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Study on Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L. All.) Oil

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Abstract

In this report the comparative chemical composition of the essential oil of Chamaemelum nobile from two different regions in Northern Italy was examined by GC and GC/MS. No significant differences were found in the composition of the two oils which were characterized by a high content of isobutyl angelate (36.3–38.5%), 2-methylbutyl angelate (18.2–20.3%) and other angelate esters.
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Study on Roman Chamomile
(Chamaemelum nobile L. All.) Oil
Andrea Antonelli a & Cristiano Fabbri a
a Istituto di Industrie Agrarie , Via S. Giacomo 7, 40126,
Bologna, Italy
Published online: 09 Dec 2011.
To cite this article: Andrea Antonelli & Cristiano Fabbri (1998) Study on Roman Chamomile
(Chamaemelum nobile L. All.) Oil, Journal of Essential Oil Research, 10:5, 571-574, DOI:
10.1080/10412905.1998.9700974
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1998.9700974
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J.
Essent.
Oil
Res.,
10,
571-574 (Sep/Oct
1998)
RESEARCH NOTE
Study
on Roman Chamomile
(Chamaemelum
nobile
L.
All.)
Oil
Andrea Antonem' and
Cristiano
Fabbri
Istittito
di
Industrie Agrurie, Viu
S.
Giucomo
7,
40126
Bologna,
Italy
Abstract
In this report the comparative chemical composition
of
the essential
oil
of
Chunzaenzelrim
nohilc>
from two different regions in Northern Italy was examined by
GC and
GUMS.
No
significant differences were found in the composition
of
the two
oils
which were characterized by a high content
of
isobutyl angelate (36.3-38.5%),
2-methylbutyl angelate (18.2-20.30/) and other angelate esters.
Key Word Index
Chainaenieltim
nohile,
Antheinis
nohilis,
ASterdcede, essential
oil
composition,
isohutyl angelate, 2-methylbutyl angelate.
Introduction
One
of
the first papers on the detailed cornposition
of
Roman chamomile
oil
was that
of
Ndno
et
al.
(1).
Later, these same authors studied the
oil
in more detail (2,3). More recently, several other investigations
have addressed this topic
(4-6).
The composition
of
this
oil
was characterized by a high content
of
angelic esters Some papers
of
the last decade
(7-10)
reported a detailed composition
of
Roman charnomile but sometimes indicated
isohutyl
ester
(11)
or
butyl ester (4) or isoamyl
ester
(1)
as the major constituent.
The lack
of
pure reference standards and the unspecificity
of
the mass fragmentation
of
angelic esters
make peak identification uncertain. This shortcoming may
be
overcome by a comparison
of
the retention
times. For these reasons angelic and tiglic acids were esterified with alcohols at
1
to
6
carbon atoms.
Some authors also examined the anti-inflammatory, antidiuretic and sedative properties
of
this
oil
(12).
Experimental
Two different Roman chamomile oils were obtained from Giardino Officinale in Casola Valsenio
(RA
-
Italy). One
oil
was distilled from chamomile plants grown in the Emilia-Romagna region
(E),
and
the other one came from the Piemonte region
(P)
in Northern Italy (whole phnt; 0.30% and
0.28%
oil
yield
respeczively). The samples were analyzed
by
GC
and GC/MS after dilution in t-butyl methyl ether
(10
mg/mL).
GC
analyses were performed hy injecting
1
pL
of
the
oil
solutions in the split mock (split ratio 1:45)
into a Carlo Erba Strumentazione gas chromatograph HRGC 5160 (Milan, Italy) equipped with a 25 m
x
0.25 mm, 0.25
pm
film thickness SE-52 capillary column (Mega
S.p.A
,
Legnano, Italy). The column
*Address for correspondence
Received: March
I997
Rwised:
,hiire
1997
1041-2905/98/00~l5-0571$04.00/0--81998
Allurcd Publishing Corp.
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572
ANTONELLl
AND
FALIBIU
Table
1.
Percentage composition
of
samples
of
Roman chamomile oil
Peak
No.
Compound
E
P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
isoarnyl acetate*
propyl methacrylate"'
isobutyl isobutyrate
a-pinene
isobutyl methacrylate
carnphene
B-pinene
propyl angelate2
butyl butyrate
isobutyl isovalerate"
isoarnyl isobutyrate*
2-rnethylbutyl isobutyrate*
limonene
1,8-cineole
isoarnyl rnethacrylate
2-rnethylbutyl rnethacrylate
isobutyl angelate
2-butenyl angelate"
butyl angelate
isobutyl tiglate3
2-rnethylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate
trans-pinocarveol"
terpinen-4-01
isoarnyl angelate
2-rnethylbutyl angelate
pinocarvone"
isobutyl3-hydroxy-2-rnethylenebutyrate*
angelyl angelaten4
2-hydroxy-2-rnethyl-3-butenyl
angelate'
hexyl angelate
unidentified Deaks
0.1
0.1
3.9
1.2
1.4
0.8
0.1
1
.I
0.8
0.1
0.4
3.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.7
38.5
8.4
0.8
0.3
0.5
3.1
0.3
5.3
20.3
4.1
0.3
1.4
0.3
0.1
2.4
0.1
0.2
5.3
1.6
2.1
0.7
0.2
1.3
0.9
0.2
0.4
3.5
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.8
36.3
7.9
0.7
0.4
0.5
4.5
0.3
4.6
18.2
4.5
0.3
0.9
0.4
0.1
3.3
~
1
=
1.8.
2-methyl-2-propenoate;
*
=
i.e.
2-methyl-(2Z)-butenoate;
=
1.e.
2-methyl-(2E)-butenoate;
'
=
i.e. 2-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methyl-
(2Z)-butenoate, tentatively identified by the
MS
library;
E
=from Emilia-Romagna region; P
=
from Piemonte region
was operated with hydrogen as carrier gas
(1
mumin) with an initial temperature
of
50°C then raised
at 4"C/min
to
70°C held for
8
min and then raised at 5'C/min
to
20OoC, holding this temperature
for
6
min, and then ballistically to 300°C. Injector was kept at 250"C, and flame ionisation detector was set
at 300°C. Chromatograms were displayed and integrated by Chrom-Card data handling (Fisons
Instruments, Milan, Italy).
For GC/MS, a QMI)
1000
(Fisons Instruments, Milan, Italy) instrument was used maintaining the same
GC condition just described and recording
mass
spectra from 33 to 350
tu/z
at 70
eV.
Chromatographic peaks were identified by retention times and mass spectrometry
of
authentic
compounds.
Angelic acid
was
prepared from tiglic acid in accordance with I3uckles and Mock
(13).
Angelic and
tiglic
esters were prepared using the following procedure. Stock solutions
of
the two acids
(100
mCr/mL)
were prepared in diethyl ether. The esters were synthesized as follows:
10
mg
of
each acid were
separately esterified with a large
excess
of
methanol, ethanol, propanol, 2-metliylpropanol, butanol,
2-methylbutanol, isoarnyl alcohol, amyl alcohol and hexanol; a small amount
of
Ilowex
50
W
8X
resin
was used as the acid catalyst. The resin was removed by filtration, and the crude reaction mixtures were
simply diluted in t-butyl methyl ether prior analyses.
The
esters isobutyl isobutyrate,
Iwtyl
methacrylate,
butyl butyrate and 2-metliyll~utyl 2-methylbutyrate were prepared in the same way.
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ROMAN
CHAMOMILE
(CHAMAEMELUM
NOBILE)
On.
55
573
100-
136
C
A
100-
m.
r/?"
T
B
179
119
Downloaded by [Univ Modena e Reggio Emilia BU] at 00:19 10 November 2014
574
ANTONELU
AND
FABBRI
Table
II.
Mass spectral data
of
tentatively identified peaks.
Peak No.
1
2
10
11
12
22
26
27
m.w.
130
128
158
158
158
152
150
172
4.
(rel.
int.)
115 [M-15]+(<1), 87(18), 70(42), 71(17),
55(50),
43(100).
101 [M-27]+(<1), 85(1), 73(13), 70(39), 55(18), 43(100).
116 [M-42]+(3), 103(22), 87(10), 85(100), 60(15), 57(73), 56(51), 41(43).
115 [M-431+(4), 89(16), 71(54), 70(73), 55(28), 43(100), 41(29).
115 [M-43]+(<1), 101(6), 89(11), 71(87), 70(79), 55(22), 43(100), 41(39).
152 [MI+(<l), 119(32), 109(27), 92(99), 91 (73), 83(55), 81(31), 70(63), 69(36), 55(84),
43(42), 41(100), 39(51).
41(78), 39(44).
45(27), 43(49),
41
(69).
150 [MI+(9), 135(26), 108(69), 107(45), 81(77), 79(37), 77(18), 69(22), 53(100), 43(19),
172 [MI+(<l), 101 (85),99(100), 98(53), 97(22), 81 (42), 83(36), 73(31), 57(99), 55(45),
angelate respectively
The
related
mass
spectra
are
reported
in
Figure
1.
Spectral data
of
peak
28
and
29
were
reported
by
Lawrence
(14)
and
other authors
(51,
respectively.
The
other
MS
spectra
of
tentatively identified
compounds
are
summarized
in
Table
11.
trans-Pinocarveol
and
pinocarvone
(15,16)
were
the most important monoterpcnes
(7-10%).
Furthermore,
small
quantities
of
a-
and
P-pinene,
camphene,
1,8-cineole
(3)
limonene
(17)
and
terpinen-4-01
(9)
were
detected.
References
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2.
3.
4.
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6.
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... Matricaria recutita commonly known as "German chamomile" (GC) and Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as Roman chamomile (RC) are the two major types of chamomile used for health conditions. They are believed to have similar effects on the body (16). Most research worked on GC but, studies on RC is limited and stronger evidence to support its use for inflammation is required. ...
... RC belongs to the family Asteraceae and is widely distributed in Asia, Europe, Africa and Northern America. RC is known as a medicinal plant since the middle age (16). However, the provided clinical and non-clinical data for RC do not fulfill the requirements of a well-established medicinal use with recognized efficacy (17,18). ...
... followed by 2-methylbutyl angelate (11.6-20.3%) (Antonelli and Fabbri, 1998;Farkas et al., 2003;Omidbaigi et al., 2003Omidbaigi et al., , 2004Bail et al., 2009), and propyl tiglate (10.8-13.1%) (Omidbaigi et al., 2003(Omidbaigi et al., , 2004 or isobutyl isobutyrate (3.3%) (Bail et al., 2009) or 2-butenyl angelate (7.9-8.4%) ...
... (Omidbaigi et al., 2003(Omidbaigi et al., , 2004 or isobutyl isobutyrate (3.3%) (Bail et al., 2009) or 2-butenyl angelate (7.9-8.4%) (Antonelli and Fabbri, 1998) or 2-methyl-2propenyl angelate (9.1%) (Farkas et al., 2003). However, several commercial samples have similar compositions to the sample analyzed by us, with methallyl angelate and 3-methyl pentyl angelate as the major components. ...
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The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on other visceral preparations, including human jejunum. This is the first report on the activity of Roman chamomile on smooth muscles that may reassure the rationale of the traditional use of this plant in spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders.
... For instance, the composition of two oil samples from C. nobile grown in Northern Italy was dominated by isobutyl angelate (38.5/6.3%) and 2-methylbutyl angelate (20.3/18.2%) (29). The same esters were the main components (21.6% and 14.4%, respectively) of an oil sample isolated from plants cultivated in Slovak republic, accompanied by 3-methylamyl angelate (8.4%) (30). ...
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Cladanthus eriolepis (C. eriolepis) (Coss. ex Maire) Oberpr. & Vog. is endemic to High Atlas (Dades Gorge and Todgha Gorge), the Anti Atlas and Saharan Morocco. It is known under the vernacular names ‘Alougjim, gtaa-eddib, laatetecha’ and ‘Lamghizal’. Two essential oil samples have been isolated from aerial parts and analyzed by combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques [gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy]. The compositions of both oil samples were dominated by hemiterpene esters such as isobutyl isobutyrate (21.2% and 20.8% respectively) and isobutyl angelate (22.0% and 22.4% respectively). Other esters present at appreciable contents were 2-methylallyl isobutyrate (5.3% and 5.5%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (5.7% and 5.8%), 2-methylallyl angelate (4.6% and 4.9%) and 2-methylbutyl angelate (7.7% and 7.2%) beside α-pinene (9.5% and 5.8%) and β-bisabolene (2.8% and 4.0%). The compositions of the investigated oil samples from C. eriolepis differed substantially with literature data and with those of other Cladanthus species growing wild in Morocco.
... Oil extracts from the root and leaves parts of Matricaria recutita L. to comprise volatile terpenoids; α-bisabolol and the azulenes, mainly chamazulene as well as derivatives of acetylene. Likewise, Chamaemelum nobile essential oils contain terpenoids including 3-epinobilin and angelates such as 3-methylamine angelate, isobutyl angelate [88]. In common, chamomile species contain the coumarins such as herniarin and umbelliferone and the flavonoids such as narigenin, luteolin-7-Oglucoside as well as phylpropanoids like chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid [85]. ...
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Insomnia and sleep apnea represent the most prevalent sleep disorders worldwide. Incidences are discouraging, with perhaps less attention in some parts, and the complexity in the pathophysiologies of the two diseases pose a major challenge to clinicians and researchers. Mainstream therapeutic regimens are afflicted by adverse side effects, laborious, demanding enormous amounts of money, and are in particular, less accessible to the vast majority. Traditional medicine remains critically the “Hobsons’s choice” and stands out as a scaffold for the development of novel drugs with more desirable pharmacological attributes. This chapter covers the pathophysiological attributes of insomnia and sleep apnea, pointing out their interplay, possible biomarkers, and targets for both conventional and alternative therapeutic approaches. The chapter further delves more into the role of selected most important plant species in the management of insomnia and sleep apnea. Realizing the importance of phytochemistry in the drug discovery endeavor, the chapter, as well, underscores the phytochemical profile underlying the neuropharmacological relevance of each plant to its possible effectiveness in improving sleep quality.
... Just as German chamomile essential oil possess blue color due to theterpenoidchamazulene. The major compounds were esters of angelic, tiglinic, isobutyric, butyric, methacrylic, acetic, crotonic, and valeric acids, as well as in less quantitychamazulene and α-bisabolol, as well as β-pinene, cine-1,8-ole, α-pinene, germacene D, α-cadinol, cedryl acetate, and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (Antonelli and Fabbri 1998;Farhoudi 2013;Góra and Lis, 2017). The main chemical constituents are isobutyl angelate and 2- methylbutyl angelate. ...
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... Just as German chamomile essential oil possess blue color due to theterpenoidchamazulene. The major compounds were esters of angelic, tiglinic, isobutyric, butyric, methacrylic, acetic, crotonic, and valeric acids, as well as in less quantitychamazulene and α-bisabolol, as well as β-pinene, cine-1,8-ole, α-pinene, germacene D, α-cadinol, cedryl acetate, and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (Antonelli and Fabbri 1998;Farhoudi 2013;Góra and Lis, 2017). The main chemical constituents are isobutyl angelate and 2- methylbutyl angelate. ...
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Cytochrom P450 jest enzymem o aktywności monooksygenazy i bierze udział w metabolizmie ksenobiotyków. Rodzinę CYP tworzy 18 rodzin i 44 podrodziny, przy czym najistotniejsze znaczenie w metabolizmie leków posiadają CYP1, CYP2 i CYP3. W zależności od stopnia szybkości metabolizowania substancji wyróżnia się 4 grupy fenotypowe: wolnych, pośrednich, szybkich i ultraszybkich metabolizerów. Izoformy CYP3A4 i CYP3A5 mają największy udział w metabolizmie leków. Istotne znaczenie posiadają również: CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2A6 i CYP2E1. Poznanie wariantów polimorficznych genów kodujących białka z rodziny CYP umożliwia dopasowanie leczenia w wielu schorzeniach. Ponadto, diagnostyka SNP-ów genów CYP może stanowić wsparcie dla geriatrii, w której problem stanowi zjawisko polipragmazji. Za cel pracy obrano podsumowanie istniejącej wiedzy na temat roli CYP w metabolizmie leków i detoksykacji tkanek, na podstawie dostępnej literatury. Poznanie roli genów kodujących białka P450 ma istotne znaczenie w rozwoju farmakogenetyki i terapii. Słowa kluczowe: CYP, polimorfizm, ksenobiotyk, metabolizm leków
... Just as German chamomile essential oil possess blue color due to theterpenoidchamazulene. The major compounds were esters of angelic, tiglinic, isobutyric, butyric, methacrylic, acetic, crotonic, and valeric acids, as well as in less quantitychamazulene and α-bisabolol, as well as β-pinene, cine-1,8-ole, α-pinene, germacene D, α-cadinol, cedryl acetate, and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (Antonelli and Fabbri 1998;Farhoudi 2013;Góra and Lis, 2017). The main chemical constituents are isobutyl angelate and 2- methylbutyl angelate. ...
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Algae are a novelty in Polish cuisine, but in Asia they have been a regular part of the dishes. They are a valuable source of many vitamins and minerals in an easily digestible form. They are also assigned to a range of prohealth activities. Chlorella, Spirulina, Kombu and Wakame have become a popular addition to many dishes. The article presents the history of algae consumption, their pro-health effects. They can be used not only in vegetarian cuisine, but also in the daily nutrition of adults and children. This is a new phenomenon and trend in the market
... The various types of chamomile and cultivars have been extensively studied, and the chemical compositions of many 'chamomile' plants have been determined (Antonelli & Fabbri, 1998;Farkas et al., 2003;Gao, He, Yue, Zou, & Zha, 2012;Guan, Wang, Shi, Bai, & Zhou, 2007;Mulinacci, Romani, Pinelli, Vincieri, & Prucher, 2000;Omidbaigi, Sefidkon, & Kazemi, 2003;Omidbaigi et al., 2004;Schilcher, Imming, & Goeters, 2005;Sparkman, 2005). The pharmacological activity of chamomile is mainly associated with the essential oil and flavonoid fractions (Barnes & Anderson, 2007;Galleano, Verstraeten, Oteiza, & Fraga, 2010;McKay & Blumberg, 2006;Mladenka, Zatloukalova, Filipsky, & Hrdina, 2010). ...
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Chamomile from the Asteraceae family has been used in a wide variety of products as an important medicinal plant. The three most common types observed in commercial products are German chamomile (M. recutita), Roman chamomile (A. nobilis) and Juhua (C. morifolium). In the present study, a GC/MS method was developed for the non-targeted compound analysis of different chamomiles. The Mass Profiler Professional (MPP) software was applied for the data processing and chemometric statistical analysis. The complex chromatographic and mass spectroscopic data were extracted for variety, aligned with retention times and filtered by different methods. In total, 30 authenticated samples (4 Roman, 18 German and 8 Juhua) were analyzed, separation of variety was observed by principle component analysis (PCA), and a predictive model was constructed based on partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification and differentiation of these three chamomile species. The PLS-DA model was trained and validated with authenticated samples and commercial dietary supplements purported to contain different chamomiles. Additionally, a total of 41 commercial samples and dietary supplements, including essential oils, teas, extracts and capsules, were evaluated and predicted by the PLS-DA model. The proposed Sample Class Prediction (SCP) method demonstrated the feasibility of using a predictive model to differentiate and classify different chamomile species in commercial samples and dietary supplements. It is concluded that conventional GC/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis may bring more appropriate results aimed as characterization and may assist the standardization and authentication of traditional medicinal plants.
Article
Valorization of botanicals for the development of natural food-grade ingredients is an important task in terms of sustainability and processing waste reduction. In this study, Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) herb was collected at six different vegetation phases in the period 26 May – 23 August 2019 and subjected to biorefining into the several valuable fractions. The yield of hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) was in the range of 0.22% (intensive vegetative growth) to 0.80% (full flowering). Angelic, isobutyric, butyric and methacrylic acid esters and some monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives were the major EO constituents: 3-methylpentyl angelate (20.11-27.56%), methallyl angelate (7.28-10.33%), isoamyl angelate (5.57-9.02%), isobutyl angelate (4.84-6.79%), 2-methylbutyl angelate (3.11-6.32%), 3-methylamyl methacrylate (5.04-6.17%), 3-methylpentyl isobutyrate (4.29-6.64%), 3-methylamyl isobutyrate (4.29-6.64%), α-pinene (1.61-6.37%) and pinocarvone (1.46-4.67%). In order to valorize water soluble and solid EO distillation residues their antioxidant potential was evaluated by several in vitro assays: water extracts were considerably stronger antioxidants than acetone extracts isolated from the solid residues. Water extracts of the plants collected at flowering phases were the strongest antioxidants; their TPC, FRAP and ORAC values were up to 143.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, 650, and 5601 μmol TE/g dry extract, respectively, while effective concentrations (EC50) of DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, were down to 0.59 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. Among 7 tentatively identified by UPLC/Q-TOF/MS phenolic constituents the intensity of molecular ion of 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid was the largest. The results obtained may assist for developing flavorings, antioxidants and health beneficial preparations from C. nobile extracts.
Article
Air-dried aerial parts of Ormenis mixta (L.) Dumort. ssp. multicaulis collected from two different regions of Morocco (Kénitra and Salé) were hydrodistilled yielding averagely 0.4 % essential oil. The oils were qualitatively similar and characterized by an important percentage of irregular monoterpenic alcohols. The major oil component of Ormenis mixt a wh ol e p l a n t s fr om Ké n i t r a was santolina alcohol (24.1 – 47.6 %) which is associated with yomogi alcohol (1.3 – 2.2 %), artemesia alcohol (1.2 – 2.4 %) with corresponding acetates, in smaller quantity. While the major oil components of Ormenis mixta whole plants from Salé were santolina alcohol (44.7 – 55.1 %), artemesia alcohol (4.1 – 5.1 %) and yomogi alcohol (1.6 – 3.0 %). In addition, the essential oils contained sesquiterpenes mainly represented by germacrene D (3.2 and 4.9 %), epi-α-Muurolol (5.5 and 5.7 %) and α-cadinol (5.4 and 5.2 %), respectively in samples from Kénitra and Salé.
Article
A simple procedure, previously set up for the quick evaluation of aromatising herbs by direct headspace gas chromatographic analysis, was checked with regard to its application as a routine method. Many samples of herbs and drugs of various kinds and of different qualities were subjected to a sensory evaluation and to headspace analysis. There are significant analytical differences between herbs of good and inferior quality in agreement with the organoleptic evaluation of the same drugs, judged by an experienced panel of tasters. Some tests were performed to determine the exact content of each substance present in the headspace of the examined herbs: preliminary results are given. A suitable internal standard was used for quantitative purposes. The proposed technique is in accordance with the requirements of the Quality Control Service.
Article
Occurrence of New Bifunctional Esters In Roman Camomile Oil (Anthemis nobilisL.) Some novel aliphatic esters of the unusual 3-hydroxy-2-methylidenebutyric acid have been found in the commercially available essential oil. Additionally, esters of (Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid of structurally similar diols or other bifunctional alcohols have also been identified. Spectral data as well as a synthetic approach to the new esters of 3-hydroxy-2-methylidenebutyric acid are given.
Article
1. Tiglic acid free of isomeric acids has been synthesized in 40-53% yields from 10 moles of 2-butanone. Angelic acid free of appreciable amounts of isomeric acids has been synthesized from tiglic acid in 33% yield by a three-step process. 2. Pure methyl and ethyl tiglate have been prepared by direct esterification of tiglic acid. Methyl angelate of confirmed identity has been prepared by a replacement reaction of angelate ion with methyl iodide.
Article
GC headspace analyses of various aromatizing herbs have been compared with those relating to the essential oils, obtained by steam distillation, of the same plants. In this way it was possible to establish the most significant differences between the composition of a herb flavor and that of its essential oil. In particular, we observed some very volatile compounds in the headspace samples which were absent from the essential oil; these components may make an important contribution to the herb flavor. The identification of these substances is still in progress.
Direct headspacegas chroniatographic aridysis zoirhglass capillarycolunzrrs i n quality control of aromatics herbs
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Aria(ysisofRoniu?i chanioniile. I'roceedings 1 lth Int'l Congress of Essent. Oils Fragrances and Flavors
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N. A. Shaath, S. Dedeian:lohnson and P. M. Griffin, Aria(ysisofRoniu?i chanioniile. I'roceedings 1 lth Int'l Congress of Essent. Oils Fragrances and Flavors. 4, 207-213, Oxford and IBH Publ. Co. 1% Ltd., New Iklhi (1989).
lJ?tsaturated coniporierits iii esseritia/ oil of Aiitbernis nobilis L. (Ronzan chanioniile)
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Klimes and 11. Lamparsky, lJ?tsaturated coniporierits iii esseritia/ oil of Aiitbernis nobilis L. (Ronzan chanioniile). Perfum. Flavor., 9(4), 1-13 (1984).