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The Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory: The Development of a New Assessment Instrument

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Internet pornography usage has become widespread in recent years, and the task of assessing this usage has proven difficult. Furthermore, assessing this usage in religious populations has proven nearly impossible due to the morally charged nature of the subject. As such, this study recounts the development of a new instrument for assessing Internet pornography usage that could be effectively used in religious populations. Factor analyses of the instrument revealed a three-factor structure that demonstrated acceptable reliability (α >.80) for each factor, as well as some measure of construct validity. The instrument also offered initial analyses of the feelings of guilt and distress experienced by religious populations as a result of their Internet pornography consumption. These results demonstrate great potential for future clinical application as well as research, particularly in populations that are prone to experience more guilt as a result of their usage.
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... This research underscores a subset of the population of users who, despite not meeting the diagnostic criteria for CSBD (ICD-11;Kraus et al., 2018), develop the perception that they are addicted due to moral objection (Grubbs et al., 2018a(Grubbs et al., , 2018b(Grubbs et al., , 2020bLewczuk et al., 2020). Collectively, the research suggests that perceived addiction can occur as a product of moral incongruence (Grubbs et al., 2018a), and for these individuals, the resulting perceptions of addiction may be the driving force behind the subsequent excessive guilt, shame (Grubbs et al., 2010;Volk et al., 2016), and psychological distress (Perry, 2018;Volk et al., 2019). ...
... The initial works assessing PPMI suggested that selfconscious emotions (e.g., guilt and shame) were the consequence of moral incongruence (Grubbs et al., 2010) and a potential factor motivating religious individuals to pathologize their sexual behavior (Kwee et al., 2007). The role of shame in PPMI has been emphasized in early (Grubbs et al., 2015b(Grubbs et al., , 2015cVolk et al., 2016) and recent research Grubbs et al., 2018b;Volk et al., 2019) in which self-conscious emotions appear to comprise a unique component of PPMI, emotional distress experienced as a product of moral incongruence or compulsive sexual behavior. ...
... As a result, a subset of research has emerged suggesting that morally incongruent pornography use motivates individuals to pathologize their use, which leads to increased sex-based shame. It is this noted discrepancy between the distress and shame religious users experience and their clinical level of compulsivity that led to the development of the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI; Grubbs et al., 2010), the first instrument to measure the self-conscious emotions and distress experienced by morally incongruent pornography users. ...
Article
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Researchers focused on the model of pornography problems due to moral incongruence (PPMI) have suggested that perceptions of addiction, stemming from a misalignment between one's moral values and online sexual behavior, may lead to heightened sexual shame. Even so, it has been suggested that the associations found in previous models of PPMI may have been inflated by the inclusion of the emotional distress subscale in the widely used Cyber Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI-9), leading many to use the abridged 4-item version (i.e., the CPUI-4), which excludes emotional distress. Prior models assessing sexual shame have yet to fully address this potential methodological limitation. Considering advances in the conceptualization of PPMI and recommendations concerning best practices, a sample of participants (N = 296) that reported using pornography in the last six months was utilized to compare findings from two moderated mediation models. The first model assessed the differential strength of effects when the subscales of the CPUI-9 were assessed as separate mediators of the associations between moral incongruence and sexual shame, while the second model examined whether such associations persisted when using the recommended CPUI-4. Model results provide further justification for previous findings, indicating that associations between constructs were not the sole result of emotional distress, which supports the utility of the CPUI-4 in models that include sexual shame. Findings provide added support for sexual shame as a unique outcome among those who, due to moral incongruence, perceive that they are addicted to Internet pornography.
... -Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al. 2010); -Compulsive Pornography Compulsion (CPC) (Noor et al.2014); -Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (Reid et al., 2011); -Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (Coleman et al. 2001); -Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) (Carnes et al. 2010); -Internet Sex Screening Test (Delmonico & Miller 2003); -Index of Problematic Online Experiences (Mitchell et al., 2009); -Pornography Consumption Inventory (Reid et al., 2010). Questi strumenti sono stati ben documentati come utili per misurare l'ipersessualità generale e in particolare si sono focalizzati ampiamente sulla dipendenza dalla pornografia su Internet (Grubbs et al., 2010), ad eccezione del Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al., 2010). ...
... -Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al. 2010); -Compulsive Pornography Compulsion (CPC) (Noor et al.2014); -Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (Reid et al., 2011); -Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (Coleman et al. 2001); -Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) (Carnes et al. 2010); -Internet Sex Screening Test (Delmonico & Miller 2003); -Index of Problematic Online Experiences (Mitchell et al., 2009); -Pornography Consumption Inventory (Reid et al., 2010). Questi strumenti sono stati ben documentati come utili per misurare l'ipersessualità generale e in particolare si sono focalizzati ampiamente sulla dipendenza dalla pornografia su Internet (Grubbs et al., 2010), ad eccezione del Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al., 2010). Tra i limiti individuati una riflessione è che questi gli strumenti sono spesso troppo lunghi per un uso funzionale e un punteggio veloce. ...
... -Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al. 2010); -Compulsive Pornography Compulsion (CPC) (Noor et al.2014); -Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (Reid et al., 2011); -Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (Coleman et al. 2001); -Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) (Carnes et al. 2010); -Internet Sex Screening Test (Delmonico & Miller 2003); -Index of Problematic Online Experiences (Mitchell et al., 2009); -Pornography Consumption Inventory (Reid et al., 2010). Questi strumenti sono stati ben documentati come utili per misurare l'ipersessualità generale e in particolare si sono focalizzati ampiamente sulla dipendenza dalla pornografia su Internet (Grubbs et al., 2010), ad eccezione del Cyber-Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) (Grubbs et al., 2010). Tra i limiti individuati una riflessione è che questi gli strumenti sono spesso troppo lunghi per un uso funzionale e un punteggio veloce. ...
Technical Report
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The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the main issues related to the use of the Internet as a contribution to the creation of shared definitions and comparable studies. The first part illustrates the synthesis of the reference scientific literature with particular attention to the definition of constructs, to the main evidence on treatments and strategies for preventing Internet addiction; a chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the emerging phenomenon of social withdrawal (hikikomori) and its implications with Internet addiction. The second part describes the project named “Rete senza fili. Salute e Internet Addiction: tante connessioni possibili” and the activities of some partners of the project. Finally, the third part summarizes some practical experiences of the local social and health resources who participated in the Technical Roundtable for the mapping and census of territorial resources for Internet addictions.
... Researchers and practitioners are examining the changes that occur in individuals and trying to help individuals overcome their problems with technology in their lives (Shek, Tang, & Lo, 2009;Young, 2007). Some of the problems that arise in HTI are internet addiction (Beard & Wolf, 2001;Young, 1998), problematic internet use (Caplan, 2006;Davis, Flett, & Besser, 2002), computer game addiction (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012;Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2009), smartphone addiction (Bian & Leung, 2015;Kwon et al., 2013), social media addiction (Al-Menayes, 2015;Hawi & Samaha, 2017), fear of missing out (FOMO) (Alt, 2015;Elhai, Levine, Dvorak & Hall, 2016), "nomophobia" (Bragazzi & Del Puente, 2014;King et al., 2013;Yildirim & Correia, 2015), "ringxiety" (Alam et al., 2014;Kruger & Djerf, 2016), technology addiction (Hamissi, Babaie, Hosseini, & Babaie, 2013;Wang, Sigerson, & Cheng, 2019), online compulsive buying disorder (Duroy, Gorse, & Lejoyeux, 2014), cyber pornography disorder (Grubbs, Sessoms, Wheeler, & Volk, 2010;Grubbs, Stauner, Exline, Pargament, & Lindberg, 2015), and online gambling disorder (Chóliz, 2016;Gainsbury, 2015). ...
... Most of the measurement instruments used in Turkish culture were in the areas of internet addiction/problematic internet use, smartphone addiction/problematic smartphone use, social media addiction/problematic social media use, cyber bullying, cyber victims, and game addiction/online game playing disorder. However, scales could still be developed or adapted for "phubbing" (Karadağ et al., 2016), FOMO (Abel, Buff, & Burr, 2016), nomophobia (Yıldırım et al., 2016), e-sports (Seo & Green, 2008), obsessive online buying disorder (Manchiraju, Sadachar, & Ridgway, 2017), cyber pornography addiction (Grubbs et al., 2010), cyber gossip (Romera, Herrera-López, Casas, Ortega Ruiz, & Del Rey, 2018), obsessive use of YouTube (Klobas et al., 2018), problematic online gambling disorder (Arıcak, 2019; Kalkan & Griffiths, 2018), cyber dating violence inventory (Morelli, Bianchi, Chirumbolo, & Baiocco, 2018), cyber dating abuse scale (Borrajo, Gámez-Guadix, Pereda, & Calvete, 2015), and ringxiety (Kruger & Djerf, 2016). ...
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Digital technologies have seen significant use in the lives of individuals, but despite the many contributions, digital technologies also cause some problems. Self-report scales are widely used in psychology to determine problems and have an important position for researchers and mental health practitioners. 167 Turkish cyberpsychology scales were compiled, and its properties were examined in the present study. The research was designed using qualitative methods. A sample group of mostly adolescents and university students was existed in Turkish cyberpsychology scales. According to the findings, half of the scales had adaptation, three-quarters of scales had adequate or good levels of variance explanatory power, and a cutoff point was determined for nearly one-quarter of the scales. Previous scales and the problem areas that do not yet have measurement instruments have been examined, and some suggestions are made regarding the scales and sample groups that can be developed for Turkish culture.
... Empirical studies examining these attitudinal processes are limited, and there is no widely accepted means of defining PIP use (Grubbs et al., 2010). Research is likewise limited in its examination of the factors that may encourage IP consumption to become problematic for some users but not for others (Cooper et al., 2004;Harper & Hodgins, 2016;Twohig et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Introduction Characterised by both exploration and engagement in risky behaviours, late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to dysregulated behaviours. One such behaviour less well explored is that of problematic Internet pornography (IP) viewing, despite viewing explicit online material becoming increasingly pervasive and normative. Method In 2020, 385 (270 females, 110 males) Australian undergraduate students (aged 17–25 years) completed an online survey assessing exposure to IP, affective and cognitive responses to IP, IP-related sexual beliefs, self-assessed problematic IP viewing and key psychological vulnerability factors. Correlational and regression analyses were utilised to assess the relationships between variables. Results Most male (57.3%) and female (33.7%) respondents recalled their first exposure to IP as occurring between 12 and 14 years; however, 28.2% of males and 23.7% females recalled their exposure as occurring between 9 and 11 years, and a small proportion were exposed even earlier. Higher IP viewing frequency, positive affective responses to IP at current exposure, elevated sexual impulsivity and the endorsement of IP-related sexual beliefs were all found to be associated with self-assessed problematic IP viewing. Conclusions Findings suggest that both person and situational factors may contribute to problematic IP viewing patterns. IP viewing may also be shaping the sexual beliefs and behaviours of some viewers. Policy Implications There is little consensus on the factors that may lead IP viewing to become problematic, which limits the ability of clinicians to identify more susceptible individuals. These findings suggest that in addition to dysregulation factors such as sexual impulsivity, dissociation and depression, affective responses to IP and IP-related beliefs may also be important to consider when assessing for whom IP viewing may become problematic.
... Some scales assessing PPU arguably based on obsessive-compulsive frameworks have demonstrated moderate associations with QPU (e.g., Brief Pornography Screen; Sexual Compulsivity Scale) Wetterneck et al., 2012), while scales developed on addiction models (e.g., Griffiths, 2005) showed small-tolarge associations between QPU and PPU [e.g., Compulsive Internet Use Scale adapted to sexual explicit materials (CIUSadapted sexual explicit materials) (Brahim et al., 2019), and Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) (Chen, Yang et al., 2018;Kor et al., 2014]. However, some researchers developed scales to underscore individuals' subjectively self-perceived addictions [i.e., the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory, (Grubbs et al., 2010;Grubbs, Volk et al., 2015)], and demonstrated moderate associations between the QPU and PPU. These findings suggest that differences in measurements of PPU may be an important variable explaining variability of strengths in associations between QPU and PPU. ...
Article
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Although the quantity of pornography use (QPU, i.e., frequency/time spent on pornography use) has been positively associated with the severity of pornography use (i.e., problematic pornography use, PPU), the magnitudes of relationships have varied across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the overall relationships and identify potential moderating variables to explain the variation in these associations between QPU and PPU. We performed a literature search for all published and unpublished studies from 1995 to 2020 in major online scientific databases up until December 2020. Sixty-one studies were identified with 82 independent samples involving 74,880 participants. Results indicated that there was a positive, moderate relationship between QPU and PPU (r = 0.34, p < .001). The strength of relationship significantly varied across measures of PPU based on different theoretical frameworks, indicators of QPU, and sexual cultural contexts (conservative vs. permissive sexual values). Frequency was a more robust quantitative indicator of PPU than time spent on pornography use. In conservative countries, QPU showed more robust association with self-perceived PPU. Future studies are encouraged to select the measurement of PPU according to research aims and use multi-item measures with demonstrated content validity to assess pornography use. Cross-cultural (conservative/permissive) comparisons also warrant further research.
... According to the same group, a 3-item screening test called the National Opinion Research Centre DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS-CLiP) [69] or a 9-item scale called the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) [70], are particularly suitable for rapid screening of problematic gambling. As regards the problematic pornography use, one of the longer instruments with wider use among scholars is the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI) [71], while the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS) [72] and the Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS) [73] are shorter questionnaires that have been recommended in a recent review of literature [74]. ...
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With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus came jurisdictional limitations on mobility of citizens and distinct alterations in their daily routines. Confined to their homes, many people increased their overall internet use, with problematic use of the internet (PUI) becoming a potential reason for increased mental health concerns. Our narrative review summarizes information on the extent of PUI during the pandemic, by focusing on three types: online gaming, gambling and pornography viewing. We conclude by providing guidance for mental health professionals and those affected by PUI (with an outline of immediate research priorities and best therapeutic approaches), as well as for the general public (with an overview of safe and preventative practices).
Article
Background Pornography has become mainstream in society, including in the state of Utah, which is a highly religious, conservative state. Aim The purpose of this study is to gather basic descriptive norms for pornography use in the state of Utah (given its unique religious profile), establish clinical cutoffs based on frequency and duration of pornography consumption, and begin to establish a clinical picture of problematic pornography use in a regionally representative sample. Methods We recruited a representative sample of 892 Utahns via CloudResearch.com. Participants completed the following measures: Consumption of Pornography – General (COPS); Problematic Pornography Use Scale; Clear Lake Addiction to Pornography Scale; The Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (Second Version). Outcome Documentation of pornography use norms among Utahns. Results In our sample, 79% reported viewing pornography in their lifetime (85% of men, 75% of women). The most common frequency of pornography viewing was weekly or monthly among men, and monthly or every 6 months among women, which is comparable to national averages. Men and women showed significantly different pornography use frequencies. We demonstrate a relationship between higher levels of pornography use and higher perceived levels of pornography use as a problem or “addiction” and depression scores and explore the typical demographics of our highest pornography users. Clinical Translation This study will aid clinicians in using the COPS to derive normal pornography use compared to above average pornography use among pornography users from a religious background, especially for clinicians who seek to provide normative data to clients presenting with problematic pornography use like in motivational interviewing interventions. Strengths and Limitations Strengths include our measures generally demonstrated strong validity, we provide the beginnings of sound clinical implementation of the COPS for benchmarking pornography use in a clinical setting in Utah, and that our sample was representative of the state of Utah according to current census data. Limitations include those commonly seen in survey-based data collection methods, and that findings from our unique Utah sample may not be as relevant among other religious or cultural samples. Conclusion Our findings provide an updated picture of pornography use in the state of Utah and suggest that even those high in religiosity continue to use pornography. Our results can provide a spectrum of pornography use, aiding a pornography user in treatment to be able to compare his or her use to this norm. Esplin CR, Hatch SG, Ogles BM, et al. What is Normal Pornography Use in a Highly Religious Area? Exploring Patterns of Pornography Use in Utah. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
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