Effect of Neurofeedback on Variables of Attention in a Large Multi-Center Trial
Background: Neurofeedback studies have been criticized for including small numbers of subjects. The effect of SMR-beta neuro-feedback training on the Test of Variables of Attention was evaluated in more than 1,000 subjects from thirty-two clinics.Methods: 1089 subjects (726 children, 324 females, 186 with ADHD or ADD diagnoses) underwent twenty or more sessions of SMR-beta neurofeedback training for attentional and behavioral complaints at thirty-two clinical settings affiliated with EEG Spectrum, Inc. Subjects were evaluated prior to training and at training completion. One hundred and fifty-seven subjects who elected extensive training (forty sessions or more) were tested after both twenty and forty training sessions.Results: Neurofeedback training produced significant improvement in attentiveness, impulse control, and response variability. Significant clinical improvement in one or more measures was seen in eighty-five percent of those subjects with moderate pre-training deficits.Conclusions: Neurofeedback training is effective in remediating atten-tional dysfunction. Nevertheless, large-scale studies with greater control (e.g., wait-list designs) are sorely needed.