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Looking up to Paulo Freire: Education and political culture during the Spanish transition to democracy

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Paulo Freire’s pedagogy was developed in reaction to the state of “periphery” of illiterate farmers in Brazil and Chile. However, his thinking, which illuminated capitalism’s oppressive nature in the classrooms, was enthusiastically accepted in the “centre” and he became a global point of reference for social action. In this article I trace his influence in Spain in the midst of its transformation from a marginalised country on the outskirts of Europe to a respectable member of the European Union. I explore three types of process of reception of Freire’s thinking in Spain with respect to the mobilisation of teachers. First, I study his adoption by activists, showing his impact on the consolidation of a militant identity among teachers. Second, by looking into local educational adult schooling projects I assess how the application of his techniques contributed to the emergence of community-based efforts to seek lasting social transformation in Spain. Third, I analyse the integration of his ideas into the cultural projects of the teachers’ movements and reveal his part in the forging of a political subculture of participative democracy. I wish to offer a multilayered analysis of the reception of knowledge which includes personal perceptions, organisational experiences and collective imaginary.
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... Desde entonces, ha merecido toda suerte de estudios la línea de investigación centrada en la educación durante el periodo de la Transición. Hasta el momento se han elaborado trabajos vinculados con la política educativa (Tusell, 1997;Puelles, 1999;Milito y Groves, 2013; González-Moreno, 2019); la formación del magisterio en clave de género (San Román, 2007;González, 2013;González y Martín, 2016;Robles, 2018); las experiencias destacadas de docentes en el entorno rural (García, García y Vilches, 2016; Groves, 2011a; Groves y González, 2019); o la participación sindical del colectivo docente y su implicación en la renovación pedagógica (Fernández, 2015;Groves, 2008Groves, , 2011bGroves, , 2017Hernandez y Gómez, 2016). En este repaso por las principales líneas de investigación hay que destacar como última contribución el excelente monográfico que aparece en el número 14 de la revista Historia y Memoria de la Educación, en el que se estudia la Ley General de Educación de 1970 de forma amplia y se da visibilidad a testimonios de protagonistas directos de esta reforma educativa. ...
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La Ley General de Educación de 1970 marcó un antes y un después en la historia de la educación española y sentó las bases para un modelo educativo democrático. Fueron muchos los docentes educados en el franquismo que tuvieron que adaptar sus enseñanzas y prácticas escolares a las nuevas directrices educativas, sin recursos ni herramientas formativas para ello. El presente estudio parte de un matrimonio de docentes segovianos que vivieron estos cambios en sus experiencias profesionales. Desde sus voces tratamos de analizar la formación inicial que recibieron en el último periodo del franquismo, conocer cómo vivieron los cambios de régimen en su trayectoria profesional y examinar qué incidencia tuvo la transición democrática en sus formas de enseñar a partir de aquel periodo. A través del método biográfico-narrativo, asentado en dos historias de vida, llegamos a conocer cómo fueron vividos determinados hechos históricos característicos de la Transición en el aula; los problemas que tuvo que enfrentar un colectivo docente ideologizado en el nacionalcatolicismo para adaptar sus enseñanzas a los principios democráticos; y las dificultades que se presentaron en las aulas para adecuar la educación a los cambios que proponía la Ley General de Educación de 1970.
... There is an extensive bibliography that theoretically bases all kinds of historical experiences and current critiques on the traditional model and, in general, on the pedagogical renewal. It is displayed in chronological order: Caivano and Carbonell (1979); Viñes (1983); Mata (1984); Doménech (1989Doménech ( ,1992Doménech ( ,1995Doménech ( & 2003; Marín (1990); Viñao (1990Viñao ( , 2002Viñao ( & 2007; Imbernón (1993); Martínez-Bonafé (1994; Esteban (1996); Sáenz del Castillo (1999); Rodríguez (2003); Pozo (2004Pozo ( , 2007Pozo ( & 2014; García (2005); Dávila (2005); Roig (2006); Feito and López (2008);Soler (2009);Feito (2009);Costa (2009);Groves (2009), Groves (2011), Contreras (2010; Moscoso (2011);Hernández (2011); Agulló and Payá (2012); Monés (2012); Rabadán and Hernández (2012); Pozo & Braster (2012); Pérez (2013); Delgado (2013); Pericacho (2015Pericacho ( , 2016Pericacho ( & 2018; and finally, Jiménez and Bejarano (2016). ...
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Objective: In this article we review the support of several representative Primary Education schools in Spain (2015-16) for a pedagogical renewal that move away from the traditional model. Method: The methodology focuses on the study of outstanding bibliography, interviews with significant members, observation of centres and analysis of the content of educational projects. Results: The centers selected for analysis show multiple common pedagogical aspects, such as the participation of the educational community, the promotion of creativity among the students, as well as curricular, methodological and organizational flexibility. Discussion and Conclusion: Despite the uniqueness of each project, all show multiple common pedagogical aspects. This is due to the direct influence of the Spanish pedagogical renewal developed throughout the 20th century which has shaped the current renewing map of which this article analyses specific examples.
... There is an extensive bibliography that theoretically bases all kinds of historical experiences and current critiques on the traditional model and, in general, on the pedagogical renewal. It is displayed in chronological order: Caivano and Carbonell (1979); Viñes (1983); Mata (1984); Doménech (1989Doménech ( ,1992Doménech ( ,1995Doménech ( & 2003; Marín (1990); Viñao (1990Viñao ( , 2002Viñao ( & 2007; Imbernón (1993); Martínez-Bonafé (1994; Esteban (1996); Sáenz del Castillo (1999); Rodríguez (2003); Pozo (2004Pozo ( , 2007Pozo ( & 2014; García (2005); Dávila (2005); Roig (2006); Feito and López (2008);Soler (2009);Feito (2009);Costa (2009);Groves (2009), Groves (2011), Contreras (2010; Moscoso (2011);Hernández (2011); Agulló and Payá (2012); Monés (2012); Rabadán and Hernández (2012); Pozo & Braster (2012); Pérez (2013); Delgado (2013); Pericacho (2015Pericacho ( , 2016Pericacho ( & 2018; and finally, Jiménez and Bejarano (2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: In this article we review the support of several representative Primary Education schools in Spain (2015-16) for a pedagogical renewal that move away from the traditional model. Method: The methodology focuses on the study of outstanding bibliography, interviews with significant members, observation of centres and analysis of the content of educational projects. Results: The centers selected for analysis show multiple common pedagogical aspects, such as the participation of the educational community, the promotion of creativity among the students, as well as curricular, methodological and organizational flexibility. Discussion and Conclusion: Despite the uniqueness of each project, all show multiple common pedagogical aspects. This is due to the direct influence of the Spanish pedagogical renewal developed throughout the 20th century which has shaped the current renewing map of which this article analyses specific examples. Resumen Objetivo: A lo largo del artículo se revisa la experiencia de varios centros escolares de educación primaria representativos en España (curso 2015-2016) por apostar por una renovación pedagógica que los aleja del modelo de escuela tradicional. Método: La metodología utilizada ha sido el estudio de bibliografía destacada, entrevistas a miembros significativos, observaciones de centros y análisis de contenido de los proyectos educativos. Resultados: Los centros seleccionados para el análisis muestran múltiples aspectos pedagógicos comunes, como la participación de la comunidad educativa, el fomento de la creatividad en los alumnos y la flexibilidad curricular, metodológica y organizativa. Discusión y conclusión: Las coincidencias y aspectos comunes en los centros evaluados se deben a la influencia directa de la renovación pedagógica española desarrollada a lo largo del siglo XX que ha configurado el mapa renovador actual del que en este artículo se estudian ejemplos concretos.
... La historia educativa española (finales siglo XIX y siglo XX) alberga un amplio abanico de experiencias que muestran una mirada pedagógica crítica, innovadora y de fuerte compromiso socio-educativo, donde la escuela no solo es configurada como contexto académico, también es entendida como motor de transformación personal, cultural y social. Iniciativas que han constituido una ruptura frente al resto delimitando parte del contorno teórico y práctico de la renovación pedagógica española ampliamente estudiada, se muestran en orden cronológico algunos estudios destacados: Caivano y Carbonell (1979) ;Viñes, (1983); Mata (1984) ;Doménech, (1992Doménech, ( , 1995Doménech, ( , 2003 ;Marín, (1990) ;Viñao, (1990Viñao, ( , 2007 ;Imbernón, (1993); Martínez Bonafé, (2003) ;Esteban, (2016); Rodríguez (2003); Pozo Andrés (2014); Pozo Andrés y Braster (2012); García (2005); Dávila (2005); Roig (2006); Feito y López (2008); Feito (2009); Groves (2011); Contreras (2010); Moscoso (2011); Hernández (2011); Rabadán y Hernández (2012); Agulló y Payá (2012); Monés i Pujol-Busquets (2012); Milito y Groves (2013); Pérez (2013); Delgado (2013); Ramos y Pericacho (2015); Jiménez y Bejarano (2016); Pericacho (2014Pericacho ( , 2016; Lorenzo (2016) y por último, Hernández y Gómez (2016). ...
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Resumen La historia de la renovación pedagógica española alberga una extensa y plural actividad que constata la búsqueda de una escuela configurada no solo con finalidad académica, sino también entendida como motor de transformación personal, cultural y social. Son numerosos los centros educativos que a lo largo de la historia española evidencian esta búsqueda, construyendo una mirada socio-educativa crítica e innovadora sobre la educación. A lo largo del artículo se estudian once centros escolares de educación primaria, representativos de la renovación pedagógica, que estaban activos durante el curso académico 2012-2013 en la Comunidad de Madrid. La investigación se ha realizado a través del estudio de bibliografía destacada, entrevistas a miembros significativos, observaciones de centros y análisis de contenido de proyectos educativos. Se establecen dos ejes de análisis: metodología e ideario pedagógico de los centros y principales dificultades en la realización de su proyecto educativo. Los resultados muestran que cada uno de los centros refleja una singularidad educativa propia. Sin embargo, todos revelan múltiples aspectos educativos comunes que ponen en cuestión elementos muy arraigados en la cultura pedagógica española, a saber: libro de texto como material exclusivo de trabajo, escasa participación de padres y madres, y por último, clase magistral como único método de relación pedagógica.
... Para Freire la educación debía servir a la concienciación de hombres y mujeres con la finalidad de tomar acción sobre sus circunstancias, ya que la alfabetización debe dirigirse a la transformación social porque lo social es un texto. La filosofía de Freire no ha dejado de aportar a la disciplina porque estimula a reflexionar acerca de la ideología, la sociología del conocimiento y la práctica política de la educación de adultos (Groves, 2011y Becket, 2013. Así, la praxis de la educación de adultos convoca a quien enseña a reflexionar constantemente sobre el propio contenido de la educación. ...
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People who reach adulthood without knowing to read and/or write tend to develop specific learning problems, so all adult literacy projects should be considered inclusive education. This chapter presents a model for adult literacy designed in a community center at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus. This model is not intended as the final solution to the structural problems in adult literacy services, but should be regarded as a practice that has had positive results over nine years. The intervention presented in this chapter used the microgenetic methodology of Vygotsky’s cultural-historical framework, supported by the philosophy of Paulo Freire and the use of Montessori educative materials. The main objective of the research was to establish microgenetic learning processes through the use of private speech as an external tool to facilitate the formation of higher cognitive operations. The experimental design and the theoretical framework were the result of several stages of action research in the classroom throughout the five years preceding the intervention. In addition to basic literacy, which covers the learning of reading and writing, the curricular model as a result of this research encourages learning math skills, social science, daily life skills, personal health care and information of general culture. In addition to observing the high capacity for empowerment that learning to read and write had for the participants, the mixed data collected showed the effectiveness of the Tool curriculum model, named in honor of Vygotsky.
... The movement understood, above all, that education is an indispensable tool to achieve social emancipation and that this liberation must be achieved from within (Madero Cabib & Madero Cabib, 2013;Navarro, 2003;Villacorta Baños, 2003). At the beginning of the 20th century in Spain, diverse alternatives appeared, such as the ateneos for the meeting of workers' needs in place of the liberal and religious institutions of the time (Flecha, López, & Saco, 1988;Groves, 2011;Tavera, 2012). Thus, the libertarian movement developed "self-education" initiatives, creating specific institutions and organizations with a profound democratic character in terms of their organizational and management styles (Flecha et al., 1988;Navarro, 2003). ...
Article
Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and complementing one another to form the historical antecedents for the creation of the democratic adult education movement that emerged in the turn of the century, in 2000, in Spain.
... Freire's influence in Spain was singularly intense, leaving his mark on the working priest movement, on certain MRPs such as the Movimiento de Renovación Pedagógica de Educadores Milanianos, legally set up in 1982, on street-education initiatives (such as those run by Enrique de Castro, Enrique Martínez Reguera or José Antonio Montull) and, especially, on adult education. In this latter area of activity, Freire's work was particularly seminal in the construction of the identity of educators, and in establishing the meaning, significance and goals of education (Bruno-Jofré, 2016;García Madrid, 2002, 2003Groves, 2011b;Hernández Huerta, 2004;Igelmo Zaldívar, 2009Tapia, Martín González, 2004). ...
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In the mid-1960s, the Freinet movement took on new life - first with the name Association for Correspondence and the School Printing Press - Acies -, and later as the Popular School Cooperative Movement - MCEP. In a short space of time, the organisation grew to contain over a hundred members and supporters, who, along with the process of the Transition to democracy, laid the foundations for many of Acies/MCEP’s projects - both pedagogical and political projects. Of greatest importance amongst these were conferences, teacher-training seminars and the bulletin Colaboración (1976-1985), which was the organ of expression and communication for Spanish teachers following Freinet’s principles. During the period of political transition to democracy, Acies/MCEP was one of the most active and dynamic Educational Renewal Movements in Spain. The present article explores the contributions of the Freinet movement to the democratisation of education in Spain - in particular, the political-pedagogical discussion on the principles and purposes of public education, how to understand it, the problems posed by the existence of privately-subsidised education, and the role of the school as a tool for community development and an arena for civic participation. For these reasons, as a documentary source to be explored in depth, the bulletin Colaboración has been chosen; it offers an example of the pedagogical press for teachers in the Spain of 1970s and 1980s, as it helped shape the educational mindset in place during this period and in the following years.
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Introducción: La publicación de Pedagogía del oprimido supuso un hito en la historia y la teoría de la educación que consagró a Paulo Freire como uno de los grandes educadores, a la altura de Jean Jacques Rousseau o John Dewey. Sin embargo, su obra tuvo una recepción compleja ya en Estados Unidos y también en España. Con motivo del 50 aniversario de su primera publicación, y debido a esa importancia y a esa difícil recepción, este artículo analiza las relecturas que se han hecho de Freire en el siglo xxi, es decir, aquellos puntos a los que los teóricos de la educación vuelven. Metodología: Para ello se han analizado las obras más importantes del brasileño y, sobre todo, los artículos más relevantes del siglo xxi. Esto con el uso de una metodología hermenéutica inspirada en los postulados de Kederman y Curren, a saber, con la pretensión de volver a los autores históricos interesantes, inspiradores y orientadores para nosotros. Discusión: De esta manera se observa que las relecturas de Freire tienden a alejarlo de los postulados marxistas para releerlo desde perspectivas pedagógicas y políticas no tan vinculadas a la pedagogía crítica, que se abren a un interés moral y teológico. Resultados: En consecuencia, aparece un Freire menos ideologizado, con una ductilidad capaz de permitirle inspirar ya no solo las experiencias educativas propias de la pedagogía crítica, sino cualquier práctica educativa -que, a la postre, es la esperanza de los grandes educadores.
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This chapter is a written manifesto of the (un)heard voices of a small fisherfolk community in Calancan Bay, Sta. Cruz, Marinduque, the Philippines. It is through following these voices that we came to witness how unsustainable mining transformed a local fishing village into an industrial wasteland. After decades of struggle for socio-economic welfare, environmental rehabilitation, and social justice, the fishers remain in polluted living conditions. Listening to the people’s dialogues and everyday conversations creates a new space for a critical discourse through dialogue. We attempt to link Freirean dialogue and its appropriateness in the process of Development Communication (DevCom) for desirable social change. The main objective of this chapter is to reflect on the space for dialogue in the study of DevCom centred the Calancan Bay fisherfolk’s life stories. The dominant voice of the chapter, the first author—a novice researcher—recounts entering the field to listen and collate the silenced voices and from there, develop a sense of self-reflexivity as she goes along the journey of qualitative research.
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Provides an introduction to the articles presented in this theme issue. Explains the focus surrounds the study of the relationship of educational issues from different geographical educational history. Compares similarities and contrasts differences. (KDR)
Los comienzos de la modernización pedagógica en el franquismo (1951-1964)
14%. In later years it continued to be low as the following numbers demonstrate: 8.22% in 1955 and 8.57% in 1960. All the statistics regarding the Spanish education system are based on: Agustín Escolano, "Los comienzos de la modernización pedagógica en el franquismo (1951-1964)," Revista Española de Pedagogía 192 (1992): 289-310.