Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and FGF Receptor-Mediated Autocrine Signaling in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells

Department of Craniofacial Biology, University of Colorado at Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Molecular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.13). 11/2008; 75(1):196-207. DOI: 10.1124/mol.108.049544
Source: PubMed


Despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib exhibit limited activity in this cancer. We propose that autocrine growth signaling pathways distinct from EGFR are active in NSCLC cells. To this end, gene expression profiling revealed frequent coexpression of specific fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) in NSCLC cell lines. It is noteworthy that FGF2 and FGF9 as well as FGFR1 IIIc and/or FGFR2 IIIc mRNA and protein are frequently coexpressed in NSCLC cell lines, especially those that are insensitive to gefitinib. Specific silencing of FGF2 reduced anchorage-independent growth of two independent NSCLC cell lines that secrete FGF2 and coexpress FGFR1 IIIc and/or FGFR2 IIIc. Moreover, a TKI [(+/-)-1-(anti-3-hydroxy-cyclopentyl)-3-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-7-phenylamino-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrimido-[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2-one (RO4383596)] that targets FGFRs inhibited basal FRS2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, two measures of FGFR activity, as well as proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of NSCLC cell lines that coexpress FGF2 or FGF9 and FGFRs. By contrast, RO4383596 influenced neither signal transduction nor growth of NSCLC cell lines lacking FGF2, FGF9, FGFR1, or FGFR2 expression. Thus, FGF2, FGF9 and their respective high-affinity FGFRs comprise a growth factor autocrine loop that is active in a subset of gefitinib-insensitive NSCLC cell lines.

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Available from: Lynn Heasley, Dec 12, 2014
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    • "To uncover the underlying mechanism of biphasic FGF signaling response and to simplify the interpretation of the results, we use a representative non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H1703 that was previously shown to primarily express FGFR1c and to induce Erk1/2 phosphorylation upon stimulation with FGF2 [28]. The expression of FGFR1c was confirmed by qPCR (Materials and methods Section 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathway is driving various aspects of cellular responses in both normal and malignant cells. One interesting characteristic of this pathway is the biphasic nature of the cellular response to some FGF ligands like FGF2. Specifically, it has been shown that phenotypic behaviors controlled by FGF signaling, like migration and growth, reach maximal levels in response to intermediate concentrations, while high levels of FGF2 elicit weak responses. The mechanisms leading to the observed biphasic response remains unexplained. Results A combination of experiments and computational modeling was used to understand the mechanism behind the observed biphasic signaling responses. FGF signaling involves a tertiary surface interaction that we captured with a computational model based on Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). It accounts for FGF2 binding to FGF receptors (FGFRs) and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs), followed by receptor-phosphorylation, activation of the FRS2 adapter protein and the Ras-Raf signaling cascade. Quantitative protein assays were used to measure the dynamics of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in response to a wide range of FGF2 ligand concentrations on a fine-grained time scale for the squamous cell lung cancer cell line H1703. We developed a novel approach combining Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and feature-based constraints in the objective function to calibrate the computational model to the experimental data. The model is validated using a series of extracellular and intracellular perturbation experiments. We demonstrate that in silico model predictions are in accordance with the observed in vitro results. Conclusions Using a combined approach of computational modeling and experiments we found that competition between binding of the ligand FGF2 to HSGAG and FGF receptor leads to the biphasic response. At low to intermediate concentrations of FGF2 there are sufficient free FGF receptors available for the FGF2-HSGAG complex to enable the formation of the trimeric signaling unit. At high ligand concentrations the ligand binding sites of the receptor become saturated and the trimeric signaling unit cannot be formed. This insight into the pathway is an important consideration for the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Cell Communication and Signaling
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    • "The biological significance of FGF signaling system for human health and development is illustrated in recent observations [20]. The correct maintenance and regulation of FGF signaling is evident from human and mouse genetic studies, which showed a variety of developmental disorders including dominant skeletal diseases, infertility, and cancer if some signaling mutations lead to the disruption of FGFs [10] [21] [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are classically known as hormonal factors and recent studies have revealed that FGFs have a key role in regulating growth and development of several reproductive organs, including the testis. The testis is mainly consisted of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells to develop and maintain the male phenotype and reproduction. This review summarizes the structure and fuctions of testis, the roles of FGFs on testicular development and potential involvement in testicular tumor and its regulatory mechanism. Among 23 members of FGFs, the FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-4, FGF-8, FGF-9, and FGF-21 were involved and describe in details. Understanding the roles and mechanism of FGFs is the foundation to modeling testicular development and treatments in testicular disease. Therefore, in the last part, the potential therapy with FGFs for the testis of cancer and diabetes was also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Diabetes Research
    • "Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase which binds to fibroblast growth factor.[76] There are many isoforms which belong to a complex family of signaling molecules implicated in the growth and survival signals in normal and tumor cells,[77] angiogenesis, and inflammation[78] Signaling of FGF through FGFR is believed to be through paracrine and autocrine loops resulting in tumor blood vessel proliferation and survival as well as potential resistance mechanisms with Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR.[7679–81] Gly388ARG polymorphism is associated with a poor prognosis.[82–84] "
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases. There has been much research in lung cancer over the past decade which has advanced our ability to treat these patients with a more personalized approach. The scope of this paper is to review the literature and give a broad understanding of the current molecular targets for which we currently have therapies as well as other targets for which we may soon have therapies. Additionally, we will cover some of the issues of resistance with these targeted therapies. The molecular targets we intend to discuss are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma kinase (ALK), KRAS, C-MET/RON, PIK3CA. ROS-1, RET Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Ephrins and their receptors, BRAF, and immunotherapies/vaccines. This manuscript only summarizes the work which has been done to date and in no way is meant to be comprehensive.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Carcinogenesis
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