Acquired Dysfibrinogenemia Secondary to Multiple Myeloma
Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Praha, Czech Republic. Acta Haematologica
(Impact Factor: 1.12).
11/2008; 120(2):75-81. DOI: 10.1159/000160182
Abnormal coagulation properties indicative of a dysfibrinogen were found in the plasma of a 72-year-old male with multiple myeloma (IgGkappa, stage IIIA). The patient had high paraprotein concentration (85.75 g/l) and prolonged thrombin time (76.8 s), activated partial thromboplastin time (39.5 s), prothrombin time (23.5 s) and reptilase time (72.0 s). The fibrinogen level was increased. The fibrin polymerization induced by both thrombin and reptilase was impaired. Scanning electron microscopy revealed abnormal clot morphology. After six months of treatment, the paraprotein level decreased (19.48 g/l) and coagulation normalized as well as fibrin polymerization and fibrin clot morphology. It was found that the paraprotein interacts with the gamma-chain of fibrinogen. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia associated with multiple myeloma was diagnosed in the 72-year-old patient.
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- "M-protein free light chains and heavy chains do not inhibit polymerization (Coleman et al, 1972; Teng et al, 2007). Some M-proteins show specificity for fibrin gamma chain, although convincing evidence of autoantibody specificity is lacking (Kotlin et al, 2008). Rarely, symptomatic acquired coagulopathies are due to M-protein autoantibody behaviour targeting specific proteins including thrombin (Colwell et al, 1997), and factor VIII (FVIII) (Liebman, 2000). "
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ABSTRACT: Unexpectedly high rates of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) concurrent with the introduction of highly effective immune modulating drugs thalidomide and lenolidomide for treatment of multiple myeloma have focused attention on the incidence and underlying pathophysiology of VTE in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, and on thromboprophylaxis approaches. While bleeding complications are relatively uncommon in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, typically occurring in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, and acquired coagulopathies associated with primary amyloidosis can present with haemorrhagic complications and both are challenging to manage. This review highlights these important haemostasis-related complications of plasma cell dyscrasias and provides an overview of other uncommon bleeding and thrombotic events that can affect diagnostic and therapeutic management of clonal plasma cell disorders. Due to the infrequency of most of these haemostasis complications, available information is typically based on retrospective cases or series.
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ABSTRACT: Congenital dysfibrinogenemia is a rare disease characterised by inherited abnormality in the fibrinogen molecule, resulting in functional defects. Two patients, a 26-year-old woman and a 61-year-old man, both with history of thrombotic events, had abnormal coagulation test results. DNA sequencing showed the heterozygous gamma Y363N mutation (Fibrinogen Praha III) and the heterozygous Aalpha N106D mutation (Fibrinogen Plzen), respectively. Fibrin polymerisation, after addition of either thrombin or reptilase, showed remarkably delayed polymerisation in both cases. Fibrinolysis experiments showed slower tPA initiated lysis of clots. SDS-PAGE did not show any difference between normal and Praha III and Plzen fibrinogens. Both mutations had a significant effect on platelet aggregation. In the presence of either ADP or TRAP, both mutations caused the decrease of platelet aggregation. SEM revealed abnormal clot morphology, with a large number of free ends and narrower fibres of both fibrin Praha III and Plzen. Praha III mutation was situated in the polymerisation pocket "a". The replacement of the bulky aromatic side chain of tyrosine by the polar uncharged small side chain of asparagine may lead to a conformational change, possibly altering the conformation of the polymerisation pocket. The Plzen mutation is situated in the coiled-coil connector and this replacement of polar uncharged asparagine residue by polar acidic aspartate changes the alpha-helical conformation of the coiled-coil connector; and may destabilise hydrogen bonds in its neighborhood. Although both mutations are situated in different regions of the molecule, both mutations have a very similar effect on fibrinogen functions and both are connected with thromboses.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary dysfibrinogenemia is a rare disorder wherein an inherited abnormality in fibrinogen structure may result in defective fibrin function and/or structure. Congenital hypofibrinogenemia is a rare autosomal bleeding disorder, either recessive or dominant, characterized by a low fibrinogen plasma level. A 28-year-old asymptomatic woman (fibrinogen Rokycany) and a 54-year-old man with thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (fibrinogen Znojmo) were investigated for a suspected fibrinogen mutation after abnormal coagulation tests results were obtained. DNA sequencing showed the heterozygous point mutation Bβ Asn351Lys in fibrinogen Rokycany and the heterozygous point mutation Bβ Arg237Ser in fibrinogen Znojmo, respectively. The kinetics of fibrinopeptide release was found to be normal in both cases. Fibrinolysis was impaired in the Znojmo variant. The average fibril diameters of Znojmo fibrin was slightly increased, but not differing significantly from normal; formed by less fibrils with abrupt fibril terminations. Rheological studies revealed a softer clot. Rokycany fibrin was formed by significantly narrower fibrils than normal fibrin; and the clot was denser than the control clot. Rheological studies revealed a stiffer clot. Impaired fibrinolysis and abnormal clot morphology may be the cause of thrombotic episodes in the patient with Znojmo mutation. New cases of hypofibrinogenemia and dysfibrinogenemia, found by routine coagulation testing, were genetically identified as a novel fibrinogen variants Bβ Asn351Lys (fibrinogen Rokycany) and Bβ Arg237Ser (fibrinogen Znojmo), respectively.
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