistemological vee. Otherwise known as a vee diagram, this graphic allows one to view the actual activities of science as it moves from events to data collection to data transformations to knowledge claims to values claims as a research project is being planned or completed. Concept mapping requires an understanding of what a concept entails and promotes the ability to use concepts as the basis of scientific language. Concept mapping requires the map designer to prioritize and make judicious use of selected concepts when mapping. This may well serve proponents of science education reform who advocate.
Article
This paper outlines the history of the teaching of genetics in A-level Biology courses and defines the candidates who are taught it, in terms of their prior knowledge of the subject, obtained both formally and informally. The JMB syllabus is used as an example of how to identify and define the necessary concepts. Current A-level texts are used to produce a glossary of necessary terms and consideration is given to problems that arise from the use of terms whose definitions are unclear. The terms are then used to represent concepts and are organized into concept maps. Finally different methods of sequencing the course are considered.
Article
This article illustrates some of the problems faced by Student teachers of biology when they try to realize the process of ?didactic transformation? (Boschhuizen, 1982, p. 200) while planning their classes. This ?didactic transformation? raises questions of choice, structuring and sequencing. A content structure (Boschhuizen, 1982, p. 200) has been proposed: ?the hierarchical concept?map?. Joyce & Weil (1980, p. 91) point out the lack of heuristics to draw these hierarchical concept?maps. In cooperation with Student teachers, teacher trainers and pupils a method has been developed to draw hierarchical concept?maps. This method has been called a method of subject?matter analysis (Boschhuizen, 1982). This method has been introduced as a component of the curriculum of the teachers? training course at the Free University in Amsterdam. The problems of testees who realize the process of ?didactic transformation? following their own cognitive structure with or without making use of the method of subject?matter analysis, have been examined. This research has resulted in a classification of these transformation problems.
Article
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of interviews—one that did (POSTICM) and one that did not (POSTI) embed a concept-mapping process—to elicit students' postinstructional understandings about chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change (GAC). A chief criterion measure was accordance, the degree to which students held the ideal postinstructional understanding set forth in a teacher-expert concept map. After GAC instruction that included concept-mapping activities, 34 eighth-grade science students were assigned randomly to groups and completed either POSTICM or POSTI. These students and their teacher also completed relatedness ratings of central concepts from the teacher-expert map. The Knowledge Network Organizing Tool™ was used to transform relatedness ratings to Pathfinder networks and compare nets to yield a student to teacher similarity index (Pathfinder index). Regression analysis revealed that type of interview did not predict accordance. However, most POSTICM students perceived the concept-mapping interview component to be helpful and affect positively their answers to the interview questions. The Pathfinder index did predict (p = .003) accordance—the Pathfinder index was a reliable confirmatory measure of the degree to which students held the ideal postinstructional understanding. J Res Sci Teach 35: 521–546, 1998.
Article
This paper reports a study of senior high‐school students’ understandings of concepts related to acids and bases. The methodology was grounded on a concept mapconstructed from the curriculum. This map was used in the design of a multiple‐choice test and of clinical interviews. It was also used in the analysis of the data, and inconstructing concept maps for each participant. The methodology and the resulting analyses are illustrated with two abbreviated cases selected from the study. It is shown that these participants hold idiosyncratic concepts not consistently coincident with those of the prescribed curriculum, and that everyday concepts are retained more than are scientificconcepts. Discussion of concept mapping points to how it starkly represents gaps in the understanding of concepts that are interrelated. This feature of the methodological approach is shown to be significant to the study of students’ conceptions when the subject‐matter concepts are theoretically linked.
Article
This yearlong study was implemented in seventh-grade life science classes with the students' regular teacher serving as teacher/researcher. In the study, a method of scoring concept maps was developed to assess knowledge and comprehension levels of science achievement. By linking scoring of concept maps to instructional objectives, scores were based upon the correctness of propositions. High correlations between the concept map scores and unit multiple choice tests provided strong evidence of the content validity of the map scores. Similarly, correlations between map scores and state criterion-referenced and national norm-referenced standardized tests were indicators of high concurrent validity. The approach to concept map scoring in the study represents a distinct departure from traditional methods that focus on characteristics such as hierarchy and branching. A large body of research has demonstrated the utility of such methods in the assessment of higher-level learning outcomes. The results of the study suggest that a concept map might be used in assessing declarative and procedural knowledge, both of which have a place in the science classroom. One important implication of these results is that science curriculum and its corresponding assessment need not be dichotomized into knowledge/comprehension versus higher-order outcomes. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 35: 1103–1127, 1998.