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... There have been several attempts to connect the electromagnetic world with a physical, concrete model. Maxwell himself considered that his attempt to construct a sort of machine made up of tiny wheels and vortices [19] was too complicated and ultimately unsuccessful. Furthermore, the concept of field lines does not resist Galilean or Lorentz invariance. ...

... In contrast, constitutive equation needs a metric to be computed. 19 1.5. CONCLUSION ...

... 19: Absorption vs the incident angle at the wavelength 10 µm for the array of 1D MIM with parameters p = 1.883 µm, l = 1.317 µm t = 45 nm, h = 314 nm placed at the distance 2.5 µm above the mirror. The angle is measured from the normal. ...

This work consists of two parts which, although very different from each other, both belong to the same field: electromagnetism and its modern problems. In the first part, an absolute geometrization of the electromagnetic field in spacetime is presented, challenging the claim that the only way to present electromagnetic field is abstraction. It is demonstrated that with the absolute topology in spacetime, two scalar invariants are sufficient to describe the electromagnetic field. Particular attention is paid to the case of y-invariant p-polarised field, the topology of which can be represented in 3D spacetime by lines (electric spaghetti), the two scalar invariants then being reduced to one. Unlike the world lines of particles, which are always time-like, these lines transcend the boundary between space and time. This new approach of the electromagnetic field opens up new perspectives both for teaching and for research, in particular the analysis of the topological properties of these absolute structures in spacetime. The second part is dedicated to a more applied problem, that of the development of nano-absorbers which could become the basis for a new generation of bolometers. In this work, it is demonstrated that thanks to the exceptional properties of plasmonic antennas (total absorption and strong confinement of the electromagnetic field), it is possible to design infrared absorbers whose volume is greatly reduced (several orders of magnitude) compared to those used in current microbolometers. These results pave the way for a major technological breakthrough which, by greatly reducing the thermal capacity of the absorbent, leads to a new sensitivity - speed compromise for bolometers whose performance should then be close to that of cooled photo-detectors.

... By a physical analogy [we] mean that partial similarity between the laws of one science and those of another which makes each of them illustrate the other. [...] [We] find the same resemblance in mathematical form between two different phenomena » [1]. Maxwell is not an isolated example and many contributions in modern physics have been steered by formal analogies, such as for instance ...

... In the absence of gravity, geometry is described by the Minkowski spacetime M 4 . The isometry group of M 4 is the global 10-parameter Poincaré group which consists in space-time rotations (Lorentz group SO (1,3)) and translations (group T 4 ). Promoting those (external) non compact symmetries to be local results in the gravitational interaction, provided that 10 gauge potentials are introduced: 6 rotational gauge potentials, the Lorentz connection field 1-form Γ b a = Γ b µa dx µ , and 4 translation gauge potentials, the tetrad field 1-form e a = e a µ dx µ . ...

... These are known as Maurer-Cartan structure equations. Physically, the curvature field is generated by the mass-energy distribution (General Relativity), whereas the torsion field is generated by the spin 1 . In terms of holonomic components, these quantities are expressed more explicitly as: ...

... James Clerk Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism, the first unified theory of physics, by constructing a set of equations now known as Maxwell equations [1] (for the history of Maxwell equations, see, e.g., Ref. [2]). Maxwell equations are the foundation of classical physics and many technologies that make the modern world. ...

... The equations in (1) are different from conventional Maxwell equations in two respects: (a) the the appearance of the derivative operator ∂/∂t + v · ∇ to replace ∂/∂t; (b) the appearance of P s . The charge conservation law is different from the conventional one in (a). ...

... First of all and most importantly, all fields (including charge and current densities) in Eqs. (1) and (2) have to be understood as those in the comoving frame instead of the lab frame. There are further conditions that have to be satisfied. ...

We use the method of field decomposition, a technique widely used in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, to study the non-relativistic approximation of the Lorentz transformation in Maxwell equations for slowly moving media. The "deformed" Maxwell equations derived under the non-relativistic approximation in the lab frame can be put into the conventional form of Maxwell equations in the medium's comoving frame. Our results show that the Lorentz transformation in the non-relativistic limit is essential to derive these equations: the time and charge density must also change when transforming to a different frame even in the non-relativistic limit, not just the position and current density as in the Galilean transformation. This marks the essential difference of the Lorentz transformation from the Galilean one. We also derive the extended Hertz equations by using the covariant form of constitutive relations for homogeneous and isotropic dielectric and magnetic media. We find that the sign problem in terms of $\alpha=1-\widetilde{c}^{2}$ ($\widetilde{c}$ is the speed of light in medium in the unit of that in vacuum) arises in the extended Hertz equations if the linear constitutive relations are defined for the fields in the lab frame instead of covariant constitutive relations.

... Although the primary justification for the displacement current term in equation (1) lies in the conservation of charge, this was not the basis upon which James Clerk Maxwell first conceived of the idea. Maxwell first conceived of displacement current in Part III of his 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force", [3], in conjunction with an all-pervading elastic dielectric solid. In 1855, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch, by discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), demonstrated that the ratio of the electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge is equal to c√2, where c is the directly measured speed of light, [4]. ...

... This requires that the dielectric nature of the luminiferous medium is no longer sufficient on its own to explain the elasticity that is associated with a magnetization-based displacement current. We need to refer back to the all-pervading sea of tiny molecular vortices, [3], [6], [7], that Maxwell used in Part II of his 1861 paper in order to explain electromagnetic induction. We will identify the vector field, A C , with the circumferential momentum circulating around the edge of these fine-grained vortices. ...

... When Maxwell first conceived of the concept of displacement current in his1861 paper, [3], he did so in the context of dielectric polarization and the electrostatic Coulomb force, hence he was working inadvertently in the Lorenz gauge. Yet, when he came to deriving the electromagnetic wave equation in the magnetic disturbance, H, in his 1865 paper, [5], he switched to the Coulomb gauge by eliminating the electrostatic Coulomb force in the derivation. ...

Displacement current was originally conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 in connection with linear polarization in a dielectric solid which he believed to pervade all of space. Modern textbooks however adopt a different approach. The official teaching today is that displacement current is a consequence of extending the original solenoidal Ampère’s Circuital Law to embrace the conservation of electric charge. Yet, unless either of these two methods leads to a displacement current that is related to Faraday’s Law of Induction, then it cannot serve its main purpose, which is to provide a bridge between Ampère’s Circuital Law and Faraday’s Law, hence enabling the derivation of the electromagnetic wave equations. This matter will be investigated in both the Coulomb gauge and the Lorenz gauge.

... An analogous problem arises in the generic theory of relativistic fluid flow. 11 There a velocity can be defined as V a = pc 2 /e analogous to our V A = S/E = Gc 2 /E. But, a proof analogous to the proof in Section 3 shows that velocity to be inconsistent with the Einstein velocity relation of special relativity and hence not a valid definition. ...

... The rules for transformation of electric and magnetic fields by a boost with velocity V B can be written in a special relativistically correct but not manifestly covariant 10 See Appendix I.2 for a demonstration that any point at rest in the primed system moves with coordinate velocity V B . 11 Part I, Chapter 2 of Weinberg [21] presents what I will refer to as a generic theory. It assumes only that a fluid is composed of a countable set of small particles characterized by their mass m n , position x n , and velocity v n . ...

... Maxwell [12] explains the inverse square electric force law as a consequence of the spread of an incompressible fluid. And he later proposes (Maxwell [11]) a model of Faraday's magnetic field lines based on fluid vortices. 26 Perhaps, instead of taking the conclusion in Section 7 as a reason to abandon Maxwell's search, we should rather read a lesson from it: Our attempt at a flow model may have failed because the attempt is taking place at the wrong level. ...

Momentum and energy conservation require electromagnetic field momentum and energy to be treated as physically real, even in static fields. This motivates the conjecture that field momentum might be due to the flow of a relativistic mass density (defined as energy density divided by the square of the speed of light).
This article investigates the velocity of such a mass flow and finds a conflict between two different definitions of it, both of which originally seem plausible if the flow is to be taken as real. This investigation is careful to respect the transformation rules of special relativity throughout.
The paper demonstrates that the consensus definition of the flow velocity of electromagnetic energy is inconsistent with the transformation rules of special relativity, and hence is incorrect. A replacement flow velocity is derived which is completely consistent with those transformation rules.
The conclusion is that these conflicting definitions of flow velocity cannot be resolved in a way that is consistent with special relativity and also allows electromagnetic field momentum density to be the result of relativistic mass flow. Though real, field momentum density cannot be explained as the flow of a relativistic mass density.
As a byproduct of the study, it is also shown that there is a comoving system in which the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor is reduced to a simple diagonal form, with two of its diagonal elements equal to the energy density and the other two diagonal elements equal to plus and minus a single parameter derived from the electromagnetic field values, a result that places constraints on possible fluid models of electromagnetism.

... This will pave the wave towards real-time applications not only in industrial environments. Nach der theoretischen Beschreibung der elektromagnetischen Wellen durch James Clerk Maxwell zu Beginn der 1860er Jahre [3,4], konnte die Existenz erst mehr als 20 Jahre später durch Heinrich Hertz experimentell nachgewiesen werden [5]. Die Entdeckungen von Hertz fanden schnell praktische Anwendungen. ...

... eingesetzt werden, mit h dem Planckschen Wirkungsquantum 3 . Für h · f k B · T ergibt sich aus der Reihenentwicklung der natürlichen Exponentialfunktion, dass der Wert in Gleichung 3.24 näherungsweise k B · T entspricht [97]. ...

... Die von der einfallenden Welle angeregten Oszillatoren senden dabei eine Vielzahl an Partialwellen aus und interferieren untereinander[57]. Sie ist dabei die exakte Lösung der Maxwell-Gleichungen[3,4] für die Streuung einer ebenen elektromagnetischen Welle an einem sphärischen Objekt. Die Effizienzen und folglich auch die Wirkungsquerschnitte ergeben sich zu[58] ...

Aufgrund ihrer Eigenschaften werden Millimeterwellen in jüngster Vergangenheit für eine zunehmende Anzahl an Anwendungen interessant, hauptsächlich in der Kommunikation und Sensorik. Diese Entwicklung wird von Marktstudien untermauert, in denen für die Millimeterwellensensorik bis 2023 ein stetiges Wachstum von über 30% pro Jahr vorhergesagt wird. Ausschlaggebend hierfür wird vor allem der Einsatz von Millimeterwellensensoren in industriellen Anwendungen zur Realisierung innovativer Messanforderungen im Rahmen der zunehmenden Automatisierung durch die Industrie 4.0 gesehen. Für diese neuartigen Messszenarien sind Sensoren unabdingbar, um Abstände berührungslos mit höchster Genauigkeit und Präzision bestimmen zu können. Aufgrund der geringen Wellenlänge von Millimeterwellen können kompakte Systeme mit hoher räumlicher Auflösung realisiert werden, welche zudem in der Lage sind, optische Sichtbehinderungen und optisch opake Materialien zu durchdringen, wodurch ein deutlicher Vorteil gegenüber optischen Sensoren gegeben ist.
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird daher ein kompaktes Radarmodul im Frequenzbereich um 94 GHz entwickelt, mit dem speziell die Herausforderungen beim Einsatz in der präzisen Abstandssensorik im Nahbereich untersucht werden. Systematische Messfehler, welche die Genauigkeit beeinflussen, können kalibriert werden. Daher wird in dieser Arbeit speziell auf die statistischen Fehler eingegangen, welche die Präzision begrenzen. Dazu werden unter Berücksichtigung der internen Rauschprozesse im Radarmodul Signalmodelle aufgestellt, die den Einfluss der Rauschprozesse auf die Messperformance mithilfe der Cramér-Rao-Grenze beschreiben.
Zwischen theoretischen Vorhersagen der Präzision mithilfe bekannter Theorien aus der Literatur und entsprechenden Messreihen sind in ersten Versuchen starke Diskrepanzen zu beobachten. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird daher eine neue Beschreibung zum Einfluss des Phasenrauschens auf die Präzision entwickelt, wodurch es erstmalig möglich ist, Verifikationsmessungen über alle Parametervariationen hinweg mit sehr hoher Übereinstimmung theoretisch zu beschreiben.
Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung von erforderlichen Signalverarbeitungsalgorithmen, mit denen eine genaue und präzise Abstandsbestimmung erst ermöglicht wird. Hierzu werden verschiedene Verfahren aufgezeigt und hinsichtlich ihrer Performance bewertet. Zudem werden neue Algorithmen entwickelt und vorgestellt, die gegenüber konventionellen Verfahren eine effizientere Datenauswertung ermöglichen und damit den Weg hin zu Echtzeitanwendungen nicht nur im industriellen Umfeld ebnen.

... James Clerk Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism, the first unified theory of physics, by constructing a set of equations now known as Maxwell equations [1] (for the history of Maxwell equations, see, e.g., Ref. [2]). Maxwell equations are the foundation of classical physics and many technologies that form the modern world. ...

... The differential equations in (1) were derived from an integral form of Maxwell equations [7]. They differ from conventional Maxwell equations in two respects: (a) the appearance of the derivative operator ∂/∂t + v · ∇ to replace ∂/∂t; (b) the appearance of P s . ...

We use the method of field decomposition, a widely used technique in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, to study the small velocity approximation (SVA) of the Lorentz transformation in Maxwell equations for slowly moving media. The “deformed” Maxwell equations derived using SVA in the lab frame can be put into the conventional form of Maxwell equations in the medium’s co-moving frame. Our results show that the Lorentz transformation in the SVA of up to O(v/c) (v is the speed of the medium and c is the speed of light in a vacuum) is essential to derive these equations: the time and charge density must also change when transforming to a different frame, even in the SVA, not just the position and current density, as in the Galilean transformation. This marks the essential difference between the Lorentz transformation and the Galilean one. We show that the integral forms of Faraday and Ampere equations for slowly moving surfaces are consistent with Maxwell equations. We also present Faraday equation in the covariant integral form, in which the electromotive force can be defined as a Lorentz scalar that is independent of the observer’s frame. No evidence exists to support an extension or modification of Maxwell equations.

... Maxwell's equations are probably the most important equations for the field of physics, which have huge importance in both fundamental science and practical technologies [1]. Starting from experimentally observed physics laws, such as Lenz's law and Ampere's law, the exact mathematical expressions of them are given in differential form with proper boundary conditions. ...

... 2. The standard differential form of the Maxwell equations is Lorentz covariance, which is the beauty of the theory and it could coincidently happened over 160 years ago when Maxwell composed the Maxwell's equations [1]. As of today, shall we understand that the Maxwell's equations were coined absolutely to be Lorentz covariance, otherwise one cannot simply call it Maxwell's equations? is this the case? ...

The differential form of the Maxwell’s equations was first derived based on an assumption that the media are stationary, which is the foundation for describing the electro-magnetic coupling behavior of a system. For a general case in which the medium has a time-dependent volume, shape and boundary and may move at an arbitrary velocity field v(r,t) and along a general trajectory, we derived the Maxwell’s equations for a mechano-driven slow-moving media system directly starting from the integral forms of four physics laws, which should be accurate enough for describing the coupling among mechano-electro-magnetic interactions of a general system in practice although it may not Lorentz covarance. Our key point is directly from the four physics laws by describing all of the fields, the space and the time in the frame where the observation is done. The equations should be applicable to not only moving charged solid and soft media that has acceleration, but also charged fluid/liquid media, e.g., fluid electrodynamics. This is a step toward the electrodynamics in non-inertia frame of references. General strategies for solving the Maxwell’s equations for mechano-driven slowing moving medium are presented using the perturbation theory both in time and frequency spaces. Finally, approaches for the electrodynamics of moving media are compared, and related discussions are given about a few interesting questions.

... The physical structure of the electric sea is such that when a body is in motion, an inertial wind passes through the interstitial spaces between its constituent atoms or molecules causing a physical interaction similar in nature to that which occurs when an electric current generates a magnetic field. It is proposed that the all-pervading electric sea is comprised of tiny dipolar aether vortices, densely packed and pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate, [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. These dipolar vortices in turn each comprise a mutually orbiting electron sink and a positron source. ...

... James Clerk Maxwell uses a very similar principle in order to explain the force on an electric current in a magnetic field and also for convectively induced electromagnetic induction. See his physical explanations for the convective terms in equations (5) and (77) in his 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force", [4]. ...

The rattleback (Celtic stone) is the most mysterious phenomenon in classical mechanics. It freely undergoes a complete reversal of its angular momentum without the involvement of any apparent external torque. This mystery will now be investigated at the molecular level.

... Maxwell's equations are probably the most important equations for the field of physics, which have huge importance in both fundamental science and practical technologies [1]. Starting from experimentally observed physics laws, such as Lenz's law and Ampere's law, the exact mathematical expressions of them are given in differential form with proper boundary conditions. ...

... 2. The standard differential form of the Maxwell equations is Lorentz covariance, which is the beauty of the theory and it could coincidently happened over 160 years ago when Maxwell composed the Maxwell's equations [1]. As of today, shall we understand that the Maxwell's equations were coined absolutely to be Lorentz covariance, otherwise one cannot simply call it Maxwell's equations? is this the case? ...

The differential form of the Maxwell's equations was first derived based on an assumption that the media are stationary, which is the foundation for describing the electro-magnetic coupling behavior of a system. For a general case in which the medium has a time-dependent volume, shape and boundary and may move at an arbitrary velocity field v(r,t) and along a general trajectory, we derived the Maxwell's equations for a mechano-driven slow-moving media system directly starting from their integral forms, which should be accurate enough for describing the coupling among mechano-electro-magnetic interactions of a general system in practice. Our key point is from the integral expressions of the four physics laws by describing all of the fields, the space and the time in the frame where the observation is done. The equations should be applicable to not only moving charged solid and soft media, but also charged fluid/liquid media, e.g., fluid electrodynamics. General strategies for solving the Maxwell's equations for mechano-driven slowing moving medium are presented using the perturbation theory both in time and frequency spaces.

... The origin of this effect was later attributed to the formation of an electrical current, which in turn induces a magnetic field and the deflection of the needle via Ampère's law. 36 When a non-insulating material is placed under a temperature gradient ∆T , a voltage difference ∆V is induced through the Seebeck effect (Figure 1.2). The magnitude of this effect can be described using the Seebeck coefficient S: ...

... The projected conductivity tensors σ αβ can be evaluated in a similar way to a density of states, 36) where N is the number of k-points. ...

The ever increasing global demand for energy, coupled with the impending climate emergency has driven an influx of research into new renewable energy sources and methods to increase energy efficiency. Wasted thermal energy results in a significant increase in energy consumption of processes spanning domestic, energy generation and transportation applications, and remains a largely unexploited source of energy. Thermoelectric materials present a clean and reliable method of converting thermal energy to electricity with no waste products of moving parts, and provide an opportunity for energy generation via waste-heat harvesting. Unfortunately, the majority of leading thermoelectric materials consist of toxic and non-earth abundant elements, including tellurium and lead. For these reasons, there is therefore a significant impetus to identify novel alternative thermoelectric materials, which exhibit both high thermoelectric efficiencies and alleviate sustainability concerns. The thermoelectric properties of a material are influenced by the underlying thermal and charge transport properties, with excellent charge transport and poor thermal transport required for a high thermoelectric efficiency. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is the most commonly used metric for assessing the thermoelectric efficiency of a material, and can be simply calculated from the Seebeck coefficient, conductivity and thermal conductivity of a material. In this thesis, an investigation of the thermal and charge transport properties of four mixed-anion compounds, LaZnOP, LaZnOAs, YZnOP, and YZnOAs will be performed using first principles calculations. These materials are of interest, as they possess properties which are commonly indicative of high-ZT thermoelectric materials, including a layered crystal structure, and are predominantly composed of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements. Throughout this work, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations will be used to investigate the structural, lattice dynamical and charge transport properties of these four materials. This will ultimately provide an insight into the intrinsic properties which contribute to the thermoelectric performance of these systems. Special attention is focussed on methods to improve ZT, including an investigation of the nanostructuring potential of the compounds. The intrinsic defect chemistry of one compound, LaZnOP, is explored using hybrid-density functional theory, with a focus on assessing the doping potential of this material. This work aims to guide experimental researchers interested in these or similar compounds in the field of thermoelectrics.

... An analogous problem arises in the generic theory of relativistic fluid flow. 11 There a velocity can be defined as V a = pc 2 /e analogous to our V A = S/E = Gc 2 /E. But, a proof analogous to the proof in Section 3 shows that velocity to be inconsistent with the Einstein velocity relation of special relativity and hence not a valid definition. ...

... where the Lorentz factor is γ B = 1 − V 2 B /c 2 −1/2 . The boost velocity V B can then be found by writing 11 Part I, Chapter 2 of Weinberg [21] presents what I will refer to as a generic theory. It assumes only that a fluid is composed of a countable set of small particles characterized by their mass m n , position x n , and velocity v n . ...

Momentum and energy conservation require electromagnetic field momentum and energy to be treated as physically real, even in static fields. This motivates the conjecture that field momentum might be due to the flow of a relativistic mass density (defined as energy density divided by the square of the speed of light). This article investigates the velocity of such a mass flow and finds a conflict between two different definitions of it, both of which originally seem plausible if the flow is to be taken as real. This investigation is careful to respect the transformation rules of special relativity throughout. The paper demonstrates that the consensus definition of the flow velocity of electromagnetic energy is inconsistent with the transformation rules of special relativity, and hence is incorrect. A replacement flow velocity is derived which is completely consistent with those transformation rules. The conclusion is that these conflicting definitions of flow velocity cannot be resolved in a way that is consistent with special relativity and also allows electromagnetic field momentum density to be the result of relativistic mass flow. Though real, field momentum density cannot be explained as the flow of a relativistic mass density. As a byproduct of the study, it is also shown that there is a comoving system in which the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor is reduced to a simple diagonal form, with two of its diagonal elements equal to the energy density and the other two diagonal elements equal to plus and minus a single parameter derived from the electromagnetic field values, a result that places constraints on possible fluid models of electromagnetism.

... The above studies, while detailed ignored Maxwell displacement current effects. Maxwell in a monumental article [52] introduced a new phenomenon into electromagnetic theory i.e. "real motion of electrical particles in a sea of aethereal vortices". Displacement current has been shown however to also be a quantity arising in a changing electric field and may occur in a vacuum or in a dielectric medium e.g. ...

... Since it was known that an electric current generates a magnetic field around it, a changing electric field must also produce a magnetic field. As magnetic fields are intimately connected to electrical currents, Maxwell [52] showed for the first time that this current was proportional to the rate of change of the electric field and termed it the displacement i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 4 6 ( 2 0 2 1 ) 1 7 6 7 7 e1 7 6 9 6 current. In the past several decades there has been resurgence in Maxwell displacement current effects in engineering electromagnetics. ...

Hydrogen-based MHD power generators offer significant advantages over conventional designs. The optimization of these energy devices benefits from both laboratory scale testing and computational simulation. Motivated by this, in the current work, a mathematical model is developed for MHD pumping of partially ionized hydrogen in a rotating duct with oscillatory, Maxwell displacement and magnetic induction effects under an inclined static magnetic field. Perfectly electrically conducting duct walls are assumed. The non-dimensional conservation equations are solved using the power-series based Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) with an appropriate embedding parameter. Detailed graphical visualization of the impact of emerging parameters on the non-dimensional primary and secondary velocity components (u,v) and magnetic induction components (bx,by) across the duct is presented. Average squared residual errors for all key variables εu,εv,εbx,εby with associated CPU times at various orders of the HAM iteration are also included. Validation with an Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) is also conducted, and excellent agreement is obtained (tabulated). The computations have shown that with increasing inverse Ekman number strong damping is observed in the primary flow whereas the secondary flow is accelerated, in particular in the core region of the duct. With elevation in Maxwell displacement effect (for the case of a 45° inclined magnetic field i.e. θ=π/4 ) there is a strong decrease in primary magnetic induction at the lower wall of the duct and elevation in magnitudes at the upper duct wall; however, in the core region no tangible modification is computed. The opposite trend is observed for the secondary magnetic induction. With increasing magnetic Prandtl number (i.e. ratio of magnetic Reynolds number to ordinary Reynolds number) in the presence of strong Maxwell displacement current, strong magnetic field and high inverse Ekman number, the primary velocity is accelerated in both the left and right half space of the duct with a dip in magnitude at the centreline. However, the secondary velocity exhibits a much lower enhancement in both zones with only weak acceleration near the duct walls. Both velocity components achieve symmetrical distributions about the duct centreline. A significant depletion in primary magnetic induction is computed near the lower duct wall with enhancement near the upper duct wall; the contrary behaviour is exhibited by the secondary induced magnetic field. Applications of the study arise in hybrid rotating hydrogen based MHD energy generators and furthermore the computations provide a good basis for generalization to 3-dimensional flows with commercial multi-physical fluid dynamic codes e.g. ADINA-F, COMSOL, ANSYS FLUENT-Maxwell wherein further phenomena may be explored including Alfven wave effects and dielectric losses.

... It is perhaps no accident that the history of the electromagnetic potentials is even more curvilineal than that of the field strengths. Maxwell (1861Maxwell ( , 1862Maxwell ( , 1864 saw the vector potential to represent Faraday's "electrotonic state" and the electromagnetic field momentum, respectively. Later, the potentials were considered to be superfluous or merely mathematical tools for solving the rationalized Maxwell's equations. ...

... It is perhaps no accident that the history of the electromagnetic potentials is even more curvilineal than that of the field strengths. Maxwell (1861Maxwell ( , 1862Maxwell ( , 1864 saw the vector potential to represent Faraday's "electrotonic state" and the electromagnetic field momentum, respectively. Later, the potentials were considered to be superfluous or merely mathematical tools for solving the rationalized Maxwell's equations. ...

... The bit where it mentions incompressibility, however, probably applies more to the sea of vortices itself rather than to the aethereal electric fluid of which the vortices are comprised. This picture is fully compatible with the sea of aethereal vortices which Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell proposed in Part I of his 1861 paper, "On Physical Lines of Force", [11], in order to account for magnetic force. He then extended the application to electromagnetic induction in Part II of the same paper. ...

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar and they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio, which became known as Weber's constant, was measured numerically to be c√2, where c was very close to the speed of light. Since this experiment had nothing to do with optics, the question then arises as to whether they had perhaps actually measured the speed of electric current, which just happens to be close to the speed of light for the reason that the speed of light is in turn determined by the speed of electric current within the context of the medium for the propagation of light. We must establish the physical commonality between light and electric current.

... In fact, this is an attempt at answering the perfectly legitimate question how light manages to travel through empty space. Moreover, it is fostered by Maxwell's attempts to describe the propagation of electricity through vacuum by the concept of rolling vortices (see [80,81], pp. 311). ...

This paper wants to draw attention to several issues in electrodynamic field theory and to make way for a rational continuum approach to the subject. The starting point are the balances for magnetic flux and electric charge, both in a very general formulation for volumes and for open surfaces, all of which can deform and be immaterial or material. The spatial point‐of‐view for the description of fields is favored and its advantages in comparison to the concept of material particles is explained. A straightforward answer to the question of how to choose units for the electromagnetic fields most suitably is also presented. The transformation properties of the electromagnetic fields are addressed by rewriting the balances in space–time notation. Special attention is paid to the connection between the two sets of electromagnetic fields through the so‐called Maxwell–Lorentz–æther relations. The paper ends with an outlook into constitutive theory of matter under the influence of electromagnetic fields and a discussion on curious developments in context with Maxwell's equations.

... Maxwell, meanwhile, in Parts I and II of his 1861 paper, "On Physical Lines of Force", [3], advocated a sea of molecular vortices as being the medium responsible for magnetic force and electromagnetic induction. In Part III of the same paper, on elasticity and electrostatics, while introducing displacement current, Maxwell's sea of tiny vortices morphed into an elastic dielectric solid which Maxwell concluded to be the medium responsible for the propagation of light waves. ...

The Dirac Sea was proposed by P.A.M. Dirac in the year 1930 to explain the negative solutions to the Dirac Equation of 1928. A few years later, in 1934, Dirac invoked the Dirac Sea idea to explain the phenomena of electron-positron pair production and annihilation, that had been discovered by Carl Anderson in 1932. The suggestion was, that throughout the universe there exists an all-pervading underworld in a negative energy state, and that this is filled with electrons. Similarities to nineteenth century luminiferous aethers will be discussed and the question asked as to why the Dirac Sea, and later theories of the quantum vacuum, have never been associated with the propagation medium for electromagnetic waves.

... This was in fact Maxwell's goal throughout his studies of electromagnetism, but we focus on the transition from Maxwell's "dynamical theory" paper of 1865 to his Treatise of 1873 (For Maxwell's methodologies in refs. [6] and [22] see [7, pp. 73-126]). ...

In addition to becoming the fundamental framework of electromagnetism, Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics has long been a source of inspiration for physicists. Here it is claimed that the key to Maxwell's success in this domain is his creative adaptation of a new methodology, including his appeal to the concept of energy.

... 13 In a larger historical context, Ampère's insistence that magnetic forces obey Newton's third law earned him the sobriquet by Maxwell 14 as the "Newton of electricity." Ampère's authority held up acceptance of the "Lorentz" force law (stated obliquely by Maxwell in 1861 15,16 ) until efforts by Thomson 17,18 and Heaviside 19 in 1891 clarified that electromagnetic fields carry momentum as well as energy (following the first clear statement of the "Lorentz" force law by Heaviside 20 in 1885). ...

... 13 In a larger historical context, Ampère's insistence that magnetic forces obey Newton's third law earned him the sobriquet by Maxwell 14 as the "Newton of electricity." Ampère's authority held up acceptance of the "Lorentz" force law (stated obliquely by Maxwell in 1861 15,16 ) until efforts by Thomson 17,18 and Heaviside 19 in 1891 clarified that electromagnetic fields carry momentum as well as energy (following the first clear statement of the "Lorentz" force law by Heaviside 20 in 1885). ...

... 13 In a larger historical context, Ampère's insistence that magnetic forces obey Newton's third law earned him the sobriquet by Maxwell 14 as the "Newton of electricity." Ampère's authority held up acceptance of the "Lorentz" force law (stated obliquely by Maxwell in 1861 15,16 ) until efforts by Thomson 17,18 and Heaviside 19 in 1891 clarified that electromagnetic fields carry momentum as well as energy (following the first clear statement of the "Lorentz" force law by Heaviside 20 in 1885). ...

... Since Maxwell wrote down his great electromagnetism (or classical Electrodynamics modernly) equations [2], which unified all the electric and magnetic phenomena, the world has changed hugely because of these equally great experimental proves and applications of these equations, such as Hertz's experiment and Tesla's alternating current invention, etc. It was when Einstein was exploring the theory of electrodynamics of moving bodies, that he found his great theory of special relativity [3]. ...

In the recent work \cite{Wang:2021p2}, the author proposed the expanded Maxwell's equations for moving charged media system, which has important applications in the technical domain of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). It seems to us that this proposal is very interesting but subtle. Considering a very short time, we can approximately define the inertial frame of reference. Because the Maxwell's equations for the static media system is the traditional Maxwell's equations, we think that the Maxwell's equations for the moving media system are still covariant, i.e., are still the traditional Maxwell's equations, which are consistent with the two fundamental postulates of special relativity. We prove it explicitly by considering the Lorentz transformation at the order ${\cal O} (v)$. Therefore, it seems to us that the electric and magnetic fields in the expanded Maxwell's equations are not in the same reference frame such as lab or co-moving frame. Defining the electric and magnetic fields in the lab and co-moving frames explicitly, we derive the expanded Maxwell's equations for moving charged media system. Furthermore, we provide a possible way to generate the new terms, which have an additional coefficient $\alpha$ related to the media. It seems to us that it is still subtle from the theoretical point of view, but it might be useful in applications.

... In that situation, each mirror behaves like a specular (mirror-like) solar sail [1] [2]. As first theorized by the remarkable James Clerk Maxwell with his "molecular vortex" theory [3] that he later transformed into generic equations, light reflecting from an object should impart radiation pressure on that object. Lebedew [4] in the early 1900s and Nichols and Hull [5] [6] later all confirmed Maxwell's predictions. ...

The physics of photon momentum are straightforward mathematically but can produce surprisingly counterintuitive outcomes. A few simple calculations show how a single photon of green light can, in principle, impart two locomotive engines’ worth of momentum without violating energy conservation. The calculation is one example of why quantum mechanics needs better accounting of linear momentum.

... This computer is made of geometrical structures of resonant modes of the string and the encoding information as vibration over the geometry of the strings. This has been suggested from the deduction of the Schrödinger equation using the Navier-Stokes equations of fluids [10] which are also an extension of Maxwell's original works on a vortex in space (quantum vacuum currently) [11]. In this same line of interpretation of the Schrödinger equation as an equation describing a fluid in motion we have [12] that evokes the possibility of the existence of a photonic liquid crystal. ...

In this paper we discuss the number and the nature of the units we own in 5-theory in the frame of the current SI, presenting a preliminary equivalence between them. Notice that in a theory of all (5-theory), the current units we perceive must be just a combination of some primordial units. Being 5-theory a fermionic string theory, the only element that exists is the string, hence the units refer to the dimensions of this string, and how this string, through its movements, generates the units. In this discussion, we present that 3 conceptual levels of Cosmos and Universes exist (the meaning of Cosmos and Universe will be detailed also in the context of this description), the Geometrical Cosmos, the Computational Cosmos, the two Computational Universes, and the two Holographic Universes. We show that only one unit is needed on the Computational Universes, representing a relation between time and space. We show the rules that allow transforming the units from one universe to another.

... II. In order to better understand how gravity acts to reduce centrifugal force, we will identify the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum with Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices [2], as amended by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field", [3], [4]. This means that Maxwell's vortices become dipolar vortices, each containing an aether sink (electron) and an aether source (positron). ...

Centrifugal force is an inertial effect which is induced by motion through the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum. While it can act in opposition to gravity, there is evidence from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, that gravity, if strong enough, can affect the physical structure of the 4D space-time continuum in such a way as to destroy the centrifugal force and convert it into an electrostatic force of attraction that augments the gravity. The physical nature of centrifugal force and the manner in which it can be altered by gravity will now be investigated.

... James Clerk Maxwell began working on Michael Faraday's lines of force. In his 1861 paper titled, On Physical Lines of Force, Maxwell modelled these magnetic lines of force using a sea of molecular vortices that he considered to be partly made of aether and partly made of ordinary matter [18]. ...

There is a lack of research, access, and understanding of human frequencies and biomarkers derived from bioresonance software. AO Scan is a voice and body analysis software that remotely monitors the electromagnetic and magnetic scalar wave differences in up to 120,000 human frequencies and biomarkers from short scans over a few minutes. In this ground-based pilot study, 90 non-invasive Vitals and Comprehensive Scans were conducted on a six-person crew during a two week Analog Mission at the LunAres research station in Poland. Complete blood count (CBC) biomarkers from six Vitals scans were recorded for each analog astronaut and compared to two blood tests from February 12 and 26, 2021. With six analog astronauts generating 3,600 biomarkers per Vitals scan each day, the study analysed the accuracy of 0.833% of the 54,000 biomarkers generated from the Vitals Scan. The first data analysis yielded an accuracy of 65% in describing both the in and out of range CBC biomarkers. A high false positive rate of 76.9% was observed, as well as a false negative rate of 30.1%, a true negative rate of 23.1%, and a true positive rate of 69.3%. The second data analysis determined how many CBC biomarkers deviated under 30 or over 70 percent from the maximum healthy CBC biomarker range. The study results are largely inconclusive considering a variety of reasons including instrument sensitivity, time differences, small sample size, diet, and environmental factors. This experiment represents the first peer reviewed study to use the bioresonance non-linear scanner AO Scan to remotely monitor the health of humans and analog astronauts. Further research is required to quantify the accuracy and efficacy of AO Scan by comparing them with established medical diagnostic tools in order to understand the potential significance in monitoring human health.

... It is convenient to separate the gradient in F N in eq. (2.4) into one term that depends on the electrochemical potential gradient and the temperature gradient dependent term by 2 In the most cases the regarded temperature range reaches from the cold side to the hot side of the thermoelectricum. Please note that this model is only applied in the thermodynamic description for thermoelectric devices which are operated at a particular mean temperature. ...

The presented work consists of three major topics: i) the theoretical background on thermoelectrics with the focus on Skutterudites, ii) the description of a home build MBE device for depositing thin Skutterudite films, and iii) deposition of CoSb3, FeSb3 and filled FeSb3 thin films on different substrates at various temperatures. In the first part thermoelectric effects are derived from the thermodynamic point of view in order to point out the role of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical, and the thermal conductivity for the thermodynamic efficiency and potential power output capability of thermoelectric devices. The relationship between the thermoelectric transport parameters and the electronic band structure is derived by using the Boltzmann theory with the relaxation time approach. By variation of the effective mass of the charge carriers, the thermal conductivity, the position of the electrochemical potential, and the temperature, in the framework of the 1-band model, the influence of those parameters on the efficiency are being be discussed in detail. Using the results of this analysis, some requirements on the band structure of good thermoelectric materials could be stated. A complex and fully operational MBE was built and set up, as it is described in the second part. With the device, thin films can be co-deposited automatically and reproducibly, following a recipe which is defined beforehand. Setting up the device from scratch gave deep insight in the MBE technique and allows for custom adaptations, which can usually not be taken for granted while commercial devices are used. The main part covers the co-deposition of thin films on heated substrates with the goal of achieving polycrystalline films on 100 nm SiO2/Si(001) and heteroepitaxial growth on prepared InSb(001) and KCl(001) substrates. The calibration of the deposition rates and description of the evaporation characteristics of the effusion cells are investigated in detail in order to find the optimum parameters for thin film depositions.

... I hope that future researchers will solve the problem posed by Professor Ekstein and derive relativistic interactions between particles from some deep yet unknown principles. Then, indeed, we will be able to leave mystical quantum elds and James Clerk Maxwell [161]. Thus if we strew iron lings on paper near a magnet, each ling will be magnetized by induction, and the consecutive lings will unite by their opposite poles, so as to form bres, and these bres will indicate the direction of the lines of force. ...

Sagredo, Salviati, Simplicio and their friends debate relativity, quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and quantum gravity

... In section 790, entitled 'Plane Waves', Maxwell begins by proposing the existence of a plane wave moving with a front that is normal to the z-axis. He then recalls the equation of magnetic induction, ∇×A = B, which had its origins in the sea of molecular vortices that was explained in his earlier 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force" [2]. Although Maxwell was no longer overtly promoting the sea of molecular vortices at this stage, the equation of magnetic induction still nevertheless implies a rotation axis, with the magnetic induction vector, B, being an axial vector representing the vorticity of a circulating electromagnetic momentum, denoted by A. ...

Since Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell wrote his Treatise in 1873, it has generally been believed that wireless electromagnetic radiation consists of sinusoidally oscillating electric and magnetic fields, perpendicular to each other and mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The reasons as to why Maxwell concluded these mutually perpendicular orientations will now be investigated, as will the issue of the relative phase in time as between these electric and magnetic disturbances.

... The circuit π will always be restricted to paths within a conductor where real charges exist so that the work done W in moving a real charge Q around the path will equal the charge times the potential drop V from the highest to lowest point of potential. This programme expands on Feynman's position [104] that "only the A field is real" (since here A only needs to be defined within the conductors and the B field is viewed just as a mathematical manipulation of the vector potential).This view is confirmed by the real Aharonov-Bohm effect [105], which has demonstrated finite, measurable values of A, while the B field is everywhere and always zero. The circulatory integral (not quite complete) shows that the total flux is just another way of looking at the electro-kinetic momentum when it is evaluated all around the conduction circuit. ...

This research programme continues with its fundamental re-analysis of the electromagnetic interaction. In contrast to the continuous-charge model of electricity that is today used as the foundation for presentations of Classical Electromagnetism (CEM), this paper now analyzes the continuous interaction of pairs of charged point particles that better reflects the known basis of electricity-electrons. This shows several surprising NEW RESULTS, demonstrating that EM is worth re-visiting. This research has now solved the two-electron dynamic problem that had resisted every prior attempt since 1900 based on every model of continuous interactions between electrified point objects. This treatise also extends this new two-electron viewpoint to situations involving myriads of pair-wise interactions by showing that classical electromagnetism is a consequence of the statistical effects of very many of these interactions arising from multiple, remote electrons moving within metallic conductors on one or many 'target' electrons. A new model of electricity is proposed for the intermediate (or mesoscopic) scale of phenomena to replace the electrical-fluid model of Helmholtz that is still used today to justify classical electromagnetism in metallic conduction. A new mechanism is proposed to explain Hertz's famous discovery of remote EM oscillations, misnamed EM waves. This theory now extends the rival, forgotten ('continental') approach to CEM to directly include radiation, as just a long-range induction effect, removing the only believed advantage previously associated with Maxwell's field theory. The emphasis here is shifted back from empty space (or field-point) to the actual experiments involving electrical currents in metallic wires that were the experimental foundation for CEM's integral and differential equations, which only summarized these effects mathematically but never provided any physical justification or realistic insights. This research has been entitled a Treatise deliberately to replace Maxwell's little read masterpiece that is canonized as the definitive account of Classical Electromagnetism. It is designed as a unified theory of electrified particle dynamics to integrate ALL the earlier, competitive theories in this area, which were developed throughout all the Nineteenth Century. This radical approach links directly to Newtonian mechanics to provide a seamless unity to all of classical physics. These results now demonstrate that Maxwell's Equations (as a field theory) are not a fundamental model for understanding the basic interaction between any types of elementary particles. This view challenges the last 150 years in theoretical physics that has been constructed only on the mathematics of continuous fields, leading to quantum field theories. This approach eliminates the explicit force densities (electric and magnetic fields), the 'instant' Coulomb potential and the single-time ('God-like') view of nature that have dominated physics for 300 years because these ideas could only use the simplified mathematical representation of differential equations, acting a single point in space at a single time. This research programme uses an extension of the Newtonian schema of classical mechanics that represents the locations of point particles, not by 3D standard algebraic vectors but by a non-commutative complex algebra based on Hamilton's quaternions called here 'Natural Vectors'(NV). This new representation is extended here from representing time variations of physical quantities at a single location (the 'field point') to representing the differences between pairs of interacting point objects (relationships); this automatically advances the idea that even 'classical' electrons must be treated as 'fermions' (as this is an anti-symmetric algebraic representation). This research model has now been extended to quantized interactions.

... On the contrary, it is used in all kinds of everyday situations, being used, moreover, as much to refer to the thing "painted" or modeled as for the "painting" or model of some original. In the sciences it began to be used towards the end of the nineteenth century, through the allusion to "mechanical models" or, with different terminology, "mechanical analogies", proposed and discussed, among others, by Maxwell (1855Maxwell ( , 1861, Thomson (1842Thomson ( , 1904, and Boltzmann (1902) and Duhem (1906), or, in the context of German physics, where the term "Bild", in singular, or "Bilder", in plural was usual (Helmholtz 1894;Hertz 1894;Boltzmann 1905, who discussed the "models" and developed a "Bild conception" of physics in particular and of science in general). Its use, however, was not limited to the field of physics, but extended to other domains of science, being of central importance in many scientific contexts. ...

The published version of the book has missed to include the correct figures in Chap. 10.

The aim of this work is to prove that the main properties of Ball Lightning (BL) may be explained by the action of the following physical processes. (1) Coulomb repulsive force between like charges constituting BL; (2) the pseudomagnetic force between like charges constituting BL, the character of pseudomagnetic force (attractive or repulsive) being dependent on mutual orientation of spins of their charges; (3) the spin supercurrent emerging both between spins of charges constituting BL and between these spins and spins of the quantum objects of neighboring bodies, it transfers the angular momentum associated with spins. The investigations of spin supercurrent were conducted by M. Vuorio, A. Borovic-Romanov and other scientists from 1976.
For the achievement of above mentioned aim in this work the following properties of BL are analyzed: the formation in the streak of lightning channel; the placing of the electric charge on BL surface; the possibility of its “clinging” to electric wires; radiation of light; spherical, ellipsoidal, or ring-like forms; the possibility of recovering the spherical form of BL from significant deformations; the magnetizing of metallic bodies; the emergence of force interaction between BL and magnetized bodies; the evaporation from BL of a substance exhibiting the properties of ferrites; disappearance of BL as a result of its explosions both in external electric pulse and in the absence of the pulse.

This book offers a clear and interdisciplinary introduction to the structural and scattering properties of complex photonic media, focusing on deterministic aperiodic structures and their conceptual roots in geometry and number theory. It integrates important results and recent developments into a coherent and physically consistent story, balanced between mathematical designs, scattering and optical theories, and engineering device applications. The book includes discussions of emerging device applications in metamaterials and nano-optics technology. Both academia and industry will find the book of interest as it develops the underlying physical and mathematical background in partnership with engineering applications, providing a perspective on both fundamental optical sciences and photonic device technology. Emphasizing the comprehension of physical concepts and their engineering implications over the more formal developments, this is an essential introduction to the stimulating and fast-growing field of aperiodic optics and complex photonics.

In recent years, the internet of things (IoT) has been progressing rapidly with the integration of technologies in various fields. At this stage, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology based on the...

In the second part of the study, the author continues to build a unified concept of energy interactions based on the hypothesis of a universal mechanism operating at all levels of matter.
Previous attempts to create a ‘theory of everything’ failed as they proposed different mechanisms for various interactions. The other problem is that they invent virtual non-observable particles as carriers of interaction. Each time the experiment results fall out of the model’s predictions, a new particle pops out of the hat by a wave of a magic wand. The outcome is that mainstream theories do not have predictive power, and their explanatory power is based on the mysterious properties of virtual ghosts. Carried away by the convenience of the description that could be applied to any phenomena without the risk of being refuted, we lost the physical and common sense in our physical models. It is time to come back to the senses.
Currently, the ‘particle zoo’ has hundreds of inhabitants, and game rules are so complex that even the founders of the Standard Model of particle physics confess that it is incomprehensible and inconsistent. Some think that this reflects the complexity of nature. But is it really complex in its fundamental laws? It demonstrates the same regularities in all kinds of energy interactions, and their mathematical description can be as simple as ratios of integer numbers. Do we have to complicate our models and multiply entities to infinity?
The author stops this endless spiral of ghosts and turns to the physical meaning. Thus, he gets theoretical physics back to science. The book offers a consistent description of a wide range of phenomena and shows that the Theory of Energy Harmony can explain common regularities of all energy interactions. The new theory is not a ‘heaven-sent revelation’ but is grounded on research done by generations of scientists. It just takes their ideas a little further and overcomes the disintegrated state of different areas of physics.
The book also contains bridges to the following volumes of the series that will take us from non-living to living matter, starting from the general levels of description and going down to the finest physical, physiological and technological details on how living systems form, function, develop and adapt to the world in which they exist.

The conventional Maxwell’s equations are for media whose boundaries and volumes are fixed. But for cases that involve moving media and time-dependent configuration, the equations have to be expanded. Here, starting from the integral form of the Maxwell’s equations for general cases, we first derived the expanded Maxwell’s equations in differential form by assuming that the medium is moving as a rigid translation object. Secondly, the expanded Maxwell’s equations are further developed with including the polarization density term Ps in displacement vector owing to electrostatic charges on medium surfaces as produced by effect such as triboelectrification, based on which the first principle theory for the triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is developed. The expanded equations are the most comprehensive governing equations including both electromagnetic interaction and power generation as well as their coupling. Thirdly, general approaches are presented for solving the expanded Maxwell’s equations using vector and scalar potentials as well as perturbation theory, so that the scheme for numerical calculations is set. Finally, we investigated the conservation of energy as governed by the expanded Maxwell’s equations, and derived the general approach for calculating the displacement current ∂∂tPs for the output power of TENGs. The current theory is general and it may impact the electromagnetic wave generation and interaction (reflection) with moving train/car, flight jets, missiles, comet, and even galaxy stars if observed from earth.

The mechanism behind Stern-Gerlach experiment was covered by layers of blurred concepts; to unveil that, we revisited the dynamic of electric current discovered by Ørsted in 1820, which related electricity to magnetism and the production of Circular Magnetic Field (CMF), originally produced by charged in motion; the CMF never incorporated into theoretical models; while the former was mathematized by Ampere, strengthening the "action at distance" enigma, resulted in entanglement, exacerbated by quanta (photon), and wave particle duality hence created the Quantum Mechanics, thus quantized the Stern-Gerlach experiment, and sealed the believe in QM; but after field's interaction formula was discovered, it suggested the production of Spinning Magnetic Field (SMF) by electrons, protons and neutrons, explained nuclear force, atomic model, stability and spectral lines; thus in the original experiment by Stern & Gerlach, the flow of silver atom (Ag) from the furnace across the inhomogeneous magnetic field (B I), is explained as due to attraction of the leading +ve SMF of Ag by the-ve B I forcing all +ve Ag to strike on the right of screen, while the attraction of leading-ve SMF Ag by the +ve B I forced all-ve Ag to strike on the left; Ag strike on right or left of screen at one of four places designated by the angle θ, while its position from the center is determined by its velocity; the experiment fit in the classical physics, similar to the double slits experiment; therefore this work will help restoring the common sense to the physical science. Results: Electrons, protons and neutrons, produced Spinning Magnetic Field (SMF), its shape and magnitude in proton which is the nucleus of hydrogen atom, is the reason behind the seven series of the spectral lines, while the summation of SMF by neutrons and protons in atoms gives each its unique SMF, the interaction of the ±ve SMF of silver atom (Ag) with the opposite ±ve of the inhomogeneous magnetic field in the original Stern-Gerlach Experiment is realized to resulted in attracting the Ag to right and left, which's is the main reason of the its separation. Conclusion: The separation of silver atom (Ag) in the original experiment by both Stern and Gerlach in 1922, is realized as due to the interaction of the leading ±ve of the dipole moment of the previously unknown Spinning Magnetic Field (SMF) by Ag with the opposite ±ve of the inhomogeneous magnetic field, while the structural shape and magnitude of this SMF in hydrogen atom, is the reason behind the radiation of seven series of the spectral lines in hydrogen atom.

The Planck-Einstein relation, E = hf, relates the energy of discrete pulses of black body radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays to their wave frequency. This relationship appears to contradict the wave theory of light. An investigation will now take place regarding whether the Planck-Einstein relation, and Planck’s constant itself, lie in the domain of the medium for the propagation of light, or in the vestibule of the atom, or in both.

Key words: rationality, communication, maxwellian revolution, Ampere-Weber research programme, synthesis, Kantian epistemology .Abstract. Why did Maxwell’s programme supersede the Ampere-Weber one? – To answer the question one has to consider the intertheoretic context of maxwellian electrodynamics genesis and development.It is demonstrated that maxwellian electrodynamics was created as a result of the old pre-maxwellian programmes reconciliation: the electrodynamics of Ampere-Weber, the wave theory of Young-Fresnel and Faraday’s programme. The programmes’ meeting led to construction of the hybrid theory at first with an irregular set of theoretical schemes. However, step by step, on revealing and gradual eliminating the contradictions between the programmes involved, the hybrid set is “put into order” (Maxwell’s term).A hierarchy of theoretical schemes starting from the crossbreeds (the displacement current) and up to usual hybrids is set up. And after the displacement current construction the interpenetration of the pre-maxwellian programmes begins that markes the commencement of theoretical schemes of optics and electromagnetism real unification. Maxwell’s programme did supersede the Ampere-Weber one because it did assimilate the ideas of the Ampere-Weber programme, as well as the presuppositions of the programmes of Young-Fresnel and Faraday properly co-ordinating them with each other. But the opposite proposition is not true. Ampere-Weber programme did not assimilate the propositions of the Maxwellian programme. Maxwell’s victory became possible because the core of Maxwell’s unification strategy was formed by Kantian epistemology looked through the prism of William Whewell and such representatives of Scottish Enlightenment as Thomas Reid and William Hamilton. Maxwell did put forward as a basic synthetic principle the idea that radically differed from that of Ampere-Weber approach by its open, flexible and contra-ontological, strictly epistemological, Kantian character. For Maxwell, ether was not the last building block of physical reality, from which all the charges and fields should be constructed. “Action at a distance”, “incompressible fluid”, “molecular vortices” were contrived analogies for Maxwell, capable only to direct the researcher at the “right” mathematical relations.Namely the application of Kantian epistemology enabled Hermann von Helmholtz and his pupil Heinrich Hertz to arrive at such a version of Maxwell’s theory that served a heuristical basis for the radio waves discovery.

There are three kinds of sources available to reconstruct the reflections that led Einstein to special relativity: a few contemporary letters and documents, his impersonal accounts of the genesis of this theory, and recollections of his own path. At first glance, contradictions within and between these sources hamper the reliability of Einstein’s accounts. Yet, a closer analysis reveals much more consistency than foreseen and helps eliminate the dubious, contradictory elements. It then becomes possible to combine the three kinds of sources to produce a minimally speculative and yet fairly coherent account of the genesis of special relativity.

This paper is the eighth part of a series of eleven of QAM-UQAM-NMT-2017-Ver-3&4. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of my new nuclear theory, the Nuclear Magneton Theory of Mass Quantization, NMT. Three methods for prediction of the α-decay half-life formulae, the Viola-Seaborg, the Royer GLDM, and the Sobiczewski-Parkhomenko, are applied to evaluate the half-life of the atomic masses theoretically calculated. NMT found out 20 isotopes belong to Hs element that have long half-life T1/2 and 3 of them exceed 1010 year. NMT considered them as part of the Island of stability. In the previous article, NMT found out 115 isotopes belonging to Z=100–107 (Fm–Bh) that have long T1/2 and 20 isotopes exceed 1010 year.

Dos conceptos metacientíficos que han sido, y continúan siendo, objeto de análisis filosófico son los de modelo y teoría. Pero mientras que al concepto de teoría científica fue a uno de los que mayor atención le dedicaran los filósofos de la ciencia durante el siglo XX, recién en las últimas décadas el concepto de modelo científico ha pasado a ocupar una posición central en la reflexión filosófica. Sin embargo, lo ha hecho de tal modo que, en la actualidad, como lo afirma Jim Bogen en la contratapa del libro Scientific Models in the Philosophy of Science, de Daniela Bailer-Jones, “[l]a literatura filosófica estándar sobre el papel de los modelos en el razonamiento científico es voluminosa, desorganizada y confusa”. A pesar de ello, uno de los ejes que permitiría organizar al menos parte de dicha literatura, y con lo cual cierra el libro citado, es aquello que es identificado como uno de los “temas filosóficos contemporáneos: cómo se relacionan las teorías y los modelos entre sí” (Bailer-Jones 2009, p. 208).Es por ello que, en esta introducción a los números especiales de Metatheoria dedicados al tema de “Modelos y teorías en biología”, presentaremos los principales avances que se han hecho en el análisis filosófico de los conceptos de modelo y teoría, en general y en biología en particular, y también haremos lo propio con las respuestas que se le han dado al problema de “cómo se relacionan las teorías y los modelos entre sí”.

Background
There is growing interest in neuromodulation-based therapeutics as tools for individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Through electromagnetic induction, techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can noninvasively depolarize cortical cells in the induced electrical field and monosynaptic afferents. The ability of TMS to modulate the brain is dependent upon 2 factors which may be compromised in individuals with AUD: 1) gray matter volume (GMV) at the site of stimulation and 2) scalp-to-cortex distance. This study tested the hypotheses that these aspects of neural architecture are compromised in AUD patients, and that, accordingly AUD patients may need a higher TMS dose in order to depolarize the cortex.
Methods
High-resolution magnetic resonance images were acquired from 44 individuals with AUD and 44 age-matched healthy controls (n=88). Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was conducted. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis was performed at three EEG 10-20 sites commonly used in TMS for AUD: FP1 (left frontal pole), F3 (left DLPFC) and C3 (left motor cortex). Scalp-to-cortex distance and TMS electric fields were assessed at these EEG sites.
Results
Individuals with AUD had significantly lower GMV in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, supramarginal gyri and the left DLPFC (voxel-threshold p<0.05, cluster-threshold p<0.05) as well as within all three TMS target locations (F1,264=14.12, p=0.0002). There was no significant difference in scalp-to-cortex distance between the AUD and the healthy control group at any tested cortical location (F3,252 =1.906, p=0.129).
Conclusions
Individuals with AUD had significantly lower GMV in multiple areas of interest for TMS treatment, however these volumetric reductions did not impact scalp-to-cortex distance. Given previous studies which have shown that TMS-evoked changes in cortical and subcortical activity are dependent on GMV, these data suggest that individuals with AUD may need to be given higher doses of TMS in order to sufficiently modulate the neural circuits of interest.

The aim of the paper is to analyze how language affects scientific research, from planning experiments and interpreting their results, through constructing models and the testing their predictions, to building theories and justifying their principles. I try to give an overview of the potentialities of language of science. I propose to distinguish six potentialities: analytic, expressive, methodical, integrative, explanatory, and constitutive power of language. I will shortly characterize each of these potentialities and illustrate their contribution to scientific research. Although I believe that the theory is valid for a wide range of scientific disciplines, all illustrations are taken from physics.

My PhD thesis done at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, under the supervision of Prof. Meir Orenstein.
Full text can be found here:
https://www.graduate.technion.ac.il/Theses/Abstracts.asp?Id=26684

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