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The Rise and Rise of Science Festivals: An international review of organised events to celebrate science

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Abstract

Recent years have witnessed a dramatic global growth in the development of large-scale public science events. Although usually grouped together under the umbrella term ‘Science Festivals’, the events differ greatly in size and scope. This paper presents the findings from a 2008/09 international survey of Science Festivals in order to compare and contrast worldwide trends. An online survey was completed by 56 self-identified Science Festivals, supplemented by a content analysis of 94 Festival websites identified internationally. This work identifies for the first time a common international definition for events which identify themselves as ‘Science Festivals’. The findings show that Science Festivals are currently particularly common within Europe; however, their popularity is growing within other regions. There is a large diversity in the scale of Science Festivals, encompassing some small, localised events reaching a few hundred people, up to nationwide events reaching many millions. Precise audience figures are not acquired by many Festivals; however, there is evidence that over 5.6 million people are reached by Science Festivals annually, with events focused mainly on hands-on activities combined with some talks, lectures, discussions, and debates. The funding and operational modes also vary significantly, with the vast majority of Science Festivals obtaining their funding from multiple sources, including government support, sponsorship, and funding grants. A considerable number of Science Festivals conduct at least an informal evaluation, with some Festivals making their evaluations publicly available. This work demonstrates that Science Festivals are an increasingly important area of science communication worthy of further research.

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... Over the past decade, evaluators and researchers have spent significant resources developing instruments and processes to understand science festivals, the audiences who attend them, and the short-term outcomes associated with these types of events. Science festivals are defined as informal science communication events occurring over a short period of time to engage visitors with contemporary science issues and research, usually via personal interactions with scientists and engineers (Bultitude et al., 2011). In recent years, the number of science festivals across the globe has grown significantly (Bultitude et al., 2011;Canovan, 2019;Fooshee, 2019). ...
... Science festivals are defined as informal science communication events occurring over a short period of time to engage visitors with contemporary science issues and research, usually via personal interactions with scientists and engineers (Bultitude et al., 2011). In recent years, the number of science festivals across the globe has grown significantly (Bultitude et al., 2011;Canovan, 2019;Fooshee, 2019). ...
... Scholarship about science festivals is still in its infancy. Modern-day science festivals were defined in the literature in 2011 (Bultitude et al., 2011), via a review of festivals in the U.K. that demonstrated the variability in both programing and evaluation efforts of the 56 festivals surveyed at that time. Regarding evaluation, Bultitude and colleagues found that the majority of science festivals surveyed evaluated their festival in some way, and approximately half of those made their evaluation results public by sharing them through their web site or by request. ...
Article
This methodological review considers science festival evaluation and research studies that have been published in the peer-reviewed literature since 2011, when modern-day science festivals were defined formally. Since that time, the number of science festivals around the world has increased dramatically. The methods and results used to study science festivals are summarized in order to reflect on existing work within this growing sector. The existing literature base is then positioned in relation to recent recommendations for visitor studies research on informal science learning overall, to provide suggestions for expanding current practices to include new methods that have the potential to support continued learning and fill key gaps in the literature.
... During this phase of analysis, we also identified four common characteristics of science festivals: (1) an intent to increase public awareness of science, (2) an intent to encourage young children to pursue careers in STEM, (3) the use of hands-on or otherwise interactive programming, and (4) a reliance on inter-organizational collaboration. These commonalities amplify the widely employed science festival typology developed by [Bultitude, McDonald and Custead, 2011]. ...
... An a priori coding scheme guided the collection and tagging of any information contained within the descriptions which was deemed to be relevant to the analysis. A priori codes were generated from the findings of Wiehe [2014] and Bultitude, McDonald and Custead [2011] and attended to the various dimensions of science festivals, including size, duration, geographic reach, theming, and programming. When articles did not describe the science festivals in question, the descriptions were classified as missing. ...
... In employing this methodology, we utilized a combination of inductive and deductive coding techniques. Some of our initial codes were developed based on previous research related to the nature of festivals, notably: Wiehe [2014], Davies [2015] and Bultitude, McDonald and Custead [2011]. Other codes were developed as we became increasingly familiar with the data as it was presented in festival web sites, annual reports, and social media pages. ...
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The modern science festival movement has grown significantly since the Edinburgh International Science Festival launched in 1989. Hundreds of science festivals now occur annually and vary widely. This article examines how the term “science festival” is used within research and practice. We find that most research articles fail to describe the science festivals they study. A subsequent analysis of festival websites and other publicly available information confirms the wide variability of science festival formats, which suggests the need for descriptive information about science festivals in scholarly work.
... The popularity of these events started to increase in the 1990s, but the Edinburgh International Science Festival in 1989 was the first science festival with modern characteristics (Cassidy 2006). According to research conducted in 2008 and 2009, almost half of the 56 science festivals included in the survey were founded between 2006 and 2009 (Bultitude et al. 2011). During the twenty-first century, science festivals have gained an important position in public life and have evolved into a key tool for science communication and public engagement with science. ...
... Although there is not a widely accepted definition of a science festival, we employ Bultitude and colleagues' characterization (Bultitude et al. 2011) of a science festival as having the following qualities: ...
... A systematic science festival categorization has been attempted by a few research teams (such as Bultitude et al. 2011;EUSCEA 2005). This paper offers an overview of the wide science festival spectrum with six principal characteristics of those events: main objectives; venue type; organizations involved in managing and delivering the event; activities' facilitators; target audience; and science communication activities' formats. ...
... A number of universities have adopted different approaches to PE, some of which are traditional, and some that have been deemed to be innovative. The use of science and education festivals has gained global popularity in recent years [32]. Festivals can include universities organising their own festivals locally or internationally, or universities participating in a larger festival [3]. ...
... Festivals can include universities organising their own festivals locally or internationally, or universities participating in a larger festival [3]. These types of festivals have become recognised as a constructive way to communicate research, because the formats provide an inherent ability to bring HE and society together in a 'user- friendly' format that enables the wider dissemination of research to different types of communities [32,33]. ...
... There is little evidence to help understand the short-term and long-term impact of engagement for staff, students, and the communities involved [34,35]. HE festivals typically focus on one dimension of engagement, such as research dissemination [32,36], and do not provide insight into a cohesive and/or integrative framework. There is no evidence to demonstrate innovative approaches of PE championed by universities that have mobilised their teaching, research, and/or practice to a global stage with the view to deliver international outreach and impact to communities and individuals alike. ...
Article
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Public engagement is recognised as having an increasingly important role in the changing landscape of higher education in the United Kingdom (UK), and is promoted as a ‘pathway to impact’ by many higher education funding bodies. However, there is limited evidence to support the outreach and impact gained by higher education institutes that undertake international public engagement activities. Similarly, little is known about higher education staff and student’s experiences of participating in such public engagement activities. This study focusses on a Global Festival of Learning (GFoL) in delivering public engagement on an international stage through an integrated approach involving the fusion of education, research, and professional practice, and the perceived impact on staff and students. This paper proposes an adaptive model for public engagement founded on five strategic public engagement areas that can be transferred to other higher education institutes with an interest in developing their international outreach and impact.
... The popularity of these events started to increase in the 1990s, but the Edinburgh International Science Festival in 1989 was the first science festival with modern characteristics (Cassidy 2006). According to research conducted in 2008 and 2009, almost half of the 56 science festivals included in the survey were founded between 2006 and 2009 (Bultitude et al. 2011). During the twenty-first century, science festivals have gained an important position in public life and have evolved into a key tool for science communication and public engagement with science. ...
... Although there is not a widely accepted definition of a science festival, we employ Bultitude and colleagues' characterization (Bultitude et al. 2011) of a science festival as having the following qualities: ...
... A systematic science festival categorization has been attempted by a few research teams (such as Bultitude et al. 2011;EUSCEA 2005). This paper offers an overview of the wide science festival spectrum with six principal characteristics of those events: main objectives; venue type; organizations involved in managing and delivering the event; activities' facilitators; target audience; and science communication activities' formats. ...
Chapter
Science festivals have their roots in the annual conference of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which was founded in 1831 and later renamed the British Science Festival. The modern concept of a science festival, as we know it today, first emerged in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1989. The prevalence of science festivals has grown dramatically within the past decade, cementing their status as a global phenomenon. Between them, they share a few common characteristics of transiency, a high level of public engagement, a time-limited nature and a heterogeneous target group. However, they do not constitute a uniform set of events, as different kinds of science festivals have thus far been developed. This chapter aims to review the notion of science festivals and highlight their diversity and main characteristics. Special attention is paid to science festivals in Greece. Moreover, a brief overview of recent research data, as well as an overview of the limitations of existing studies in the field of science festivals’ evaluation, is presented. Subsequently, a theoretical and methodological framework for the study of science festival activities’ analysis, design and evaluation is proposed. Finally, suggestions for future research in the field of science festivals are discussed.
... Within the last few decades the number, diversity and scale of these festivals has increased dramatically, along with an increase in other forums for public debate (Cassidy, 2006). A review of science festivals by Bultitude, McDonald, and Custead (2011) demonstrated this growing phenomenon by analysing 94 science festivals from around the world. They defined 'Science Festivals' as a time-limited and recurring celebration of science (and related aspects) with the intention of Figure 1. ...
... 557). Bultitude et al. (2011) draw attention to the fact that science festivals have been criticised for an unprofessional approach to evaluation. While they maintain that there is evidence for improvement in this area, a lot of work still needs to be done. ...
... To address the issue of unprofessional evaluation of public engagement events (raised by Bultitude et al. (2011) in relation to science festivals), a rigorous approach to evaluation was taken for European Researchers' Night in Ireland using a theoretical framework devised by Rowe and Frewer (2000). Although aspects of the evaluation worked well, as demonstrated in the above discussion of acceptance and process criteria, a number of obstacles were encountered. ...
Article
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European Researchers’ Night is an annual celebration of research and its role in European society. It was first held in 2005 and now takes place in up to 300 locations across Europe with the aim of bringing researchers closer to the general public. European Researchers’ Night has benefited from more than €40 million in funding from the European Commission over the last decade. With the prospect of further funding being made available in the coming years it is important to determine if that investment is justified. In Ireland, European Researchers’ Night is the only event of its kind that collectively opens the doors of laboratories and research centres so that the public and media can spend an evening engaging with researchers and their work. In this paper we describe our evaluation of European Researchers’ Night in Ireland. The evaluation reveals the perceptions of European research among different publics and the strengths and weaknesses of European Researchers’ Night as a public engagement event.
... Science festivals as a setting to engage the public through VR Science festivals are informal learning spaces where science education, science communication, and public outreach come together in an authentic and direct way. The recent years have seen a global growth in the development of public science events leading to an increased interest to compare different kinds of events and identify common themes (Bultitude et al., 2011;Canovan, 2019;Jensen & Buckley, 2014). Because of their socially active and transitory nature, science festivals provide unique settings to gain insights into the successes (and failures) of engaging the public through VR-technology. ...
... Second, science festivals are transitory because they involve the coming together of people, furnishings, technology, emotions, etc. (Davies, 2019). This transitory nature provides rich possibilities to create emotional connections with complex and abstract scientific concepts (Grimberg et al., 2019) and leads to different interactions than one finds in other informal learning spaces (Bultitude et al., 2011;Davies, 2019;van Beynen & Burress, 2018). Activities at science festivals are characterised by short-term interactions that often arise spontaneously in collaborative settings. ...
... Our study, thus, presents empirical evidence that the unique affordances, capabilities, and features of VR-environments can be successfully used in the EPO context. Moreover, our findings contribute to a growing body of research that places science festivals as an important informal learning space onto a sound theoretical and empirical footing (Bultitude et al., 2011;Canovan, 2019;Grimberg et al., 2019;van Beynen & Burress, 2018). We anticipate future research that will further unpack the complex engagement processes that occur in VR-environments in informal learning spaces and public outreach events. ...
Article
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Virtual reality applications turn abstract concepts into experienceable phenomena and present exciting opportunities to transform science education and public outreach practices. While research has started to look into the affordances of virtual reality (VR) in the formal science education context, the potential of these technologies to enhance public engagement with science is largely unexplored. To improve the way that VR may be used in informal learning and public outreach contexts, the purpose of our study was to undertake evidence-based investigations that shed light onto the relationship between VR and public engagement. Aiming to identify and develop the benefits of VR technologies, we propose a conceptual framework for engagement with VR at a science festival that comprises four aspects of participant activity: immersion, facilitation, collaboration, and visualisation. This framework guided the research design of our exploratory case study of one VR tour at a science festival. Data included visitor surveys, video recordings, VR screen captures, and focus group interviews with outreach and science professionals. Our findings reveal important ways that VR supports visitor engagement at a science festival. More generally, these findings and our framework contribute to the ongoing efforts of engaging the public with science in more diverse informal learning contexts. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Science festivities are events held at a particular time of the year, usually focusing on a specific theme, whose primary focus is science, technology, engineering, and related fields, and aim to engage non-specialists in scientific content [10]. Science festivals allow the public to meet scientists on various science and health issues. ...
... Science festivals which gain more importance every day in America and Europe, are also among the scientifically significant organizations in our country [10]. The festivals that include activities where participants are active are more effective, but these organizations have a very high budget. ...
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Science festivals are organizations that aim to raise public awareness on various scientific issues and popularize science. Science Festivals' effects on participants have vital importance. Accordingly, the impact of a science festival supported by the TÜBİTAK 4007 Science Festivals Support program on students' scientific attitudes is discussed. The working group consists of middle and high school students participating in four activities. The data collection tool was the scientific attitude scale. Total attitude scores were compared according to total scientific attitude scores, gender, class level, and whether the participants followed popular science publications and participated in a science camp or scientific research project competition. Results showed a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores except for the grade level. Besides, students who did not read popular science books, watched experimental videos, or participated in scientific activities such as a science camp/research project competition experienced a more significant change in their attitude scores. The effects of the activities in the science festivals be organized after that can be determined with mixed-method research. Also, addressing the changes in the curiosity levels of the participants, and examining the long-term effects of the festivals can be effective in increasing these organizations' quality. * Özlem KARAKOÇ TOPAL, karakoc@balikesir.edu.tr, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8290-54257 Hayret BAŞARAN, hayretbasaran@hotmail.com, https://orcid.org/ 0000-0003-0855-8650 BAŞARAN H., KARAKOÇ TOPAL Ö. 646 Bilim şenliğine katılan öğrencilerin bilimsel tutumlarındaki değişimin değerlendirilmesi Öz Bilim Şenlikleri çeşitli bilimsel konularda toplumun farkındalığını arttıran ve bilimi popüler hale getirmeyi amaçlayan organizasyonlardır. Bilim şenliklerinin katılımcılar üzerindeki etkilerini incelemek oldukça önemlidir. Bu nedenle TÜBİTAK 4007 Bilim şenliği destekleme programı tarafından desteklenen bir bilim şenliğinin öğrencilerin bilimsel tutumları üzerindeki etkisi incelenmiştir. Proje süresince dört etkinliğe katılan ortaokul ve lise öğrencileri çalışma grubunu oluşturmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak bilimsel tutum ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Toplam tutum puanları farklı değişkenler ile katılımcıların popüler bilim yayınlarını takip edip etmedikleri, deney videosu izleyip izlemedikleri ve bir bilim kampı ya da bilimsel araştırma projesine katılıp katılmadıklarına göre değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular sınıf düzeyi haricindeki tüm değişkenlerde öntest ve sontest puanları arasında anlamlı bir fark olduğunu göstermektedir. Bunun yanında popüler bilim kitabı okumayan, deneysel videolar izlemeyen ya da bilim kampı/bilimsel araştırma projesi yarışması gibi bilimsel aktivitelere katılmayan öğrencilerin tutum puanlarında daha büyük değişimler meydana gelmiştir. Bundan sonra düzenlenecek olan bilim şenliklerindeki etkinliklerin etkileri karma yöntem araştırmaları kullanılarak araştırılabilir. Ayrıca katılımcıların merak düzeylerindeki değişimin incelenmesi ve şenliklerin uzun vadeli sonuçlarının araştırılması bu organizasyonların kalitelerinin arttırılmasında etkili olabilir. Anahtar kelimeler: Bilim şenlikleri, TÜBİTAK 4007, bilimsel tutum, popüler bilim kitapları, bilim kampları, bilimsel araştırma projesi yarışmaları.
... Science festivals offer an example of non-formal science communication events, attracting a wide range of publics, with different ethnicity, educational levels, and interests (Wharton & Rutherford, 2011). Science festivals offer a unique opportunity for the attendees to engage with scientists and experience STEM disciplines' application in the real world (Bultitude et al., 2011). Science festivals have been also shown to enhance parents' positive attitudes towards STEM disciplines and STEM careers (Canovan, 2019a). ...
... The main engagement methods that can be found in science festivals are scientific lectures, hands-on activities, exhibits, debates and dialogues, science shows and demonstrations (Bultitude et al., 2011). With the spread of online teaching, other engagement methods have emerged. ...
... Science festivals have proliferated over the past two decades, due partly to evolving grant criteria that often requires researchers to show evidence of broad dissemination and impact as part of a research project (National Science Foundation, 2018). Science festivals have the purpose of increasing public engagement with science and technology via a two-way communication model, rather than the one-way communication model found in more traditional public science events such as formal lectures (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011). Science festivals often include large-scale, outdoor public expos featuring "street presentations"-exhibit booths designed to engage visitors with hands-on, sciencerelated activities facilitated by science professionals (Jensen & Buckley, 2014, p. 560). ...
... Science festivals often include large-scale, outdoor public expos featuring "street presentations"-exhibit booths designed to engage visitors with hands-on, sciencerelated activities facilitated by science professionals (Jensen & Buckley, 2014, p. 560). Although science festival exhibits share some common elements with museum exhibits, festival exhibits are often facilitated by a science professional (rather than self-guided or docent-led tours); other differences include a short-term event duration and varied locations (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011;Goodman Research Group, 2013;Jensen & Buckley, 2014). ...
Article
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Visitors to public science festivals have a tremendous amount of free choice to decide how to navigate through the festival, as well as when, where, and how long to stop at an exhibit. This study examines how elementary-aged children individually or collaboratively engaged with festival exhibits at a public science festival in St. Petersburg, Florida. Although many exhibit activities are designed to appeal to children, no research has been done with regard to child engagement with one-day, outdoor science festivals, such as this one. Engagement can be measured by unobtrusive observation of the behavior and interactions of children. Factors that influenced child engagement in a free-choice learning environment included attention capacity and goals (e.g. engage with exhibits, explore the ambient environment, eat lunch), the ability to interact with peers and adults during their engagement, and the ability to make choices about engaging in collaborative activities or independent free play.
... on a local level, in the local language, and without any connection to other evaluations being done elsewhere [2]. ...
... Places such as shopping malls, train stations, parks and city squares all constitute environments with broader audiences than those normally visiting science centres, museums or universities. 2 The importance of the physical location has been emphasised, not least by Ray Oldenburg who coined the expression "third places" (not at home, not at work) as important locations for community connections and grassroots democracy [9]. ...
Article
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Public understanding of science has been replaced by engagement and participation, and science events, like festivals and science days, have become significant actors by offering direct contacts between scientists, public and policy-makers, as opportunities to engage and participate. After more than 20 years of festivals and events, the need for impact evidence is strong, although it is acknowledged that it will have to be based on complex data and observations. Many science events look for collaboration within the cultural sector. Social inclusion and participation in local and regional development are other important issues for the science events community.
... The area of public involvement in science is also broad, but we can distinguish its three forms: (i) informal discussions with scientists, (ii) decision-making about funding of science, and (iii) participation in citizen science projects. First, informal discussions include science festivals (Bultitude et al. 2011) and science cafés (Dijkstra 2017). Second, events concerning science financing can be divided into standard funding policy decisions (Rowe et al. 2010), participatory budgeting (Medvecky and Macknight 2017), and civic crowdfunding. ...
... For instance, despite the recent efforts of the European Commission (2009), the diffusion of public engagement activities is not widely present across the European Union, as these activities face many barriers (Gemen et al. 2015;Neresini and Bucchi 2011) 'linked both to participation fatigue, and structural and organisational hurdles to implement a legitimate participatory design in policy making' (Gemen et al. 2015, p. 63). Furthermore, it should be noted that the tendency for being engaged depends on the family background, education, socio-economic position, age, gender, and ethnicity (Bultitude et al. 2011;Jensen and Buckley 2014;von Roten and Moeschler 2007). Therefore, the potential to develop public engagement with science varies across countries, since these factors also differ on the country level. ...
Article
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Nowadays, the prevailing trend in the science-society relationship is to engage with the broader public, which is beneficial for the public, scientific institutes, scientific findings, and the legitimacy of science as a whole. This article provides a broad review of the rapidly growing research on Open Science and identifies the gaps in the current knowledge for future research. The review focuses on the science-society relationship, such that knowledge from this field is summarised and systematised. Insight into the most salient topics, including science communication, public engagement with science, public cognition of science, and challenges and potential unintended consequences connected to interactions with the public are examined. The first section of the paper focuses on science communication which involves efforts and approaches to inform the public about science by the most effective means. The section on public engagement reviews how scientists and scientific institutions are increasingly involved in direct interactions with the public and different groups of stakeholders to make science more open. The section focusing on public cognition of science provides information about public knowledge, perception, and trust regarding science, which both determines and is formed by public engagement. Last, risks, ethical issues, and data issues connected to the implementation of Open Science principles are reviewed, as there are many unintended consequences of Open Science which are examined by this current research. In conclusion, research covering the science-society relationship is rapidly growing. However, it brings multiple challenges as well as opportunities which are captured and discussed in a variety of existing studies. This article provides a coherent overview of this field in order to bring more comprehensible knowledge to scientists, scientific institutions, and outreach professionals.
... There are some differences between science festivals, science Olympiads and science fairs. Science festivals are increasingly becoming a global phenomenon, including some small, localised events reaching small groups, up to nationwide events reaching many millions (Bultitude et al., 2011). Science festivals are organizations that include fairs, exhibitions, science shows and demonstrations, stage shows, street presentations, workshops, outdoor activities, interviews, etc., to reflect the integrity between science and technology, enabling scientific information to be widely distributed. ...
... When the literature was searched, studies related to science festivals and science fairs were encountered (Grote, 1995;Bunderson and Anderson, 1996;Abernathy and Vineyard 2001;Kankelborg, 2005;Rennie, 2007;Yayla and Uzun, 2008;Bultitude, McDonald and Custead, 2011;Durant, 2013;Mernoff et al, 2017). Extracurricular science activities are encouraged by many researchers. ...
... Alongside the growing demand for scientists to find ways to engage with public audiences, science festivals have become increasingly popular as showcases and meeting places for science in the public eye, and these events have grown rapidly in number, size and scope in many countries (Bultitude et al., 2011;Durant, 2013;Wiehe, 2018). ...
... Science festivals are a thriving global phenomenon, with an estimated global participation topping 5.6 million people annually (Bultitude et al., 2011). They are typically organised as time-limited events that provide a concentrated and focused burst of activities, thereby providing a space for direct interaction between scientists and various publics at a level that would be unsustainable on a year-round basis (Jensen & Buckley, 2014). ...
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Scientists are key actors in public engagement activities, such as science festivals. This study sought to explore factors that encouraged and/or deterred scientists’ participation in Scifest Africa, the flagship science festival in South Africa. A self-administered, online survey was completed by 40 scientists who participated in this science festival in 2019. The survey was comprised of a mix of closed- and open-ended questions, and responses were processed statistically and thematically. The results showed that objectives of informing, exciting and inspiring the public were key motivators, while time constraints and concerns over the efficacy of engagement were prominent deterrents. Factors linked to the legacy of apartheid in South Africa and current societal challenges, inspired a strong moral obligation amongst most scientists to give something back to society through inclusive platforms such as the Scifest. In particular, for black African and/or female scientists, being role models was a key motivating factor. Our findings illustrate the importance of context-specific factors concerning motivators for public engagement. Understanding why scientists participate in public engagement events, is crucial for festival organisers, who rely on scientists as volunteers. These insights could also help to advance public engagement with science, which features prominently in government policy frameworks.
... These festivals have been the subject of various academic investigations that have often emphasized the emergence of these formats, the range of on-the-ground practices, and the wide applicability of the festival format (see, for example, Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011). This research also regularly underscores the learning, attitudinal shifts, and behavioral engagement possible in science festivals (Lloyd, Neilson, King, & Dyball, 2012;OST, 2004). ...
... Organization and sponsorship can come from a variety of organizations, including science museums and centers, universities, charities, research councils, businesses and government (Buckley & Hordijenko, 2011;EUSCEA, 2005). These festivals are also believed to have economic, tourism, and profile-raising benefits for organizations involved (Bultitude et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Scientific institutions are increasingly embracing values of inclusivity and public engagement, but how do these two dimensions intersect? Science festivals have rapidly expanded in recent years as an outgrowth of these values, aiming to engage and educate the public about scientific topics and research. While resources invested in public engagement by scientists, universities, and governments are admirable in principle; this study indicates that their ambition to broaden the reach of science may be going unrealized in practice. Using data from three major UK science festivals, we demonstrate such events are disproportionately reaching economically privileged and educated audiences already invested in science, as opposed to diverse and broadly representative samples of the general public. Our results demonstrate that these science festivals are falling short of their aims to make science accessible to a broad audience. There is a clear need for improved practices and on-going evaluation to ensure science festivals include those who are not already scientifically converted.
... The favored kind of activity depends on local culture; in the UK it often involves visiting a nature reserve, museum, or science center ( Castell et al., 2014), whereas in Australia people are more likely to have attended a talk or lecture ( Searle, 2014). Although attending science festivals remains a relatively niche activity, nevertheless, Bultitude et al. (2011) noted a marked acceleration in the growth of science festivals in the early 2000s. The scope of science festivals varies hugely, from week-long festivals that cover a city and draw on a multiplicity of performance modes, to small-scale, 1-or 2-day events ( Wiehe, 2014) to the inclusion of science-themed activities in arts and cultural festivals ( Venugopal and Featherstone, 2014;Sardo and Grand, 2016). ...
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Around the world, increasing numbers of people are attending informal science events, often ones that are part of multi-event festivals that cross cultural boundaries. For the researchers who take part, and the organizers, evaluating the events’ success, value, and effectiveness is hugely important. However, the use of traditional evaluation methods such as paper surveys and formal structured interviews poses problems in informal, dynamic contexts. In this article, we draw on our experience of evaluating events that literally took place in a field, and discuss evaluation methods we have found to be simple yet useful in such situations.
... Ailelerin, öğrenci gruplarının, gençlerin, yetişkinlerin, toplumun her kademesinden insanların ziyaretine açık olan, bilim merkezleri, müzeler, akvaryumlar, planetaryumlarda (gökevleri) yapılan okul dışı bilimsel etkinlikler, alan gezileri, teknik geziler, bilim kampları okul dışı bilim öğretiminin gerçekleştirilmesinde yararlanılan ortamlardır (Ertaş, Şen & Parmaksızoğlu, 2011). Bilim şenlikleri adı altında yapılan ve bilimi toplumla buluşturmayı amaçlayan etkinlikler son yıllarda oldukça popüler hale gelmiştir (Bultitude, McDonald & Custead, 2011). TÜBİTAK bilimsel bilginin toplum ile buluşması ve yaygınlaşması amacıyla 4004-Doğa Eğitimi ve Bilim Okulları ve 4007-Bilim Şenlikleri projelerine destek sağlamaktadır. ...
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Araştırmanın amacı, Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilen TÜBİTAK Bilim Fuarlarına ziyaretçi olarak katılan kişilerin bilim fuarlarına yönelik görüşlerini ve bilim fuarlarının fizik dersine yönelik öğrenci tutumlarına etkisine ilişkin görüşlerinin incelenmesidir. Ziyaretçi görüşlerini belirlemek için Likert tipi bir ölçek hazırlanmıştır. Veriler 2017 yılında Ankara’da yapılan TÜBİTAK bilim fuarını ziyaret eden kişilerden, tarama yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Ölçekte toplam 10 madde bulunmaktadır. Ölçeğin “Bilim Fuarlarına İlişkin Görüşler” ve “Bilim Fuarlarının Fizik Dersine Yönelik Öğrenci Tutumlarına Etkisine İlişkin Görüşler” adında iki adet faktörden oluştuğu belirlenmiştir. Ölçeğin birinci faktöründen elde edilen verilerin güvenilirlik katsayısı 0,64, ikinci faktöründen elde edilen verilerin ise güvenilirlik katsayısı 0,78 olarak bulunmuştur. Ölçek, bilim fuarlarını ziyaret eden toplam 203 kişiye bilim fuarını ziyaretleri sırasında uygulanmıştır. Örneklemi oluşturan bireylerin 70’i kadın, 133’ü erkektir ve ağırlıklı olarak 15-20 yaş aralığında yer almaktadırlar. Araştırmanın sonuçları, bilim fuarına gelen ziyaretçilerin bilim fuarlarına yönelik yüksek derecede olumlu görüşlere sahip olduklarını göstermektedir. Ayrıca ziyaretçiler bu tür fuarların öğrencilerin fizik dersine yönelik tutumlarına yüksek derecede olumlu katkı yapacağını düşünmektedirler. Bu görüşlerin cinsiyetten ve eğitim düzeyinden bağımsız olduğu yapılan bağımsız örneklem t testi ile belirlenmiştir. Bilim fuarlarının fizik dersine olan tutumun etkisine ilişkin görüşler ile yaş grupları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu yapılan korelasyon analizi ile belirlenmiştir.
... Ayrıca, bilim şenliği uygulamalarının öğretmenler, öğretmen adayları ve öğrenciler için olası faydaları göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, bilim şenliğinin öğretmen ve öğrencilerin sırasıyla fen öğretimine ve fene yönelik tutumlarına etkilerinin incelendiği çalışmaların artırılması gerektiği düşünülmektedir. Bilim şenliği uygulamaları Avrupa ülkelerinde yaygın uygulamalardandır ve diğer ülkelerde de uygulamaları gittikçe artmaktadır (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011). Ülkemizde bu tür uygulamalar artış gösterse de bilim şenliklerinin öğretmen adayları ve öğrencilerin tutumlarına yönelik olası etkilerine dair daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğu düşünülmektedir. ...
... Die Zunahme von Wissenschaftsmuseen, Science Festivals (vgl . Bultitude et al. 2011), Wissenschaftsmagazinen (vgl. Born 2015), Science Cafés (vgl. ...
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Dieser Beitrag verhandelt Herausforderungen gegenwärtiger Öffentlicher Wissenschaft. Zentral ist dabei die Frage, wie gegenwärtige öffentlich auftretende WissenschaftlerInnen in ihrer Praxis Forschungswissen darstellen, problematisieren und vermitteln. Vor allem die Herausforderungen, die sich für Gesellschaftswissenschaften in neuen informellen Kommunikationszusammenhängen ergeben, sollen am Beispiel der Soziologie diskutiert werden. Ziel ist es herauszuarbeiten, welche Aufgaben eine Öffentliche Wissenschaft im Science Slam derzeit bewältigen muss. Die „Versinnbildlichung der Wissenschaft“ soll dabei die kommunikativen Erfordernisse unserer Zeit mit einem Begriff beschreiben und als eine Möglichkeit einer neuen Verkörperung von Wissenschaft verstanden werden.
... In the mid-2000s, a handful of American science festivals were in existence; today 56 festivals are members of the Science Festival Alliance, a U.S.-based organization dedicated to "fostering mutually beneficial relationships and exchanges among festival professionals" (https://sciencefestivals.org/about/membership/), and additional festivals are launched each year. While each festival is a unique reflection of its home community, science festivals share some common characteristics (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011): (a) They celebrate science, technology, engineering, and related areas; (b) they engage the public with scientific content; (c) they are time-limited events that recur annually or biennially; and (d) they use a common theme or branding to unify their various activities. Beyond these characteristics, the particulars can differ significantly, with budgets varying by a factor of 1,000, geographic goals ranging from a neighborhood to a city to a state, length varying from 1 day to 1 month, and staffing ranging from entirely volunteer to several full-time paid staff (Wiehe, 2014). ...
Article
This commentary explores the kinds of audiences who attend science festivals in the United States by examining data from nearly 10,000 attendees from 24 festivals. Findings are presented to describe festival audiences overall and in comparison to national census and polling data. Results are similar to those for other public science events, with the majority of attendees being well-educated and middle-class. Even so, approximately two thirds of festival-goers are new each year. The findings are discussed in relation to evidence that begins to establish a typology of public science event attendees, and the need to reach “new” versus “different” audiences.
... Films should become more widely accepted as legitimate contributions to scientific journals (e.g., Journal of Visualized Experiments; Assadi & Gasparyan, 2015). Scientists-as-filmmakers will surely benefit from the organization of science film festivals in which they can screen their films and discuss their results with their peers and other scientists-as-filmmakers (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011;Hoffman, 2008). The boom in science films and filmmaking courses encouraged me to set up and direct a major science film festival (Global Science Film Festival) as a platform for this new generation of scientists-as-filmmakers emerging in Switzerland and for the screening of their films and promoting discussions with professional filmmakers and the public. ...
Article
Film is one of the most powerful tools for communicating science to peers and the general public. Recently, there has been a boom in demand for science films. To satisfy the demand for science films, universities and scientific institutes are now increasingly teaching their scientists and students how to produce their own films via accredited science filmmaking courses, which now form part of science communication programs. These courses are producing what I define as a new generation of scientists-as-filmmakers—that is, scientists who integrate filmmaking into their academic preparation, albeit in a nonprofessional way. The aim of this article is (1) to describe the boom of this new generation of scientists-as-filmmakers and (2) to use common traits and conventions to classify and analyze the science filmmaking courses offered by Swiss universities and research institutes. This study could help promote a new generation of scientists-as-filmmakers and stimulate other countries to design specific programs for training scientists in science filmmaking.
... Even though festivals occur in various locations and have different foci, they share four main characteristics in that they all (1) foster awareness of science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) (2) connect non-specialists with experts in scientific content, (3) reoccur (annually, biannually, quarterly, etc.), and (4) design exhibits and activities around a theme (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011). Additionally, Burns, O'Connor, and Stocklmayer (2003) reported that science communication (e.g., science festivals) should follow the "vowel analogy-AEIOU" which includes Awareness, Enjoyment, Interest, Opinions and Understanding of science and "personalizes the impersonal aims of scientific awareness, understanding, literacy and culture" (p. ...
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Despite the growing popularity and frequency of science festivals in the United States (US), the body of science festival research is limited. Using the lens of experiential learning theory, we examined the lasting impacts of science festivals on individual family members’ perspectives of the experience, and the similarities and differences in parent and children perspectives. The participants were 175 visitors and five families (7 children, 6 adults), who attended a science-themed festival. On the day of the event, 175 participants completed a questionnaire. Three months later individual family members participated in a drawing, drawing description, and interview. The results indicate that children described themselves as active participants, while parents portrayed themselves as onlookers. Families attended the event as a unit, but the experiences individuals described were dissimilar. The findings have implications for researchers and practitioners who design science festival programs. A discussion of seven characteristics of successful activities are included.
... Science festivals are big organizations including exhibitions, fairs, stage shows, demonstrations and science shows, street presentations, outdoor activities, interviews, workshops, etc. (Durant, 2013). Science festivals can be organized locally in small groups or in the form of large organizations across the country (Bultitude, McDonald & Custead, 2011). Science fairs, are mostly smaller events than science festivals, where the students present their studies with their teachers, friends, parents, scientists and other people in the society. ...
... This is not a new phenomenon and harks back to Arnstein's model of citizen participation, which imagined citizen participation as a ladder with its bottom rungs representing nonparticipation and the higher rungs affording increasing levels of control to citizens (Arnstein 1969). The need to strive towards more participatory models of communication is becoming a wider goal of public engagement events (Bultitude, McDonald, and Custead 2011). This is especially important in times of global political turmoil . ...
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European Researchers’ Night is an annual pan-European initiative of the European Commission held on the last Friday in September. In 2015, 1.1 million European citizens and 18,000 researchers took part in events organised in more than 300 cities within Europe and neighbouring countries. The objective of European Researchers’ Night is to encourage the wider public to visit research institutes, engage with researchers, and learn more about European research and potential career opportunities. In this paper, European Researchers’ Night in Ireland is considered through the lens of informal education. The types of learning taking place at European Researchers’ Night events are explored, and recommendations are made on how learning might be better assessed at future events.
... Much of what is known about live science events has been captured in literature describing science festivals, and to some degree can be seen as reflective of the wider live public science events sector [Bultitude, McDonald and Custead, 2011;Fogg-Rogers et al., 2015]. Festival events have been described in the event management literature as time-bound, themed public celebrations [Getz, 2010], and are well researched for their abilities to increase local and regional tourism through focused marketing [Daniel, Bogdan and Daniel, 2012;Getz, 2008;Kim et al., 2010]. ...
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Live science events engage publics with science in a social context. This article articulates the aims and ethos of this growing sector within a research context. Semi-structured interviews (N=13) and focus groups (N=77) were conducted with event practitioners (both professional and volunteers) in the U.S.A. and U.K.. Inductive thematic analysis indicated that event producers aim to raise awareness of and professionalism in the sector. In particular, they seek to develop research into long-term impacts of events for both audiences and practitioners.
... In recent years there has been a rapid growth in the science festival sector, both in the UK and internationally (Bultitude, McDonald, & Custead, 2011). As well as welcoming the general public, many festivals have specific provision for school parties to visit. ...
Article
Science festivals are a rapidly-growing phenomenon worldwide, and many such events host trips by school parties. However, what type of learning takes place on these visits, and how effective it is, is an area that merits more academic study. This paper investigates these questions from the perspective of three groups – teachers, pupils and festival organisers – and asks how well the attitudes and priorities of these categories are aligned. We find that teachers and organisers share the primary aim of affective learning (excitement, inspiration) and that this is experienced by almost all pupils. A secondary aim of cognitive (factual) learning is reported by just under half of pupils. However a third aim of careers learning which was expressed by festival organisers and some teachers was not reported by pupil participants. In addition, we found that the groups could work more effectively together to promote educational aims by measures such as reducing the novelty of the event situation and making educational agendas for the visit clearer. Finally, to address the areas of misalignment pinpointed in this study, we give a series of recommendations to optimise learning at such events.
... Each year, science events such as eclipse viewings, wildlife watches, meteor showers, and space launch or astronomy-themed activities reach millions of people around the world (Bultitude et al., 2011). Museums, parks, libraries, and community groups offer face-to-face and virtual events, lectures, programs, and other activities that coincide with important science or engineering related phenomena. ...
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Opportunities to engage with science exist in a variety of non-formal educational contexts, but rarely have studies examined ways to leverage science interest and learning at community science events and other single-attendance occasions. This study builds on Yeager and Walton’s (2011). concept of brief, wise interventions by using open-ended prompts to explore attendees’ engagement during a solar eclipse viewing event. Written responses from 79 adults revealed multiple motivations for attendance. Further, these responses illustrated that attendees expanded their literal and metaphorical meaning making about the eclipse. We explore the utility of brief intervention prompts in the context of existing theories of informal science engagement and discuss implications for supporting and understanding visitors’ motivation and engagement at public science events.
... While science festivals have existed in some form since at least 1831 [4], they have dramatically increased in number and size in recent decades [5]. Such festivals are seen as celebrating scientific content and ideas to engage public audiences [6]. Studies that have explored why people attend science festivals have found visitors value direct interactions with researchers [7]. ...
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Taking place annually in more than 400 cities, European Researchers’ Night is a pan- European synchronized event that aims to bring researchers closer to the public. In this paper audience profiles are compared from events in 2019 and 2020. In 2019, face-to-face events reached an estimated 1.6 million attendees, while in 2020, events shifted online due to the COVID-19 pandemic and reached an estimated 2.3 million attendees. Focusing on social inclusion metrics, survey data is analyzed across two national contexts (Ireland and Malta) in 2019 (n = 656) and 2020 (n = 506). The results from this exploratory, descriptive study shed light on how moving public engagement with research online shifted audience profiles. Based on prior research about the digital divide in access and use of online media, hypotheses were proposed that online European Researchers’ Night events would attract audiences with higher educational attainment levels and greater self-reported, subjective economic well-being. While changes were observed from 2019 to 2020, results for each hypothesis show a mixed picture. The first hypothesis was upheld for the highest education levels but failed for the lowest levels suggesting that the pivot to online events simultaneously attracted participants with no formal education and those with postgraduate qualifications, while attracting less of those with undergraduate or lower levels of education. The second hypothesis was not upheld, with online European Researchers’ Night events attracting audiences with slightly higher levels of economic well-being compared to face-to-face events. The findings of this study indicate that European Researchers’ Night events present a clear opportunity to measure the effects of the digital divide in relation to public engagement with research across Europe.
... In the early 2000s, there were a handful of American science festivals; today more than 50 festivals celebrate STEM annually. While each festival is a unique reflection of its home institution and community, science festivals share some common characteristics and goals (Bultitude et al., 2011): (a) they celebrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); (b) they engage the public with STEM content; (c) they are time-limited events that recur annually or biennially; and (d) they use a common theme or branding to unify their various activities. Beyond these commonalities, science festivals can differ significantly, with budgets varying by a factor of 1,000, geographic reach ranging from a neighborhood to a city to a state, length varying from one day to one month, and staffing ranging from entirely volunteer to several fulltime paid staff (Wiehe, 2014). ...
... The last few decades has seen a dramatic increase in the number of science festivals, as well as their diversity and scale [3]. Bultitude et al. [4] analyzed 94 science festivals from around the world to clarify commonalities. Bultitude et al. define science festivals as celebrations (time-limited and recurring) of scientific ideas and content with the intention of engaging non-specialists. ...
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European Researchers' Night is an annual pan-European synchronized event devoted to public engagement with research. It was first held in 2005 and now occurs in over 400 cities across Europe, with the aim of bringing researchers closer to the general public. To investigate social inclusion in these events, we conducted survey research across three national contexts (Ireland, Malta and the UK) and events in seven cities between 2016 and 2019 (n = 1590). The results from this exploratory descriptive study confirmed one hypothesis, namely that event attendees had substantially higher levels of university qualification than the national publics. This is in line with wider patterns of unequal participation in public engagement with research activities based on socioeconomic status. However, we also found mixed evidence on the prevalence of ethnic minority representation among event attendees compared to the general population, thus failing to uphold the second hypothesis that predicted an over-representation of white majority participants. This second finding diverges from existing research findings about ethnic diversity amongst science communication audiences , raising the possibility that some public engagement events are over-performing on this dimension of social inclusion. Overall, the findings demonstrate that European Researchers' Night has potential for addressing the critical goal of enhancing the diversity of audiences for public engagement with research, even as it falls short on the key metric of socioeconomic diversity.
... These dynamics hold true in Europe as elsewhere. Indeed, since the 1980s there has been a steady development in European science communication as a field of practice [Bultitude, McDonald and Custead, 2011;Claessens, 2012], an educational programme [Mulder, Longnecker and Davis, 2008;Trench and Miller, 2012;Trench, 2012;Trench, 2017], and a multidisciplinary area of scholarship [Anichini and de Cheveigné, 2012;Gascoigne, Cheng et al., 2010;Guenther and Joubert, 2017;Smallman, 2016]. While national contexts remain highly specific, with these developments being articulated in quite different ways, an opening up of practices towards dialogue, engagement, and participation has been generally visible across the continent. ...
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European science communication project QUEST surveyed and reviewed different aspects of European science communication, including science journalism, teaching and training in science communication, social media activity, and science in museums. This article draws together themes that collectively emerge from this research to present an overview of key issues in science communication across Europe. We discuss four central dynamics — fragmentation within research and practice; a landscape in transition; the importance of format and context; and the dominance of critical and dialogic approaches as best practice — and illustrate these with empirical material from across our datasets. In closing we reflect upon the implications of this summary of European science communication.
... Ένα τέτοιο μη τυπικό περιβάλλον μάθησης είναι και τα Φεστιβάλ Φυσικών Επιστημών. Σύμφωνα με τους Bultitude, McDonald & Custead (2011) το ΦΦΕ είναι ένας τύπος επικοινωνιακής εκδήλωσης που χαρακτηρίζεται από εφήμερο και τοπικό χαρακτήρα, προσφέροντας σημαντικές ευκαιρίες εμπλοκής των δημόσιων ακροατηρίων στην επιστήμη και στην τεχνολογία. Πρόκειται για μια σχολική δραστηριότητα που εντάσσεται στις μορφές μη τυπικής μάθησης και είναι παγκόσµια γνωστή, κυρίως, για τη δηµιουργία κινήτρων και θετικών στάσεων των µαθητών απέναντι στις ΦΕ (Levin & Levin, 1991). ...
Conference Paper
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Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας είναι να αποτυπωθεί η εξέλιξη των απόψεων και του ενδιαφέροντος των μαθητών δημοτικού σχολείου για την εργασία του επιστήμονα μέσω της εμπλοκής τους σε Φεστιβάλ Φυσικών Επιστημών και Τεχνολογίας (ΦΕ/ΤΧ). Το δείγμα της έρευνας είναι 40 μαθητές δημοτικού σχολείου. Για τη συλλογή των δεδομένων χρησιμοποιήθηκε ερωτηματολόγιο. Τα αποτελέσματα φανερώνουν αλλαγές στις αρχικές απόψεις των μαθητών, επιβεβαιώνοντας σε ικανοποιητικό βαθμό την άποψη, ότι τα περιβάλλοντα μη τυπικής μάθησης μπορούν να λειτουργήσουν ευνοϊκά στην ανάπτυξη του ενδιαφέροντος και των γνώσεων των μαθητών για την εργασία του επιστήμονα.
... As demand for a STEM-literate workforce continues to grow, implementing programs designed to spark an interest in the STEM fields to younger students has been expanding in recent years [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Texas A&M University at Qatar is a branch campus of the Texas A&M University System that offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in multiple engineering disciplines to students of the Middle East region. ...
... Science festivals are defined, in part, by the fact that they are time-limited and recurring celebrations [Bultitude, McDonald and Custead, 2011]. While the relatively short duration of a festival seems an insufficient amount of time to facilitate the cross-organizational learning and growth necessary to build capacity, the recurring nature of science festivals has the potential to facilitate their ability to be a driver. ...
Article
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This study applies social network analysis to explore the role that one science festival has played in building the state's STEM learning ecosystem. It examines the breadth and extent of collaboration among STEM educators and their partners, reviewing past and present partnerships across 449 events during the 2015 festival. Three case studies provide in-depth illustrations of partnerships. These findings represent an important step towards (a) mapping a STEM learning ecosystem, and (b) trying to understand how a festival affects the ecosystem itself. Together, study results demonstrate how the festival has served to stimulate and foster STEM partnerships.
... collecting or coding data). Dissemination efforts, in contrast, have remained mostly unidirectional, with the exception of science nights or fairs that can be described as interactive science communication events (Bultitude, McDonald, and Custead 2011). Such events can be quite diverse in terms of their duration, location, and organisational backing. ...
Article
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Openness and collaboration in scientific research are attracting increasing attention from scholars and practitioners alike. However, a common understanding of these phenomena is hindered by disciplinary boundaries and disconnected research streams. We link dispersed knowledge on Open Innovation, Open Science, and related concepts such as Responsible Research and Innovation by proposing a unifying Open Innovation in Science (OIS) Research Framework. This framework captures the antecedents, contingencies, and consequences of open and collaborative practices along the entire process of generating and disseminating scientific insights and translating them into innovation. Moreover, it elucidates individual-, team-, organisation-, field-, and society-level factors shaping OIS practices. To conceptualise the framework, we employed a collaborative approach involving 47 scholars from multiple disciplines, highlighting both tensions and commonalities between existing approaches. The OIS Research Framework thus serves as a basis for future research, informs policy discussions, and provides guidance to scientists and practitioners. full text available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13662716.2020.1792274
... Science festivals are big organizations including exhibitions, fairs, stage shows, demonstrations and science shows, street presentations, outdoor activities, interviews, workshops, etc. (Durant, 2013). Science festivals can be organized locally in small groups or in the form of large organizations across the country (Bultitude, McDonald & Custead, 2011). Science fairs, are mostly smaller events than science festivals, where the students present their studies with their teachers, friends, parents, scientists and other people in the society. ...
Chapter
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Bu çalışmada ortaokul üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerinin görsel matematik okuryazarlık algılarını belirleyen bir ölçme aracı geliştirmek, cinsiyet ve önceki dönem sonu matematik başarı düzeyi değişkenleri açısından ilgili okuryazarlık algılarını incelemektir. Tarama türünde olan araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinde bulunan bir ildeki ortaokullar arasından basit seçkisiz örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilmiş üç ortaokulun üçüncü sınıflarında öğrenim gören 260 (144 kız, 116 erkek) öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Ölçek geliştirme aşamasında uygulanan açımlayıcı faktör analizi neticesinde Cronbach Alfa iç tutarlık katsayısı .92 olan dört faktörlü, 14 maddeden oluşan üç dereceli Likert tipinde geçerli ve güvenilir “Görsel Matematik Okuryazarlığı Ölçeği” geliştirilmiştir. Gerçekleştirilen t-testi sonucunda ise öğrencilerin görsel matematik okuryazarlık algılarının cinsiyet ve önceki dönem sonu matematik başarı düzeyi açısından anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği bulunmuştur. Bu bulgular neticesinde çalışma yapacak araştırmacılara farklı örneklem gruplarıyla veya farklı değişkenlerle ilgili ölçeği kullanarak araştırma yapmaları önerilmiştir.
... New studies have recently emerged to determine the effects of implementing programs that stimulate progress in STEM education [1][2][3][4][5][6]. This paper details a five-day program, named Engineering Heroes: Qatar Special Investigators (QSI), which was established and implemented in Texas A&M University at Qatar. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, a model STEM program called Engineering Heroes: Qatar Special Investigators (QSI), aimed to familiarize young students with science and engineering in real life applications, is presented. The program theme is about forensic science and technology, which included science and engineering activities with hands-on projects to challenge students’ science and critical thinking skills. Throughout the program, students learned about forensic science as an application of science, engineering and technology to collect, preserve, and analyze evidence to be used in the course of a legal investigation. Participants learned the history of forensic analysis and how it evolved into today’s specialized career field. Forensic specialists include backgrounds in chemistry, physics, biology, toxicology, chemical and electrical engineering. Topics included in the program were a study of toxicology and chemical analysis, assays to determine drug contents, fingerprint development, environmental contamination, chromatography in forgery, presumptive vs. confirmatory testing, scanning electron microscopy, infrared analysis, and evidence handling techniques. The details of the program are presented, including the contents, preparation, materials used, case studies, and final crime scene investigation, which featured the learning outcomes.
... If these networks were used in conjunction with strategies to support efforts in languages other than English, they could effectively lower the barriers of access to knowledge worldwide. (Bultitude et al., 2011) can allow researchers to meet face-to-face and share their science with the greater public in their native language(s). ...
Article
This article presents findings from a secondary study of science capital within the context of U.S. science festivals. Drawing on attendee survey data from eleven science festivals across the United States (n = 1,645) and evaluation surveys from a statewide school-based festival program (n = 2,320), we explore the concept of science capital (i.e. science-related cultural capital, science-related social capital, and science-related behavior and practices) within science festival programs. Using linear regression, we utilize attendee demographics and event characteristics to predict shifts in science capital. Our results indicate that members of STEM minority groups (i.e. girls and women; Black/African Americans, Latino/Hispanic/Latinx, Native Americans, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders) report greater shifts in science capital scores. Time at event and scientist interactions at the event are also associated with greater shifts in scientific cultural capital. We interpret these findings in light of Philip and Azevedo's work (2017) on out-of-school science learning and equity. As a concept, science capital offers a useful lens through which to view informal science learning, science communication, and how public science events (e.g. science festivals) play an important role in contributing to the local STEM learning ecosystem.
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Festivais de ciência como o Pint of Science (PoS) têm se popularizado e registrado um aumento de participantes. O PoS visa aproximar cientistas e público em locais informais, como bares e restaurantes. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi traçar o perfil do público no festival realizado em 2018, no Rio de Janeiro, e identificar pontos fortes e fragilidades. Por meio de questionários aplicados aos participantes (n=486), constatamos a predominância de um público branco, com alta escolaridade e já envolvido com ciência. Um desafio para o PoS é diversificar seu público e avançar na popularização da ciência.
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In 2015, the British Science Association (BSA) began developing a model to describe various publics based on how they engage with science. Currently, the model includes four groups along a continuum: Not interested, Inactive, Engaged, and Professionals. This article focuses on the Engaged, defined as those who are interested in science and who actively search for information about science and science-related activities and events. In 2018, a survey was administered to members of five science festival listservs in order to learn more about their interest in and engagement with science. Because listserv membership is voluntary, all nonprofessional respondents were considered members of the Engaged group. Through a series of cluster analyses, three distinct clusters were identified within this group. We describe the three clusters and how they are both different from and similar to one another. The clusters are then used to explore how Engaged publics participated in their local science festival. Findings are discussed in relation to our growing understanding of the BSA model, as well as practical applications for recruiting and programing for Engaged publics.
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The recent discovery and ongoing detection of Einstein's predicted gravitational waves offers an exciting opportunity for engaging the general public in science. In order to reach a wide range of people with different science-art identities, levels of physics expertise, age, and gender, the Celebrating Einstein festival merges science, dance, and music. Festival components include: (1) a danced lecture with choreography inspired by representations of black holes and gravitational waves, and (2) live interviews with physicists that address issues of science, philosophy, religion, art, and education. We assessed the impact of this festival by deploying a pre- and post-event survey at three Celebrating Einstein festivals hosted in different sites in the United States (Northern, Southern, and Central), and by interviewing a subset of attendees at one location. This study focuses on participants’ knowledge gain, interest in science, and emotional reactions towards this science-art event. We explored how knowledge gain varies by participant demographics, how it correlates with an increased interest in science and intention to attend future science-art events, and how participants engaged emotionally. Results indicate that the science-art format effectively reached a wide range of demographic groups, significantly increased participants’ knowledge, interest in science and science-art events, and broadened their perception of scientists.
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Over the past decade, science festival expos have emerged as popular opportunities for practicing scientists to engage in education outreach with public audiences. In this paper, a partial proportional odds model was used to analyze 5,498 surveys collected from attendees at 14 science expos around the United States. Respondents who report that they interacted with a scientist rated their experiences more positively than those who reported no such interaction on five categories: overall experience, learning, inspiration, fun, and awareness of STEM careers. The results indicate that scientists can positively affect audience perception of their experience at these large-scale public events.
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Bilim insanlarının halk ile bütünleşebilmesi toplumların gelişimi açısından oldukça önemlidir. Bu kapsamda Türkiye’de TÜBİTAK destekli 4007 program kodlu bilim şenlikleri düzenlenmektedir. Düzenlenen bu şenliklerin, toplum üzerinde nasıl etkiler bıraktığının değerlendirilmesi, gelecekte yapılacak olan şenliklerde dikkat edilecek hususların ortaya çıkarılmasını sağlayabilir. Bu nedenle bu araştırmada TÜBİTAK tarafından desteklenen bir proje olan Merzifon Bilim Şenliği’nin, farklı yaş gruplarından elde edilen verilerle değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Değerlendirme sürecinde araştırmada eş zamanlı iç içe geçmiş desen kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklemini şenlik katılımcısı olan öğrenciler ve yetişkinler oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Bir Bilim İnsanı Çiz Testi, Daimi Bilim Öğrenme Motivasyonu Ölçeği, Bilim Şenliği Tutum Ölçeği ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Şenliğe katılan okul öncesi ve ilkokul öğrencilerinin bilim insanı imajlarında; cinsiyet algıları açısından olumlu değişimler olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca mutlu bir ifade ile resmedilen bilim insanı çizimlerinin oranında artış görülmüştür. Ortaokul öğrencileri açısından ise şenlikteki etkinliklere katılmış olmanın, bilim öğrenmeye yönelik motivasyon ve bilim şenliklerine yönelik tutumda olumlu yönde anlamlı bir etki yarattığı belirlenmiştir. Lise öğrencileri için de benzer durum geçerlidir. Şenliğe katılan yetişkinler ise şenliğin gerçekleştirildiği yerleri, şenlik sürecini ve zamanını uygun bulduklarını, şenlikteki etkinliklerin içeriğinin kendileri açısından faydalı ve güncel olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Bu değerlendirme sonucunda şenliğin katılımcılar açısından faydalı bulunduğu ve amacına hizmet ettiği kanısı oluşmuştur
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Much science communication research focuses on how science is represented and how science communication products are consumed. This article instead explores the production of a set of science communication projects, arguing that actor-network theory (ANT) can be one possible tool for such research. The research focuses on a large science festival, 'Science in the City', which took place in Copenhagen in 2014. Four projects within the festival are analytically disassembled: by following their production, different actants involved in the projects are identified and attention given to the wider networks they are part of. A key finding is the diversity of actor-networks stabilised through the four science communication projects. These projects were framed as being not just ‘about’ effective communication of science, but as having other aims, including diverse personal, professional, or political endeavours. A key implication for scholarship is that, for those involved in the production of public communication, science communication is not an end in itself. The value of using ANT approaches for science communication research is also discussed.
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Parental attitudes are a key determinant of whether a young person goes on to university, but parents from low-participation areas sometimes feel ill-equipped to advise their children. This study looks at whether visiting a university campus for a fun, informal event can alter parents' feelings of comfort with, and knowledge about, higher education. Using a mixed-methods case study conducted at an English university-based science festival, we found that parents from areas of greater deprivation underwent a more significant positive shift in attitude towards university than those from less deprived areas. We use the concept of 'ambient information' to describe the information collected by immersion in a university setting in a neutral context; we found that this information worked to make university seem 'real' or 'achievable' to parents. We also found that participants gathered knowledge in key areas such as the types of facilities and courses that universities offer. We conclude that informal events on university campuses can have valuable benefits for widening participation. However, organisers face the challenge of improving attendance at such events by under-represented groups without impacting on their relaxed nature. http://clok.uclan.ac.uk/25860/1/Seeing%20for%20Yourself%20-%20final%20revisions.pdf
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Six documentary modes are recognised: poetic, expository, observational, participatory, reflexive and performative. Scientists untrained in filmmaking most often choose the expository mode since it possesses the same traits and conventions as used in most scientific narratives. Yet, this need not be the case given that a new generation of ‘scientists-as-filmmakers’, can be taught to appreciate and apply other documentary modes. In this study, we surveyed the possible documentary modes that scientists from nine Swiss universities and research centres would use, both before and after studying filmmaking courses. As expected, before the start of the courses, the majority of the participants (83.33%) said they would use the expository mode, while 27.45% said they would use the observational mode. However, after attending the filmmaking courses, the number of participants interested in the expository mode fell almost by half, while the number of participants who said they would use the observational mode almost doubled. Unexpectedly, after the course the most chosen mode was the poetic (70.58%), and there was also fair amount of interest in the participatory (38.23%) and reflexive (17.64%) modes. The films produced in the future by the generation of ‘scientists-as-filmmakers’ will contain a much greater variety of documentary modes.
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Parental attitudes are a key determinant of whether a young person goes on to university, but parents from low-participation areas sometimes feel ill-equipped to advise their children. This study looks at whether visiting a university campus for a fun, informal event can alter parents' feelings of comfort with, and knowledge about, higher education. Using a mixed-methods case study conducted at an English university-based science festival, we found that parents from areas of greater deprivation underwent a more significant positive shift in attitude towards university than those from less deprived areas. We use the concept of 'ambient information' to describe the information collected by immersion in a university setting in a neutral context; we found that this information worked to make university seem 'real' or 'achievable' to parents. We also found that participants gathered knowledge in key areas such as the types of facilities and courses that universities offer. We conclude that informal events on university campuses can have valuable benefits for widening participation. However, organisers face the challenge of improving attendance at such events by under-represented groups without impacting on their relaxed nature.
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In today’s fast-paced and globalized business landscape, the need for sustainability has increased for organizations. The need to re-evaluate practices, however, can be difficult if existing practices or models of operation are traditionally change adverse. For organizations to be motivated to make these changes, understanding both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for change are essential. This is especially true in the festival industry. This study applied the Drivers of Sustainability Framework and linked it to the underlying psychological factors outlined in Self-determination Theory in the context of Canadian festivals. Interviews were conducted with 38 festival organizers to determine intrinsic and extrinsic motivations along with barriers towards the implementation of sustainability practices. Four key findings were identified. First, intrinsic motivations were the primary driver towards festival sustainability management and are a key influence on the holistic integration of sustainability. Second, intrinsically driven volunteers contribute greatly to the adoption of sustainability practices. Third, extrinsic motivations affect how festivals address their sustainability efforts but are often short-term and isolated in nature. Fourth, autonomy, competence, and relatedness were recognized to increase self-determination of festivals in adopting sustainable initiatives.
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The representation of science, medicine, and technology has been an emerging agenda item for cultural and media research in the last decade. In part, its importance arises out of a concern for the public understanding of science (PUoS), which has been a priority in governmental policy discussions. This paper discusses how the utilization of cyberspatial communities can address the challenge of developing a global engagement with science and ethics, by considering the case of genetic technology and the role of experts in public debate. It critically appraises the PUoS and suggests that a way of advancing its methodological assumptions is through developing a “Public Engagemen with Ethics.” On this basis, concerns about scientific journalism are more effectively contextualized and enhance the possibility of ensuring that non-experts are aware of the importance of any scientific innovation.
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This report outlines science communication priorities in a country facing the same global issues as the developed world while in a state of transition and situated on an impoverished continent. South Africa's science communication aims are defined, with examples of successes (like science weeks and festivals, and science centers). Highlighting the bridge-building role of local scientists and the media, the report outlines progress and gaps, recommending action that gives South Africans the opportunity to understand and take pride in their country's scientific achievements, and to be able to apply and appreciate science and technology and develop it for future generations.
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Public engagement with a problem or an issue relative to science (PEP/IS) is suggested as an alternative and complementary model for understanding the communicative effectiveness of science. PEP/IS is conceptualized as the process of individual and collective problem solving in relation to science and exemplified with South Korean exploratory data. Finally, further steps for improving PEP/IS and related research capability are suggested with communicative effectiveness being anticipated.
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Science communication is a growing area of practice and research. During the past two decades, the number of activities, courses, and practitioners has steadily increased. But what actually is science communication? In what ways is it different to public awareness of science, public understanding of science, scientific culture, and scientific literacy? The authors review the literature to draw together a comprehensive set of definitions for these related terms. A unifying structure is presented and a contemporary definition of science communication positioned within this framework. Science communication (SciCom) is defined as the use of appropriate skills, media, activities, and dialogue to produce one or more of the following personal responses to science (the AEIOU vowel analogy): Awareness, Enjoyment, Interest, Opinion-forming, and Understanding. The definition provides an outcomes-type view of science communication, and provides the foundations for further research and evaluation.
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With the publication of the House of Lords report "Science and Society" in the spring of 2000, public understanding of science in the United Kingdom is now at something of a crossroads. After well over a decade of efforts to improve what has come to be known as "scientific literacy" among the general population - led by such organizations as the Committee on Public Understanding of Science (CoPUS) - surveys suggest that little has been achieved. But how are we now to interpret this? Is it a failure by the scientific community to "get their message across?" Is the public just insufficiently interested in matters scientific? Or is it that the relationship between the public and scientists, and the dispersal and uptake of information, is more subtle than simple measurement models suppose? And how can the "new age," as envisioned by their Lordships, be realized?
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Results from a cross-national quantitative study of 3,301 visitors to four large physics research centers in Europe focus on short-term learning and motivational effects. The authors collected data from these visitors before and after visiting the centers as part of a research project funded by the European Union. Overall, visitors' knowledge of the research centers increased. However, effects on learning of scientific concepts are not so clear. The visits mostly seem to reaffirm visitors' prior attitudes and images related to the centers. The findings imply that these visits offer some learning potential and, for school students, increased motivation to enter a scientific profession, but in terms of altering visitors' images they seem rather ineffective. Nevertheless, because of their uniqueness in allowing different publics an authentic glimpse of the production of scientific knowledge, visits to research centers remain an important public communication activity.
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This paper explores the phenomena of public scientific debates, where scientific controversies are argued out in public fora such as the mass media, using the case of popular evolutionary psychology in the UK of the 1990s. An earlier quantitative analysis of the UK press coverage of the subject (Cassidy, 2005) suggested that academics associated with evolutionary psy-chology had been unusually active in the media at that time, particularly in association with the publication of popular science books on the subject. Previous research by Turner, by Gieryn, and by Bucchi has established the relationship between such appeals to the public domain and the establishment of scientific legitimacy and academic disciplinary boundaries. Following this work, I argue here that popular science has, in this case, provided a creative space for scientists, outside of the constraints of ordinary academic discourse, allowing them to reach across scientific boundaries in order to claim expertise in the study of human beings.
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Public Understanding of Science (PUS) is a field of activity and an area of social research. The evolution of this field comprises both the changing discourse and the substantive evidence of a changing public understanding.1 In the first part, I will present a short account on how the discourse of PUS moved from Literacy, via PUS, to Science-in-Society. This is less a story of progress, but one of false polemics and the multiplication of concerns. In the second part, I will show some empirical evidence on how PUS has changed by drawing on mass media data and large scale comparative survey evidence. I conclude by stressing that the Science-Society relationship is variable both in distance between science and the wider society and in the quality of this relationship.
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A wide gap exists between what scientists and rural farmers know. The rapid advancements in digital technology are likely to widen this gap even further. At the farmers' level, this knowledge gap often translates into poor and inefficient management of resources resulting in reduced profits and environmental pollution. Most modern rice cultivars can easily yield more than 5 tons per hectare when well managed, but millions of farmers often get less than 5 tons using the same production inputs. In pest management, for instance, rice farmers often apply pesticides unnecessarily, as they base their decisions on visual clues and over estimations of potential damages by pests. Frequently, farmers overestimate potential losses due to pests by more than ten-folds. In the Philippines, scientists estimated that about 80% of farmers' insecticide sprays were unnecessary as they were either applied at the wrong time, for the wrong pests or both. Using the wrong chemicals at the wrong dosages is also common. Highly visible symptoms such as leaf damages are often signs that stimulate farmers to spray. In fertilizer management, most farmers believe that more is better, perhaps since the local terms for fertilizer are often translated to mean "fat" in many countries. Similarly in other resource management decisions, farmers rely on their own beliefs and perceptions. While there are strengths in farmers' indigenous knowledge, there are also weaknesses. If some of these weaknesses are modified, farmers' resource management decisions and skills can be improved. Thus discovering the key weaknesses should be the first step and developing a communication strategy for the new information to reach the millions of rice farmers is next. Tons of scientific information are communicated between scientists through publications, electronic media and conferences. But very little will actually reach rural communities because of limited access. Even when access is facilitated, the scientific literature is riddled with jargon which only a few in the discipline would understand. In addition, the information may not have direct use or may not be in the appropriate prospective and need further synthesis. Sometimes rural communities may have the information but are not motivated to act. We suggest that scientific information alone is insufficient to benefit rural farmers unless it is further processed, simplified and effectively communicated to reach a wide audience. As pointed out by Akio Morita, the founder chairman of Sony, to be successful in business, technological creativity is not enough. There is need for creativity in product development and marketing as well. To add value to scientific information and "getting science into practice" so as to benefit rural communities, we suggest that there are various phases involved. In this comment we discuss and share our experiences in implementing the phases. The initial phase is identifying the problem and the associated ecological as well as the sociological issues and conducting research to better understand them. Understanding the root causes besides the direct causes of the problem is important. It is also important at this phase for all stakeholders to gain a common understanding of the various issues. The findings are then used as inputs into the second phase, "technology development" where technical information is "distilled" into an "actionable" entity expressed in the form of a "heuristic". Heuristic is a term introduced by Tversky and Kahneman 1 to refer to informal rules-of-thumb. Heuristics are developed through experience and guesswork about possible outcomes and may thus have inherent faults and biases. Research to understand farmers' current heuristics and reasons for their adoption will help scientists frame new heuristics that are "actionable". For instance, scientists discovered that leaf damages by leaf feeders in the early growth stages of the rice crop have little effect on yields. Farmers, however,
Chapter
The wonderful thing about contemporary science and technology is the rate at which new discoveries are made. This incessant innovation is a precious gift if you are in the business of engaging the public with science and technology. It provides a constant source of new material and new reasons to go back to your audience. Furthermore, these innovations build on an established body of scientific and technological knowledge that is immense. If you look in the right places there is a virtually limitless pool of fascinating and accessible material suitable for public consumption.
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The following excerpts are from a report that draws together the results from two pieces of research - an overview of science communication activities in Britain today and a detailed review of the public's attitude toward science. By combining the information from both studies, the report aims to inform future science communication strategies for both policy and practice. The full report is Office of Science and Technology and the Wellcome Trust, Science and the Public: A Review of Science Communication and Public Attitudes to Science in Britain (London, October 2000) and is available online at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk.
Book
Preface Part I. Foundations of Research 1. Science, Schooling, and Educational Research Learning About the Educational World The Educational Research Approach Educational Research Philosophies Conclusions 2. The Process and Problems of Educational Research Educational Research Questions Educational Research Basics The Role of Educational Theory Educational Research Goals Educational Research Proposals, Part I Conclusions 3. Ethics in Research Historical Background Ethical Principles Conclusions 4. Conceptualization and Measurement Concepts Measurement Operations Levels of Measurement Evaluating Measures Conclusions 5. Sampling Sample Planning Sampling Methods Sampling Distributions Conclusions Part II. Research Design and Data Collection 6. Causation and Research Design Causal Explanation Criteria for Causal Explanations Types of Research Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Threats to Validity in Experimental Designs Nonexperiments Conclusions 7. Evaluation Research What Is Evaluation Research? What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On? How Can the Program Be Described? Creating a Program Logic Model What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Design? Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research Conclusions 8. Survey Research Why Is Survey Research So Popular? Errors in Survey Research Questionnaire Design Writing Questions Survey Design Alternatives Combining Methods Survey Research Design in a Diverse Society Ethical Issues in Survey Research Conclusions 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Participant Observation Intensive Interviewing Focus Groups Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Conclusions 10. Single-Subject Design Foundations of Single-Subject Design Measuring Targets of Intervention Types of Single-Subject Designs Analyzing Single-Subject Designs Ethical Issues in Single-Subject Design Conclusions 11. Mixing and Comparing Methods and Studies Mixed Methods Comparing Reserch Designs Performing Meta-Analyses Conclusions 12. Teacher Research and Action Research Teacher Research: Three Case Studies Teacher Research: A Self-Planning Outline for Creating Your Own Project Action Research and How It Differs From Teacher Research Validity and Ethical Issues in Teacher Research and Action Research Conclusions Part III. Analyzing and Reporting Data 13. Quantitative Data Analysis Why We Need Statistics Preparing Data for Analysis Displaying Univariate Distributions Summarizing Univariate Distributions Relationships (Associations) Among Variables Presenting Data Ethically: How Not to Lie With Statistics Conclusions 14. Qualitative Data Analysis Features of Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics in Qualitative Data Analysis Conclusions 15. Proposing and Reporting Research Educational Research Proposals, Part II Reporting Research Ethics, Politics, and Research Reports Conclusions Appendix A: Questions to Ask About a Research Article Appendix B: How to Read a Research Article Appendix C: Finding Information, by Elizabeth Schneider and Russell K. Schutt Appendix D: Table of Random Numbers Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
Article
Participation of scientists in public understanding of science (PUS) activity has frequently been encouraged by appeals to the notion of duty. This paper reviews the schemes of five of the U.K. Scientific Research Councils that encourage their scientists to get involved in PUS activity. The success of such schemes is measured by the number of scientists participating and the way in which this activity is monitored. This paper compares and contrasts the different strategies used and gives comparative data on the Councils' expenditure on PUS activity. The results suggest an uncomfortable gap between the formal policy of the Research Councils and their practices on the ground. While the involvement of practicing scientists is an important element of the Research Councils' PUS program, the work reported here raises questions about the desirability and feasibility of the notion that PUS involvement should be an obligation for all research scientists.
Book
A pesar de los grandes avances tecnológicos, los críticos sostienen que vivimos en sociedades iletradas científicamente, donde las personas toman decisiones importantes sin tomar en cuenta el conocimiento científico. Los autores de esta obra enfrentan las interrogantes referentes a si es necesario que el público en general necesita comprender la ciencia y en caso que así fuera, si es responsabilidad de los científicos comunicar estos conocimientos; si la solución es innundar a las audiencias con información o si las noticias científicas han de estar enfocadas en torno a temas específicos y presentadas en forma de relatos, de modo que sean significativas y relevantes para la vida de las personas.
Article
The Science House of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) is a space where science is approached through the perspective of culture, seeking interdisciplinarity, stimulating debate among different areas of knowledge, and building a closer and more pleasant relationship between society and scientific knowledge. Work with mediators has gone through significant changes over time and the paths chosen have been modified, re-evaluated and transformed. The presence of mediators can mean the possibility of dialog, conversation, informal chat, and sharing. It has been one of the main channels of communication with the general public.
Article
The past few decades have been marked by a rapid scientific and technological development. One of the most paradoxical, and perhaps more disturbing, features of this process is the growing divide between the increased importance science has acquired in economic and social life and a society persistently showing spreading signs of contempt, mistrust and, most of all, disinterest in research.
Article
There are many public-awareness-of-science initiatives (PASIs), representing a major investment of resources. This review will consider how far these initiatives have succeeded. How much evaluation is taking place, and what patterns of success does it reveal? Work with the European Network of Science Communication Teachers (ENSCOT) enabled a review of reports for initiatives in European Union countries. Initial findings are that many PASIs are not formally written up and fewer are evaluated against their aims. The evidence also suggests differences between countries. This review considers how evaluation could improve future initiatives in Europe and beyond.
Social research : The basics
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  • C Sutton
David, M. & Sutton, C. (2004). Social research : The basics. London, England: Sage.
Science communication events: EUSCE/X white book
  • Euscea
EUSCEA (2005). Science communication events: EUSCE/X white book. Göteborg, Sweden: EUSCEA.
From Big Bang to Damp Squib
  • G Farmelo
Farmelo, G (1997). From Big Bang to Damp Squib. In R. Levinson & J. Thomas (Eds) Science today: Problem or crisis? London, England: Routledge.
Public engagement map: Report to the Science for All expert group
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Featherstone, H., Wilkinson, C. & Bultitude, K. (2009). Public engagement map: Report to the Science for All expert group. London, England: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
A festival against ignorance. ACADEMIA, the magazine of the Polish Academy of
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Fikus, M. (2007). A festival against ignorance. ACADEMIA, the magazine of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 3(15), 48-49. Retrieved from http://www.euscea.org/Resources/Repository/Euscea/Downloads/str%20%2048-49_fikus_eng.pdf
Framework for evaluating impacts of informal science education projects
  • A Friedman
Friedman, A., (Ed.) (2008) Framework for evaluating impacts of informal science education projects. National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://informalscience.org/evaluations/eval_framework.pdf
Not for duplication and distribution Accepted for publication in the
  • S Gage
Gage, S. (2001). Edinburgh International Science Festival. In Stocklmayer, S. Gore, M. & Bryant, C. (Eds.) Science communication in theory and practice. London, England: Kluwer Academic. Not for duplication and distribution Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Science Education Part B: Science communication and public engagement 7 February 2011
Statistical methods for practice and research : a guide to data analysis using SPSS 2 nd ed
  • A S Gaur
  • S S Gaur
Gaur, A. S. & Gaur, S. S. (2009). Statistical methods for practice and research : a guide to data analysis using SPSS 2 nd ed. India: Sage Publications. Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com
Engaging through dialogue: International experiences of café scientifique
  • A Grand
Grand, A. (2009). Engaging through dialogue: International experiences of café scientifique. In Holliman, R., Thomas, J., Smidt, S., Scanlon, E. and Whitelegg, E. (eds.) Practising science communication in the information age: Theorising professional practices. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Evaluation of Cheltenham Festival of Science
  • L Grant
Grant, L. (2004). Evaluation of Cheltenham Festival of Science 2004. Liverpool, England: University of Liverpool. Retrieved from http://www.lauragrantassociates.co.uk/Resources/Resources/6/Cheltenham%20festiva l%20evaluation%202004.pdf
Evaluating the unevaluatable: the case of science festivals. Presentation at the 2009 Science Communication Conference
  • D Mcdonald
McDonald, D. (2009, June). Evaluating the unevaluatable: the case of science festivals. Presentation at the 2009 Science Communication Conference, London.
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Science Festival Alliance (n.d.) In About the Science Festival Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.sciencefestivals.org/about-/about-the-science-festival-alliance.html Science for All (2010). Science for All final report and action plan. London, England: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Retrieved from http://interactive.bis.gov.uk/scienceandsociety/site/all/2010/02/09/science-for-allreport-and-supporting-documents/
Festivals: Their contribution to the south east region
SEEDA (2009) Festivals: Their contribution to the south east region 2009. Retrieved from http://www.seeda.co.uk/_publications/Festivals___Their_Contribution_to_the_South_ East_Region_2009_2.pdf
Festivals Mean Business 3
British Arts Festivals Association (2008). Festivals Mean Business 3. Retrieved from http://www.efa-aef.eu/newpublic/upload/efadoc/11/Festival_UK_Survey.pdf
UK science festivals: PEST or not? London, England: Office of Science and Technology. Retrieved from Not for duplication and distribution Accepted for publication in the
  • J Nolin
  • F Bragesjö
  • D Kasperowski
Nolin, J., Bragesjö, F. & Kasperowski, D. (2003). Science festivals and weeks as spaces for OPUS. In E. Felt (Ed.) O.P.U.S: Optimising public understanding of science and technology: Final report (pp 271-282). Vienna, Austria: University of Vienna. Retrieved from http://www.univie.ac.at/virusss/opus/OPUS%20Report%20Final.pdf NSEW (n.d.). In National Science and Engineering Week -a history. Retrieved from http://www.britishscienceassociation.org/web/nsew/NSEW_archive/NSEWHistory.ht m OST (2004). UK science festivals: PEST or not? London, England: Office of Science and Technology. Retrieved from Not for duplication and distribution Accepted for publication in the International Journal of Science Education Part B: Science communication and public engagement 7 February 2011
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Science for All (2010). Science for All final report and action plan. London, England: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Retrieved from http://interactive.bis.gov.uk/scienceandsociety/site/all/2010/02/09/science-for-allreport-and-supporting-documents/