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Effects of Employees' Uniform on Company Image and Employees' Self-perceptions and Customers' Perceptions

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Effects of Employees' Uniform on Company Image and Employees' Self-perceptions and Customers' Perceptions

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Abstract

The purpose of the study is to investigate how different styles of employee uniforms affect customers' perceptions of the hotel image and employees' self-perceptions. The results of the study indicated a significant relationship between uniforms and employees' job performance. Significance also existed between employees' job satisfaction and styles of uniform. A significant relationship between styles of uniform and customers' perception of employee performance was found as well.

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... Hotel frontline staffs are provided employee uniforms to characterize one's job role and department (Baharuddin and Jamaluddin 2020;Tasci et al. 2014). Extensive studies have revealed that staff uniforms enhance employees' sense of belonging, job satisfaction (Yech and Chen 2020;Dipietro et al. 2007;Nelson and Bowen 2000), and job performance (Yech and Chen 2020;Yeh et al. 2013;Tu et al. 2011a), which ultimately improve service quality, and influence customer behavioral intention in hotel choice (Wang et al. 2020;Lemy et al. 2019). The service-oriented industry like hotel operation is intangible in nature. ...
... Previous studies revealed a relationship between employee job satisfaction and uniform preference (Yeh et al. 2013;Tu et al. 2011a). Divergent perceptions among different stakeholders (i.e., management, employee, and customer) towards various organizational practices have a proven deleterious effect on an organization's economic-financial performance, customer service quality, and employee retention (Choy and Kamoche 2021;Lu et al. 2016;Dedeoğlu and Demirer 2015). ...
... Hotel guests determine the creditability of staff members using the first five seconds of interaction (Robison 2005). Poorly designed uniforms could impose an improper and inferior hotel image (Wang and Lang 2019;Tu et al. 2011a). Barnard (2002) argued that clothing and fashion reflect social roles. ...
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Purpose-The aim of this study is to advance the understanding of Hong Kong's housekeeping culture by examining how employee uniforms and the image they project influence job satisfaction amongst the housekeeping department employees of a luxury five-star Hotel in Hong Kong, China. Design-Using a purposive sampling method, ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with the housekeeping staff of a luxury five-star Hotel in Hong Kong. Content analysis was conducted to identify data patterns. Findings-Findings categorized four determinants of uniform influencing job satisfaction: fit to wearer, appropriate materials, color and design, and hotel brand image. The findings confirm that staff uniforms play an important role in demonstrating the hotel's brand identity, improving job satisfaction, operational efficiency, and staff-management relationships. Apart from the aesthetic design, management should put operational practicality and functionality into account by getting employees to participate when launching and implementing any change initiatives on staff uniforms. Communication and mutual understanding between management and employees are imperative in understanding each other's concerns. Originality of the research-Using a qualitative approach, the results offered an empirical basis to guide hotel management and administrators in making decisions about uniforms.
... Out of the 28 respondents, 3 advised less use of employee uniforms, 12 advised no change, and 13 ad- It is difficult to say with certainty that these managers are wrong because uniforms likely do have some positive effects. For example, uniforms make employees easier to locate and identify (Nelson & Bowen, 2000;Tu, Yeh, Chuang, Chan, & Hu, 2011), make some employees seem higher in fit (Pounders et al., 2015), and some uniforms convey legitimacy (Rafaeli & Pratt, 1993). Uniforms also change the wearer's behavior (Adam & Galinsky, 2012;Frank & Gilovich, 1988). ...
... To date, theorists' intuitions about the effects of uniforms largely exist in the absence of empirical data. Many focus on the professionalism conveyed by a uniform, which is a beneficial attribute of wearing uniforms (Barr, 2007;Sirianni, Bitner, Brown, & Mandel, 2013;Solomon, 1985;Tu et al., 2011). Uniforms can also convey legitimacy and their design can contribute to the company's corporate image, not to speak of their practical advantage of locating an employee in a store (Babin, Darden, & Griffin, 1994). ...
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Despite their prevalence in the marketplace, little empirical attention has been paid to how employee uniforms affect consumer reactions to service experiences. We propose that employee uniforms facilitate the shared categorization of employees and their organization in the mind of the customer, which affects many of the inferences that customers draw following service encounters. Study 1 shows that uniforms lead to greater attribution of responsibility to the company for employee behavior, especially following poor service. Studies 2 and 3 show that uniforms also lead to more assimilation of judgments across employees, increasing the impact of one employee's behavior on judgments of other employees of the same organization. Study 3 shows that employee uniforms lead to more extreme judgments of the company following service encounters. It also shows that bad (good) service from a uniformed employee makes competing companies look better (worse), indicating that uniforms can elicit contrast effects across companies. In sum, the mere presence of a uniform on an unsatisfactory service or retail employee can damage judgments of the organization and its employees and improve judgments of rival organizations compared to identical service from a nonuniformed employee. Managers seem unaware of these negative consequences. These same principles are likely to apply to a wide variety of uniformed services, including police, military, firefighters, and health‐care providers.
... This has led to some research investigating how uniforms influence overall evaluations of service encounters that generally finds benefits of employee uniforms on impressions of employees and brands (e.g. Barr 2007;Rafaeli and Pratt 1993;Tu et al. 2011). ...
... Researchers have typically assumed that uniforms lead to more positive evaluations of employees, an assertion that has rarely been directly tested (for exceptions see Barr 2007;Rafaeli and Pratt 1993;Thomas et al. 2010;Tu et al. 2011 Overall, these findings stand in contrast to the assumption that uniforms highlight, rather than obscure, behavioral differences between employees (Joseph & Alex 1972;Solomon 1985). I argue that these effects occur because uniforms act as an inclusion variable that imposes a superordinate categorization of employees into the companygroup. ...
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A group of individuals can be seen as a tight group or category with a core essence or as a loose collection of relatively unrelated entities. This dissertation explores how the perceived unity or entitativity of a group or category can be affected by relatively subtle cues, yet has significant effects on consumer judgments and behavior. First, perceived unity can be employed to counteract the historically meager donations to large groups of victims. Entitative groups elicit strong judgments and emotional reactions, so presenting victims in need of charitable support as a tight group (e.g. by calling six children a family or showing endangered butterflies moving in unison) increases donations relative to non-unified but otherwise identical victims. Collections of employees at a company can also vary on whether they seem like a tight category or a loose collection of people. Employees who wear uniforms seem more categorized and unified with each other and with the company, which causes i) more attribution of responsibility to the company for the employee???s behavior, ii) an assimilation of judgments, where one employee???s negative behavior lowers judgments of other employees, and iii) stronger judgments of the company following a service encounter. Theoretical and managerial implications of the antecedents and consequences of perceived unity are discussed.
... 18. Staff uniforms create the impression of order and professionalism (e.g. the Empire and the First Order), but staff actions show whether these impressions reflect the reality. Hence, hospitality companies need to have impeccable staff uniforms to make a good impression on tourists (Tu et al., 2011) but the employees need to act professionally as well (not only to have a professional appearance). ...
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Purpose This viewpoint is a response to Yeoman's (2022) editorial on Sunderland AFC and the future of tourism. This viewpoint aims to outline the lessons one can learn from Star Wars about the future of tourism. Design/methodology/approach The paper reviews the live-action movies and series of the Star Wars franchise. Findings The paper derives specific conclusions in the following directions: the future technology in travel, tourism and hospitality; the tourists' motivation and behaviour; the management of travel, tourism and hospitality companies; destination management; economy and society and lessons from the franchise. Originality/value This is one of the first papers to elaborate on the lessons one can learn about the future of tourism from the Star Wars live-action movies and series.
... A better understanding of SCSAs' image, its dimensions, and the effects of an accommodation's overall image are of value to the hospitality industry and DMOs to improve commercial performance. Analyzing the image of SCSAs is vital, not only due of its relevance for the success of any hospitality company (Choi & Chu, 1999;LeBlanc & Nguyen, 1996, Tu, Yeh, Chuang, Chen, & Hu, 2011Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996) but also because the image of SCSAs affect the destination's image. Thus, an improvement for one improves the other (Chapman & Speake, 2010;Leung, Law, & Lee, 2011;Warnken et al., 2003). ...
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