Article

Control of prepotent responses by the superior medial frontal cortex

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 10/2008; 44(2):537-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The inhibitory control of prepotent action is vital for appropriate behaviour. An example of the importance of such control can be seen in the inhibition of aggressive behavior, deficits in which may have broader consequences for society. Many studies have related lesions or the under-development of the prefrontal cortex to inefficiency of inhibitory control. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation and a stop-signal task, which occasionally requires the inhibition of a prepotent motor response, to investigate the role of pre-supplementary motor area (Pre-SMA) in inhibitory control. While no effects were seen on the ability to generate responses, TMS delivered over the Pre-SMA disrupted the ability to respond to a stop signal. These results are the first to establish a casual link between Pre-SMA and inhibitory control in normal subjects. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms of inhibitory control may lead to clearer understanding of the neural basis of inappropriate behaviour.

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    • "Pre-SMA is also associated with other functions that may be relevant to understanding its putative contribution to visuospatial processing. In particular, other studies have shown pre- SMA involvement in inhibitory control processes that underlie, for example, our ability to refrain from particular responses (e.g.,Rushworth et al., 2007;Chen et al., 2009;Juan and Muggleton, 2012;Yu et al., 2015). Inhibitory control processes may also contribute to complex visuo-spatial tasks that involve determining a sequential transformation operation required to compute mappings between feature locations (as in MR) or shifts of spatial location in response to external cues (as in the GN task). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA) in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed mental rotation in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow) cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    • "BBR-9774; No. of Pages 9 H.W. Lee et al. / Behavioural Brain Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3 temporary perturbation of neural activity in the two regions. TMS has been shown to impair performance on a stop-signal task as indicated by an elevated SSRT when it was applied over the pre-SMA [10] [37] and over the rIFG [8] [7]. Specifically, we wanted to compare the TMS effect on performance in the high-and low-slowing participants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although both the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) have been demonstrated to be critical for response inhibition, there is still considerable disagreement over the roles they play in the process. In the present study, we investigated the causal relations of the pre-SMA and the rIFG in a conditional stop-signal task by applying offline theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. The task introduced a continue condition, which requires the same motor response as in a go trial but captures attention as in a stop trial. We found great individual differences in the amount of slowing on continue trials. Temporary suppression of pre-SMA activity prolonged the continue RT in participants who slowed little in response to continue trials, whereas disruption of the rIFG did not lead to significant changes in performance irrespective of the degree of slowing. Our results contribute to the understanding of the role of the pre-SMA by providing causal evidence that it is involved in response slowing on continue trials during conditional stopping, and it is likely that its efficiency in updating motor planning and reinitiating an inhibited response was associated with the amount of slowing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Behavioural Brain Research
    • "In other studies, anodal tDCS decreased SSRT when applied to the pre-SMA or primary motor cortex (M1), but the effect is stronger in the pre-SMA ( ). Conversely, high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the pre-SMA (Cai et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2009) and FEF (Muggleton et al., 2010) prolongs SSRT. "
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    ABSTRACT: Motor response inhibition is a psychological construct of both theoretical and clinical importance. We draw on unit recording studies in behaving monkeys and summarize features that best describe an “inhibitory” region. For two decades, investigators have combined functional brain imaging and various behavioral paradigms to examine the neural substrates of response inhibition. We briefly review this literature and highlight the potential roles of the presupplementary motor area and right inferior frontal cortex in set- and stimulus-driven processes. While the distinction between proactive and reactive controls provides a conceptual framework to elucidate the component processes of response inhibition, individual brain regions may partake in both processes.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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