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Abstract

Much research has established the contribution of summer reading setback to the reading achievement gap that is present between children from more and less economically advantaged families. Likewise, summer reading activity, or the lack of it, has been linked to summer setback. Finally, family socioeconomic status has been linked to the access children have to books in their homes and neighborhoods. Thus, in this longitudinal experimental study we tested the hypothesis that providing elementary school students from low-income families with a supply of self-selected trade books would ameliorate summer reading setback. Thus, 852 students from 17 high-poverty schools were randomly selected to receive a supply of self-selected trade books on the final day of school over a 3-year period, and 478 randomly selected students from these same schools received no books and served as the control group. No further effort was provided in this intervention study. Outcomes on the state reading assessment indicated a statistically significant effect (p = .015) for providing access to books for summer reading along with a significant (d = .14) effect size. Slightly larger effects (d = .21) were found when comparing the achievement of the most economically disadvantaged students in the treatment and control groups.
... Children of an incarcerated parent are at risk for larger gaps in their reading proficiency between the end of the school year and the beginning of the next (Allington et al. 2010, Merenstein, Tyson, Tilles, Keays, & Rufffolo, 2011. Children of an incarcerated parent generally come from a lower socioeconomic population, are more prone to psychological issues, and are more likely to have lower self-esteem and struggle academically (Merenstein et al. 2011). ...
... Children of an incarcerated parent generally come from a lower socioeconomic population, are more prone to psychological issues, and are more likely to have lower self-esteem and struggle academically (Merenstein et al. 2011). There is well documented evidence that children experience summer loss in their reading proficiency, especially economically disadvantaged children, regardless of whether or not they have a parent incarcerated (Allington et al. 2010;Merenstein et al. 2011). ...
... A study by Allington et al. (2010) found that providing twelve books of choice to disadvantaged children on the last day of school resulted in statistically significant effects in preventing summer reading loss when measured with the start of the next school year. Bridging the summer gap for at risk children through prison sponsored literacy programs such as the Parent-Child Reading Program could decrease summer reading loss. ...
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In this autoethnographic research project the researcher details his planned happenstance story that led to a career in correctional education. Using an arts-based inquiry methodology, the researcher documented and studied specific events that through planned happenstance and self-determination, molded his literary, academic, and professional self. By reflecting on and studying the decisions and actions taken from planned happenstance events, the researcher feels that others may benefit and learn from his experiences. Correctional workers have a responsibility to model positive behaviors for the inmates in their charge. The more positive roles all correctional workers take in the education, rehabilitation, and re-entry efforts of the inmate population, the safer our prisons will be for staff and inmates, with the added benefit of lowering recidivism rates. The researcher discovered that using reflective writing is a beneficial strategy for learning and personal growth and is a valuable tool that can help establish a positive culture within the prison walls for staff and inmates alike. Through this project, the researcher feels everyone has elements of their own personal story that has the ability to shape and change the lives of those around them. Additional autoethnographic research can be the medium to add to the body of knowledge related to the fields of Family and Consumer Sciences Education, in both corrections and public education.
... The harm was glaringly obvious to the authors during their interviews with the grade-3 English teachers. Learning losses exacerbate existing inequalities because disadvantaged learners are affected the most (Allington et al., 2010;Cooper et al., 1996). Since South Africa's democratisation in 1994, all learning progress has been eradicated (Dorne et al., 2020;Hanushek & Woessmann, 2020;UNESCO, 2020). ...
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The impact of COVID-19 on the academics skills of learners, with a special focus on language learning
... Existing research on the development of learning gaps during summer vacations 17,18 , disruptions to schooling during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone and Guinea 19 , and the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan 20 shows that the suspension of face-to-face teaching can increase educational inequality between children from different socio-economic backgrounds. Learning deficits during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to have been particularly pronounced for children from low socio-economic backgrounds. ...
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To what extent has the learning progress of school-aged children slowed down during the COVID-19 pandemic? A growing number of studies address this question, but findings vary depending on context. Here we conduct a pre-registered systematic review, quality appraisal and meta-analysis of 42 studies across 15 countries to assess the magnitude of learning deficits during the pandemic. We find a substantial overall learning deficit (Cohen’s d = −0.14, 95% confidence interval −0.17 to −0.10), which arose early in the pandemic and persists over time. Learning deficits are particularly large among children from low socio-economic backgrounds. They are also larger in maths than in reading and in middle-income countries relative to high-income countries. There is a lack of evidence on learning progress during the pandemic in low-income countries. Future research should address this evidence gap and avoid the common risks of bias that we identify.
... Research documents the positive effects of reading interventions over vacation periods when children, especially low-income students, are out of school for consecutive months with few opportunities to reinforce reading skills (Allington et al., 2010;Beach et al., 2018). In addition, research has also shown how mobile technology is a feasible alternative for delivering reading material to children, particularly those living in rural areas or lacking educational and technological resources (Sung et al., 2015;Kim, Miranda, & Olaciregui, 2008). ...
Article
School closures because of the COVID-19 pandemic affected over a billion young people worldwide and presented a threat to long-term learning, particularly for public school students in low socioeconomic situations. This article offers quasi-experimental evidence on a low-cost strategy for distance learning applied in the Republic of Panama to minimize the negative consequences of the pandemic on public elementary school children’s reading levels. We conducted a 12-week intervention that utilized mobile phone technology and dissemination of reading material through WhatsApp, a cross-platform messaging freeware service, to maintain and improve children’s reading levels during the pandemic school shutdown. The objective was to determine the feasibility of using WhatsApp as a digital tool to facilitate education and inform evolving practice and policy responses. Results among 292 students between the second and sixth grades indicated overall mean gains of up to 10.3% in the number of words read per minute, with statistically significant improvements overall and higher gains among the second and third grades. In addition, the adoption rate was high, with a reported average of 84% completion of the daily readings. The results of this low-tech intervention have immediate and longer-term implications for using mobile technology as a supplemental or complementary learning tool, especially for developing regions and during school closures or school vacations.
... In the current study, access to books (i.e., number of books at home) was significantly associated with vocabulary and reading comprehension. Indeed, the number of books has been consistently shown as predictive of child literacy across countries (Park, 2008;Allington et al., 2010). Studies also found that providing book resources (i.e., bringing home books, offering library access) can compensate for summer reading losses among disadvantaged children (Bell et al., 2020;Fälth et al., 2019). ...
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Unlabelled: Children who speak one language at home and a different language at school may be at higher risk of falling behind in their academic achievement when schooling is disrupted. The present study examined the effects of COVID-19-related school disruptions on English language and literacy development among monolingual and bilingual children in the US. All children attended English-only schools that implemented varied forms of virtual and hybrid schooling during the pandemic. Pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19 examinations were conducted with 237 children (M(SD) age = 7.78 (1.54) at Time 1) from relatively high SES homes, including 95 monolinguals, 75 Spanish-English and 67 Chinese-English bilinguals. The findings revealed different impacts of COVID-19 school disruptions on the present bilingual and monolingual participants. Specifically, between Time 1 and Time 2, monolingual children made age-appropriate improvements in all literacy measurements. Relative to monolinguals, both bilingual groups showed greater gains in vocabulary but lower gains in reading comprehension. Moreover, across groups, children's independent reading practices during COVID-19 were positively associated with children's literacy growth during the pandemic-related schooling disruptions. Taken together, these findings inform theoretical perspectives on learning to read in linguistically diverse children experiencing COVID-19-related schooling disruptions. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11145-022-10388-x.
... that the library collection is not limited to just books but includes all kinds and printed forms. Efforts to develop interest and love of reading are by distributing books (Allington et al., 2010;Doiron, 2011;Sweeney, 2010). The library itself aims to provide assistance with library materials or books needed by users. ...
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This study aims to measure the implementation of regional library development service policies in Luwu Regency based on 4 indicators, namely: development and arrangement of library service systems, promotion of library services and promotions, development of future library services, and development of integrated service systems with libraries and information centers. This study uses a quantitative method with non-probability sampling technique that is exploratory, the determination of the sample is carried out by purposive sampling involving 194 respondents consisting of: Regional Librarians. Campus/School/Mosque Librarians, Community Reading Park Librarians (TBM), Village Library Librarians, Literacy Activists, and Library Visitors. The results showed that the development and arrangement of the library service system was in good category, namely 55%, service promotion and library promotion was in good category, 57%, future library service development was in good category, which was 52%, and the development of integrated service system with libraries and information centers was in the good category. good that is 56%.
Article
Although research related to the Science of Reading has documented the positive effects of explicit, systematic reading instruction for all students, students from historically marginalized groups often experience differential opportunities to learn and are likely to perform lower than their peers on large scale measures of reading achievement. These differences may be further exacerbated by summer learning loss (SLL), in which student academic progress stagnates or declines during the summer months. Providing summertime academic interventions, specifically in reading, has been one proposed solution for mitigating SLL. The present exploratory study examined the impact of a comprehensive approach to summer literacy intervention that included evidence-based reading instruction in foundational reading skills (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency) and more advanced disciplinary literacy skills on student reading-related outcomes for rising 1st-3rd grade students. on student reading-related outcomes for rising first, second, and third graders from an under-resourced, urban school. The majority of students who participated in the programming were from historically marginalized populations and low-income families and included students with diverse literacy needs. with 70% of students qualifying for free or reduced-price lunch, and included students with diverse literacy skills, students with developmental disabilities, and emergent bilingual learners. Students were assessed pre-post using norm-referenced assessments of phonemic segmentation, nonsense word reading, and oral reading fluency as well as curriculum embedded Mastery Tests. Results indicated that students made significant growth or maintained measured reading skills. Results indicated that rising first grade students made significant growth pre-post on measures of phonemic segmentation fluency, nonsense word reading, and Mastery Tests. Rising 2nd grade students demonstrated significant growth on Mastery Tests measures and maintained on other measures. Rising 3rd grade students demonstrated significant growth on aspects of nonsense word reading and maintained on other measures. Findings from this study indicate that a summer literacy intervention designed to address both foundational and disciplinary literacy skills may improve reading-related outcomes for students from economically and culturally diverse backgrounds.
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Reading comprehension is one of the essential skills for students as they make a transition from learning to read to reading to learn. Over the last decade, the increased use of digital learning materials for promoting literacy skills (e.g., oral fluency and reading comprehension) in K-12 classrooms has been a boon for teachers. However, instant access to reading materials, as well as relevant assessment tools for evaluating students' comprehension skills, remains to be a problem. Teachers must spend many hours looking for suitable materials for their students because high-quality reading materials and assessments are primarily available through commercial literacy programs and websites. This study proposes a promising solution to this problem by employing an artificial intelligence (AI) approach. We demonstrate how to use advanced language models (e.g., OpenAI's GPT-2 and Google's T5) to automatically generate reading passages and items. Our preliminary findings suggest that with additional training and fine-tuning, open-source language models could be used to support the instruction and assessment of reading comprehension skills in the classroom. For both automatic story and item generation, the language models performed reasonably; however, the outcomes of these language models still require a human evaluation and further adjustments before sharing them with students. Practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.
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This study examines the feasibility of adding a proximal outcome survey to a book distribution program. We also examine access to books at home for Grade 3 to 5 students experiencing poverty and relations with reading motivation and reading amount. Finally, we describe students’ book preferences by analyzing the difficulty and genres of texts they select for outside of school time (OST) reading. We surveyed 549 students attending four elementary schools that serve > 98% economically disadvantaged students using this new measure. We found adequate feasibility and initial validity of this short survey. Key findings from this study were that students who had access to a greater number of books at home read more during OST, even after adjusting for reading motivation. Consistent with past research, students’ reading motivation related to their reading amount. We discuss potential implications of these findings for book distribution efforts.
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The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data. Participants most frequently chose fiction and series books and books reflective of the media and mass marketing. Girls selected nonfiction books more often than boys. In addition to the descriptive data, the author used participants' spontaneous talk and interview responses to formulate a grounded theory regarding why participants selected certain books. The author discusses the theory that everyday culture overarched participants' books selection descriptions and sources of familiarity.
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Voluntary reading of books over the summer can enhance the reading achievement of ethnic minority students and reduce skill loss over the summer break if the books closely match students' reading levels and interests.
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The effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention with teacher and parent scaffolding were investigated in an experimental study. A total of 24 teachers and 400 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: control, books only, books with oral reading scaffolding, and books with oral reading and comprehension scaffolding. Books were matched to children's reading levels and interests. Children were pre- and posttested on measures of oral reading fluency (DIBELS) and silent reading ability (Iowa Test of Basic Skills [ITBS]). Results showed that children in the books with oral reading and comprehension scaffolding condition scored significantly higher on the ITBS posttest than children in the control condition. In addition, children in the two scaffolding conditions combined scored higher on the ITBS posttest than children in the control and books only conditions combined. Practical implications for summer voluntary reading interventions are discussed.
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A number of studies have shown that low-income and minority students undergo larger summer reading losses than their middle-class and White classmates, and that reading is the only activity that is consistently related to summer learning. The purpose of this study was to explore whether reading books during summer vacation improved fall reading proficiency, and whether access to books increased the volume of summer reading. The results from the multivariate regression analyses suggest that the effect of reading 4 to 5 books on fall reading scores is potentially large enough to prevent a decline in reading achievement scores from the spring to the fall. Furthermore, children who reported easy access to books also read more books. The findings have implications for designing school-based summer reading programs and for conducting future experiments that confirm the correlational findings from this study.
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Educational sociologists have paid relatively little attention to children in middle childhood (ages 6 to 12), whereas developmental psychologists have emphasized factors internal to the child much more than the social contexts in explaining children’s development. Children, Schools, and Inequality redresses that imbalance. It examines elementary school outcomes (e.g., test scores, grades, retention rates) in light of the socioeconomic variation in schools and neighborhoods, the organizational patterns across elementary schools, and the ways in which family structure intersects with children’s school performance. Adding data from the Baltimore Beginning School Study to information culled from the fields of sociology, child development, and education, this book suggests why the gap between the school achievement of poor children and those who are better off has been so difficult to close. Doris Enwistle, Karl Alexander, and Linda Olson show why the first-grade transition?how children negotiate entry into full-time schooling?is a crucial period. They also show that events over that time have repercussions that echo throughout children’s entire school careers. Currently the only study of this life transition to cover a comprehensive sample and to suggest straightforward remedies for urban schools, Children, Schools, and Inequality can inform educators, practitioners, and policymakers, as well as researchers in the sociology of education and child development.
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Although usually advocated as a cost-effective strategy for utilizing teachers, space, and facilities fully, summer programs have been mentioned of late as a tool for enrichment or remedial instruction and as a technique to arrest summer losses in achievement among the disadvantaged. This article reviews the literature on the effects of summer programs and offers a reinterpretation of the role of summer learning in cognitive development. Most analysts have ignored the time factor, or have viewed summer loss among compensatory education students as a threat to the conclusion that school-year gains were real or persistent. The bulk of evidence supports the conclusion that summer programs can be quite effective, particularly for the disadvantaged.