Analysis: The contribution of intelligence services to security sector reform

Conflict Security and Development 04/2005; Security & Development(1):87-107. DOI: 10.1080/14678800500103317


The concept of security sector reform has introduced the idea that the security sector is a legitimate recipient of donor assistance, but cooperation with intelligence services remains problematic. They are principally seen as a subject for reform rather than a contributor to it. I argue that intelligence services can reduce institutional inertia in the security sector, contribute to the rejection of outdated risks and the identification of new ones, and underpin the process of reform. To do so they require careful management and effective oversight. I propose a new definition of intelligence and a new distinction between intelligence and security that aim to capture the potential contribution of intelligence services to security sector reform.

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    • "The integration of development actors in the security debate has also led to disagreements due to conflicting agendas. For example, the reform of intelligence services remains a sensitive issue, and until recently overlooked by donor agencies (Wilson, 2005: 88). Concerns on the inter-relationship between security and development have been raised within government and academic circles, as well as by civil society organisations. "
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    ABSTRACT: The UK has for the past decade been a leader in the field of Security Sector Reform. However little effort appears, to have been directed towards explaining UK's presence at the forefront of SSR, and how SSR emerged on the UK's development agenda. The paper hypothesizes that a network of experts has contributed to the advancement of SSR on the UK government's agenda. This argument is tested in an epistemological framework. Evidence is collected from interviews and documents produced by experts working on security sector governance and reform. Conclusions suggested that an epistemic community exists in the UK field of SSR and, whilst its existence has been greatly spurred by UK government policy, it is suggested that the potential of the community is not fully developed.
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    ABSTRACT: The European Union Police Mission (EUPM) in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) represents a watershed development for the EU and its emerging European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Never before has the EU organised and managed this type of stabilisation programme. In some ways, the launching of EUPM defined a new stage in the evolution of the EU itself, and certainly of the ESDP. An examination of the implementation of the EUPM in 2003-06 and the current planning for an EU mission in Kosovo suggests that a process of institutional change and learning has occurred among EU and national officials. At the same time, it is apparent that significant improvements are still necessary in the coordination between and within EU pillars as they relate to ESDP operations. To that end, this study focuses on five important challenges revealed by EU field operations in BiH: mission mandates; personnel expertise, recruitment and training; program design, implementation and assessment; reporting and decisionmaking procedures and structures; and the functions of EU representatives in the field (EU Special Representatives, Commission Head of Missions and Member States). Lastly, it also suggests the means to materially improve EU crisis response, paying special attention to lessons learned during the first EUPM and from EU efforts to address organised crime in BiH.
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines the reform of the Serbian intelligence agencies since the fall of Slobodan Milošević and argues that they are important actors in democratisation, with a powerful capacity to influence and frustrate the reform process. However, the Serbian experience demonstrates that the role of intelligence agencies in democratisation is complex. In Serbia, governance of the intelligence sector has been characterised neither by a simple maximisation of civil power over the agencies themselves, nor by outright resistance to change by inherently compromised, authoritarian-era structures. Instead, the role and reform of Serbia's intelligence agencies since 2000 has been closely integrated with developments in the political sphere, and has exhibited considerable continuity with past practice.
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