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The Effect of Play on the Creativity of Young Children During Subsequent Activity



This study investigated whether the experience of unstructured play in a preceding task may influence the creativity of young children in subsequent activity. 52 children in the age range 6-7 were randomly allocated to two groups. The first group was allowed to play with salt-dough for 25 minutes, while the other group followed a structured exercise involving the copying of text from the board. All children were then asked to produce a collage of a creature, using a controlled range of tissue-paper materials. The procedure was then repeated some days later, with the two groups experiencing the other preceding task. 10 judges (7 trainee teachers and 3 lecturers) judged the creative quality of the work arising. The range of colours and total number of pieces used by each child in each collage was also recorded. Analysis of the results revealed a significant positive effect of preceding task upon creativity and range of colours.
Howard-Jones, P.A. , Taylor, J. and Sutton, L. (2002) The effects of play on the
creativity of young children, Early Child Development and Care, 172 (4), p 323-
The effect of play on the creativity of young children
during subsequent activity
Cardiff School of Education, University of Wales Institute Cardiff.
This study investigated whether the experience of unstructured play in a preceding
task may influence the creativity of young children in subsequent activity. 52 children
in the age range 6-7 were randomly allocated to two groups. The first group was
allowed to play with salt-dough for 25 minutes, while the other group followed a
structured exercise involving the copying of text from the board. All children were
then asked to produce a collage of a creature, using a controlled range of tissue-paper
materials. The procedure was then repeated some days later, with the two groups
experiencing the other preceding task. 10 judges (7 trainee teachers and 3 lecturers)
judged the creative quality of the work arising. The range of colours and total number
of pieces used by each child in each collage was also recorded. Analysis of the results
revealed a significant positive effect of preceding task upon creativity and range of
Keywords: Play, creativity
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Play has been referred to as the “work” of children (Papilia and Olds, 1990) and the
importance of play in the cognitive development of children has frequently been
acknowledged. In particular, children’s tendency towards play, or playfulness, has
been linked to creative thinking skills (Lieberman, 1965, Wallach, 1970, Lieberman,
1977) and tends to indicate a disposition towards creativity in later life (Clark,
Griffing and Johnson, 1989, Schmukler, 1982-3, Russ, Robins and Christiano, 1999).
Some immediate effects of playing have also been examined. An early study by
Sutton-Smith (1967) demonstrated how children’s ability to think up uses for an
object was improved by being allowed to play with it. Dansky and Silverman (1973)
exposed groups of pre-school children to conventional objects for 10 minutes. One
group was allowed to play freely with it, another imitated an adult’s actions on the
objects and the third group observed an adult act upon the objects. The free-play
group scored significantly higher than the other two groups in an alternate uses test
involving the objects. Dansky and Silverman (1975) later carried out a similar
investigation but assessed the children’s ability, after exposure to objects, to produce
alternate uses for new objects they had not seen before. The group who had been
allowed to play transferred their playful disposition towards the new objects and
again scored significantly higher than the other two groups. In interpreting this and
other studies, Pellegrini (1984-1985) distinguishes between exploration and play,
suggesting that exploration can be characterised by a behaviour that seeks to answer
“What is it?” “What can it do?”. This explorative behaviour then wanes and is
replaced by a playful behaviour that is more concerned with “What can I do with it?”.
Pellegrini (1983-1984) suggests, given the short time that the children were allowed
with the object, that it may have been the transfer of an explorative mind set that
supported the children in determining uses for the new object. This idea was
successfully exploited in later studies that showed adult-led exploratory questioning
to be more effective than free play in improving the general associative fluency of
children (Pellegrini, 1981, 1982, Pellegrini and Greene, 1980).
Affect may also play a role in influencing the creativity observed in tasks following
playful activity. In a study by Isen, Johnson, Mertz and Robinson (1985), adult
subjects who watched films designed to induce a happy mood made more unusual
associations on subsequent verbal tasks. However, these findings appear to conflict
with those of Tighe, (1992), who found that subjects in positive mood conditions
wrote stories that were rated as less creative than did subjects in either negative or
neutral conditions. Further, Amabile (1996) reports that she has failed, in several
attempts, to show that inducing a positive affect significantly influences the creativity
of her subjects. Such apparently contradictory findings may be due to the relationship
between associative fluency and more general measures of creativity (see below).
Additionally, the level of relaxation induced by the experimenters may be a more
significant factor than the positive mood of their subjects. By considering models of
creative cognition involving movement between focused and unfocused states of
mind (Martindale, 1995, Howard-Jones and Murray, in press), it can be predicted that
relaxation of subjects should lead to greater associative fluency - as demonstrated for
adults by Forgays and Forgays (1992).
Berretta and Privette (1990) measured the creativity of children using the Torrance
Tests of Creative Thinking for after they had experienced structured or flexible play
experiences. These tests provided scores for over-all creative thinking , fluency,
flexibility and originality. Children who participated in flexible play experiences
exhibited greater creative thinking than the children who had received highly
structured play experiences. These higher scores derived from increases in originality
of thinking rather than fluency or flexibility. The lack of an effect for fluency may be
considered surprising in the light of studies such as Dansky and Silverman (1975).
Berretta and Privette (1990) suggest that those activities that benefit from improved
creative thinking should be scheduled after free-play, so that they may benefit from
increased originality.
Studies that use measures of associative fluency, and even those that include
flexibility and originality, may not provide us with a direct indication of creativity in
the broader sense. Creativity is most often defined as the ability to produce solutions
which are both appropriate and original. The ability to access remote associations
may be considered fundamental in producing original ideas. However, the
appropriateness of an idea relies upon an individuals ability to focus critically upon it
and refine it (Martindale, 1995). The Consensual Assessment Technique (Amabile,
1996) provides a more general measure of creative value, by gaining a measurement
of the creativity of an outcome according to a panel of individuals according to their
own independently-formulated criteria. This technique has been used to assess the
positive impact of creative activity upon college students, showing it to have
beneficial effects upon creativity, intrinsic motivation and long-term retention (Conti,
Amabile and Pollak, 1995). The creative task employed, however, was directly
related to the learning topic (dreams), and this was chiefly a study of longer-term
effects than those considered in the present study.
The focus of the present study was to determine whether short periods of free-play
have an influence upon the creativity demonstrated by young children in an activity
typical of the curriculum, when this subsequent activity is not related to either the
medium or topic of the preceding free-play. In this respect, it evaluated the potential
effectiveness of the type of schedule proposed by Berreta and Privette (1990). Unlike
previous studies, however, it assessed the effect of preceding task upon creativity
using the Consensual Assessment Technique (Amabile, 1982) - in which an
independent panel of judges subjectively rate the creative value of outcomes produced
by children.
Participants were attending a semi-rural, English-medium infants school in the South
Wales area. They were in the same year (aged 6-7 years old), and randomly allocated
into two groups of twenty-six children: A and B.
A repeated-measures design was followed. On the first day, all fifty-two children
assembled in the classroom. Group A left the room accompanied by a teacher and
taken a spare classroom where they were allowed to indulge in free-play with salt
dough. There were about 3 to 4 children per table, and each child was provided with
approximately the same size piece of blue salt dough. They were instructed to “Do
whatever you want with it” and given no other guidance. Interaction with the adult
present was kept to an absolute minimum. At the same time, Group B were
instructed to complete a handwriting exercise that involved the copying of text from
the board. They were seated in groups of 6 to 7 and were each supplied with a pencil
and a lined piece of paper. If the written task was completed they were asked to
repeat it. After 25 minutes Group A were escorted back to the classroom where both
groups A and B were addressed and asked to make a collage of a creature using the
materials provided. The children sat in groups of 6-7 at a table. On the table were the
following: 100 sheets of tissue paper (10 sheets of 10 different colours), 4 glue pots, 8
glue spreaders, 8 pairs of scissors and a sheet of paper for each child to make their
collage on. The children were given 35 minutes to complete their collage and pencils
were then distributed for the children to write their name upon their work.
The next day, at the same time, the whole procedure was repeated with the groups
carrying out the alternative preceding task. Before creating their collage, Group A
were allowed to play with the salt dough in the spare classroom while Group B
carried out their handwriting exercise.
The outcomes of the children were scored for their creativity according to Amabile’s
consensual assessment technique (Amabile, 1982). This technique involves having
judges independently and subjectively rate the level of creativity of the outcomes. All
judges were blind to experimental condition but were made aware of the task given to
the children. The initial panel of judges were 7 trainee teachers approaching the end
of their third year of training. These trainees teachers, as result of their training, were
already familiar with the type of outcomes that might be produced by children of this
age, and thus their background met the criteria suggested by Amabile (1996) for
identifying appropriate judges. However, in order to confirm that the judgements
were sound, the work was also judged by a panel of 3 “expert” judges who were
experienced lecturers in Primary Education.
In addition to rating the outcomes for their creativity, they were analysed by counting
the number of different colours used (colour range) and the overall number of pieces
of tissue paper used to construct the collage.
The inter-judge reliability amongst the panel of 7 trainees was good (Cronbach’s
alpha = 0.81), as was the inter-judge reliability amongst the panel of 3 expert judges
(Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). There was also a good correlation between the two panels
(Pearson’s r = 0.80 , p < 0.001 ). Judgements from each of the 10 judges were added
together to give a final score for each outcome out of 50, with inter-judge reliability
(Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89).
Means for the 3 dependent variables of creativity, colour range and number of pieces
used, together with standard deviations, are shown in Table 1 for the two preceding
tasks of a writing exercise and free-play with salt dough.
Creativity Colour range Number of pieces used
Writing Play Writing Play Writing Play
M21.31 23.96 3.88 4.79 12.5 15.77
SD 8.38 8.36 1.58 1.91 7.00 11.23
Table 1 Mean and standard deviations for 3 dependent variables of creativity, colour
range and number of pieces used.
Separate ANOVA analyses of the 3 dependent variables revealed that there was a
significant subsequent effect of preceding task upon creativity (F (1,51) = 11.60, p
=0.001 ), colour range (F (1,51) = 10.70 , p = 0.002) and number of pieces used (F
(1,51) = 7.02, p = 0.011). However, correlation analysis revealed strong associations
between these variables (p<0.01 for all combinations).
Although repeated-measures experimental designs are generally more sensitive
experimental method than between-subjects studies, it has been pointed out that these
methodologies can be vulnerable to differential transfer, especially when
investigating the effect of instructional variables (Underwood and Shaughnessy,
1975). As a precaution against such effects, the first stage of the experiment was
treated as a random groups design to investigate the effect of the independent variable
without any possible influence from differential transfer (Poulton, 1982). Means and
standard deviations for subjects arising from the first condition are shown in Table 2.
Between-subjects ANOVA analysis of the 3 dependent variables from the first
condition revealed that there was a significant subsequent effect of preceding task
upon creativity (F(1,50) = 4.83, p = 0.033) and colour range (F (1,50) = 10.56, p =
0.002), but the effect upon the number of pieces did not reach significance (F(1,50) =
2.90 , p = 0.095). Correlations between dependent variables were significant for all
combinations (p < 0.01).
Creativity Colour range Number of pieces used
Writing Play Writing Play Writing Play
M22.75 24.18 4.07 4.76 12.99 16.38
SD 9.08 8.27 1.77 1.97 6.96 13.26
Table 2 Mean and standard deviations for 3 dependent variables of creativity, colour
range and number of pieces used for the first condition experienced by subjects.
The present study has shown that the nature of a preceding task, comparing a highly
structured writing task with free-play, can influence the creative value of children’s
outcomes in a subsequent task as judged by an independent panel. The study by
Dansky and Silverman (1975) demonstrated that preceding task can influence
associative fluency, and Berreta and Privette (1990) found that the degree of structure
of the preceding play could influence originality in later tasks, although not,
apparently, fluency. The present study has not shed light upon which individual
thinking skills are most influenced by the preceding task - but it has shown that the
overall creative effect upon a subsequent activity typical of the school curriculum can
be significant.
It remains, then, an issue of debate how such effects are best explained and what are
the essential elements of play that support creativity subsequently. It may be, as
discussed above, the transfer of a playful mind set (Danksy and Silverman, 1975), or
possibly an exploratory one (Pellegrini, 84-85). There was a statistically significant
increase in the range of colours used - which may reflect an increased tendency to
explore the materials provided. However, it would be very difficult to confidently
analyse the outcome of a creative process in terms of what has been achieved by
exploration and what is the result of playfulness. Indeed, such distinctions are
difficult to make even from close observation and discussion with young subjects, due
not least to limitations in language (Pellegrini, 84-85).
Alternative explanations for an increase in creativity might be the more relaxed
mental state of the children after playing with the salt-dough (Forgays and Forgays,
1992), or simply that the children were more awake after a session of play than after a
writing exercise. The increase in the number of pieces of tissue papers used in the
children’s collages after the free-play session might be interpreted as evidence of a
simple increase in general productivity. However, productivity and creativity are very
closely associated with each other and so some increase in quantity of work should be
expected (Diehl and Stroebe, 1987). If the effect is due only to a simple increase in
general productivity (as opposed to creative productivity), one would also expect to
detect it in non-creative tasks and this would be a useful line of enquiry for future
investigations. Additionally, since tutored play has been shown to be more effective
than free play in developing children’s associative fluency (Pellegrini, and
Greene,1980, Feitelson, and Ross, 1973), it would be interesting to know how the two
types of activity might impact upon the rated creative value of outcomes in
subsequent tasks - especially since Berreta and Privette (1990) found that fluency was
not influenced by the degree of structure of the preceding play.
The type of motivation that the children were experiencing may also have influenced
results. Children, when in the free play condition, were pursuing activities of their
choice, and thus were intrinsically motivated. The children completed each part of the
hand-writing exercise because they had been asked by the teacher to do so - and thus
were being extrinsically motivated. According to the intrinsic/extrinsic motivation
principle (Amabile, 1996), these two types of motivation will impact positively and
negatively (respectfully) upon creativity. Thus our results could be explained by a
transfer of the motivation type.
Many questions remain to be answered about the mechanisms by which play supports
creativity and how the positive effects of play can transfer to other contexts. The
present study further emphasises the need for a better understanding of the cognitive
significance of play and to ensure it is given the consideration it deserves in
educational programmes.
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... Junto con lo descrito, la literatura plantea que las capacidades físicas y motoras son sensibles al impacto de la estimulación, cuya relación reporta mayores beneficios cuando se da simultáneamente en el contexto familiar y educativo (Gil, 2004), junto con ello, estimular a niños y niñas a estar en constante movimiento produce afinidad por la AF que, a largo plazo, aumenta las posibilidades de una vida físicamente activa y saludable (Alberga et al., 2012;Brooke et al., 2014;Díaz & Vargas, 2009), junto con favorecer el desarrollo de habilidades mentales y la creatividad (Howard-Jones et al., 2002;Pulido y Ramírez, 2020). Además, los niños que manifiestan una menor motivación hacia la práctica de actividades físicas y deportivas pueden tener dificultades de relación con sus compañeros, provocando episodios de soledad, aislamiento, rechazo y ridículo en el patio de recreo o en momentos de juego (Bucco-dos Santos & Zubiaur-González, 2013). ...
... Los antecedentes expuestos, plantean la necesidad de indagar acerca de la influencia del entorno físico y social en el desarrollo infantil, para así implementar intervenciones educativas y de salud, que mitiguen el efecto de los factores de riesgo (Ujeviae et al., 2013). Así se plantea que las intervenciones multifacéticas, que articulan varias estrategias, pueden provocar resultados más efectivos y duraderos, para ello es preciso que los programas de intervención integren estrategias dirigidas a abordar diferentes factores influyentes, en varios niveles (intrapersonal, interpersonal, del entorno físico, e incluso, ambiental y político) y dimensio-nes humanas (cognitivas, sociales, emocionales y motrices), con especial énfasis en el uso de actividades motrices lúdicas e inclusivas (Díaz & Vargas, 2009;Howard-Jones et al., 2002;Méndez-Giménez, 2020). ...
... Las diferencias reportadas en la dimensión Cognitiva, la cual involucra la capacidad de organizar, almacenar, planificar y recordar información, entre otras capacidades (Aznar, 2006), dan cuenta que estos contrastes pueden estar relacionados al contexto o ambiente en que los niños viven, en este sentido, el ambiente rural es mucho más diversificado en términos de naturaleza y espacios de recreación al aire libre, permitiendo a los niños y niñas interactuar, conocer y almacenar más información sensorial, además de planificar y organizar de mejor manera sus acciones motrices, dado que, existen mayores complejidades en el medio que les rodea. Estas relaciones han sido descritas y plantean que la actividad motriz y sensorial en la población infantil, trae beneficios bastante altos en el funcionamiento cognitivo y en el desarrollo de la creatividad, siendo necesario que se adopten políticas para estimularlas entre la población (Howard-Jones et al., 2002;Sibley & Etnier, 2003). Junto con ello, los niveles de AF tienen una influencia positiva sobre los procesos cognitivos, si bien Zona Rural r= 0.05 p= 0.43 estos efectos no parecen ser apreciables en resultados académicos a corto plazo, a largo plazo parecen tener mayor relación, en especial, con las funciones ejecutivas (Reloba et al., 2016). ...
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El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las diferencias en el desarrollo infantil en las dimensiones de motricidad, lenguaje, cognición y estado socioemocional en escolares de cinco y seis años pertenecientes a una escuela rural y otra urbana de la región del Biobío en Chile. El estudio fue observacional de corte transversal, con características descriptivas y analíticas. La muestra fue compuesta por 28 escolares de ambos sexos, distribuidos en siete niñas y siete niños de una zona rural (5.7±0.5 años) y siete niñas y siete niños de una zona urbana (5.6±0.6 años), seleccionada de forma no probabilística por conveniencia. Se evaluó el desarrollo infantil por medio del Test de Aprendizaje del Desarrollo Infantil (TADI). Los resultados muestran que existen diferencias significativas en los puntajes promedio de las dimensiones motriz y cognitiva (p˂0.05), con mejores resultados en los escolares de la zona rural. No hubo diferencias significativas en las dimensiones de lenguaje y estado socioemocional (p˃0.05), además se evidencia una relación positiva directa entre las dimensiones motriz y socioemocional para la zona urbana (p˂0.05). Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas en el desarrollo infantil entre los escolares pertenecientes a la zona rural y a la zona urbana, específicamente en las dimensiones motriz y cognitiva, con mejores resultados para los escolares de la zona rural. Abstract. The objective of the study was to analyze the differences in child development in the dimensions of motor skills, language, cognition, and socio-emotional state in five- and six-year-old school children belonging to a rural and an urban school in the Biobío region of Chile. The study was cross-sectional observational, with descriptive and analytical characteristics. The sample consisted of 28 school children of both sexes, seven girls and seven boys from rural areas (5.7 ± 0.5 years) and seven girls and seven boys from urban areas (5.6 ± 0.6 years) selected in a non-probabilistic way for convenience. Child development was assessed through the Child Development Learning Test (TADI). The results show that there are significant differences in the average scores of the motor and cognitive dimensions (p˂0.05), with better results in school children in rural areas. There were no significant differences in the dimensions of language and socio-emotional state (p˃0.05), in addition there was a direct positive relationship between the motor and socioemotional dimensions for the urban area (p˂0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that there are significant differences in child development between school children belonging to rural and urban areas, specifically in the motor and cognitive dimensions, with better results for school children in rural areas.
... Los ítems empleados durante el entrenamiento fueron diferentes a los empleados en el registro con resonancia magnética funcional. Por su parte, diversos estudios psicológicos sugieren que las habilidades creativas pueden ser modificadas mediante la intervención basada en juegos, favoreciendo de este modo el aumento de la creatividad global (Baggerly, 1999;Garaigordobil, 2006;Howard et al., 2002;Mellou, 1995;Memmert, 2007;Precio-Café, 1995;Ott & Pozzi, 2010). El presente estudio tuvo como propósito investigar los efectos de una intervención con juegos sobre las habilidades creativas de un grupo de niños. ...
... Los resultados de la presente investigación apoyan, al igual que otros estudios, la posibilidad de que las habilidades creativas puedan modificarse a través del diseño de intervenciones específicas (Antonietti, 2000;Baer, 2014;Fleith et al, 2002;Hu, et al., 2013;Komarik & Brutenicova, 2003;Saxon et al., 2003;Stevenson, et al., 2014;Amponsah, Kwesi & Ernest 2019). Particularmente, los resultados confirman la hipótesis que propone que la intervención con juegos favorece el aumento de la creatividad global, confirmando los resultados de estudios que habían indicado efectos positivos del juego en el desarrollo de la creatividad (Baggerly, 1999;Garaigordobil, 2006;Howard et al., 2002;Mellou, 1995;Memmert, 2007;Precio-Café, 1995;Ott & Pozzi, 2010;Lucchiari, Sala & Vanutelli, 2018). Esto sugiere que probablemente el juego (en su calidad de herramienta cognitiva) contribuye al despliegue de las habilidades creativas como funciones mentales superiores. ...
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Hace aproximadamente 30 años se vienen llevando a cabo una serie de intentos materializados en estudios y artículos que, de manera individual, pretenden aproximarse al tema de la innovación1 a través desde la filosofía, la psicología, la pedagogía y las neurociencias. Particularmente, se resalta el trabajo presentado por Csikszentmihalyi en The Systems Model of Creativity (El modelo sistémico de la creatividad) en 2014, quien de manera magistral desarrolla el tema de la concepción sistémica y social relacionada con la cognición creativa, imprimiendo un énfasis particular a aspectos educativos y culturales en general.
... Free play allows children to act on their own environment and explore for the sake of exploring, which demonstrates positive effects on divergent thinking (Howard-Jones et al. 2002). Sutton-Smith (1967) showed that children were more likely to imagine multiple purposes for objects after playing with them. ...
This chapter focuses on the role and value of not knowing for creativity, learning and development. More specifically, it proposes a typology of states that are conducive, in different ways, for creative learning, including certain knowing, uncertain not knowing, uncertain knowing, and certain not knowing. They are discussed, in turn, in relation to four associated experiences: trust, anxiety, curiosity and wonder, respectively. Towards the end, two models are proposed that specify how and when these experiences contribute to the process of creative learning. The first is focused on macro stages, the second on micro processes. While the former starts from uncertain not knowing, goes through the interplay between uncertain knowing and certain not knowing, and ends in certain knowledge, the processual model reveals the intricate relations between these experiences in each and every instance of creative learning. The developmental and educational implications of revaluing not knowing as a generate state are discussed in the end.KeywordsUncertaintyKnowledgeAnxietyTrustCuriosityWonderCreative learning
... Perhaps strict imitation becomes ingrained through years of learning experience. Highly structured classroom activities cause declines in creativity [39], and classroom activities that encourage exploration promote creativity [40,41]. As the number of years in formal educational settings increases, adults may become less divergent thinkers, depending less on selfgenerated learning and innovation. ...
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Learning from others provides the foundation for culture and the advancement of knowledge. Learning a new visuospatial skill from others represents a specific challenge-overcoming differences in perspective so that we understand what someone is doing and why they are doing it. The "what" of visuospatial learning is thought to be easiest from a shared 0° first-person perspective and most difficult from a 180° third-person perspective. However, the visual disparity at 180° promotes face-to-face interaction, which may enhance learning by scaffolding social perspective taking, the "why" of visuospatial learning. We tested these potentially conflicting hypotheses in child and young adult learners. Thirty-six children (4-6 years) and 57 young adults (18-27 years) observed a live model open a puzzle box from a first-person (0°) or third-person (90° or 180°) perspective. The puzzle box had multiple solutions, only one of which was modelled, which allowed for the assessment of imitation and goal emulation. Participants had three attempts to open the puzzle box from the model's perspective. While first-person (0°) observation increased imitation relative to a 180° third-person perspective, the 180° observers opened the puzzle box most readily (i.e., fastest). Although both age groups were excellent imitators and able to take the model's perspective, adults were more faithful imitators, and children were more likely to innovate a new solution. A shared visual perspective increased imitation, but a shared mental perspective promoted goal achievement and the social transmission of innovation. "Perfection of means and confusion of goals-in my opinion-seem to characterize our age" Einstein (1973) pg 337, Ideas and Opinions.
... Thiessen, Glutht, and Corso (2013) emphasized that the establishment of fantasy during games improved the ability to produce curiosity, inner images and make-believe in children. According to Howard-Jones, Tatlor, and Sutton (2002), the participants' imagination helps them to create new and different combinations by matching/contrasting relatively new images and information with the old, thus developing a repertoire for creative thinking. Moreover, Russ & Kaugars, 2000/2001 emphasized that creativity can be facilitated through games in two different ways: by performing exercises including direct divergent thinking skills during play and by encouraging the individual to express his/her emotions and use emotionally charged fantasies during play. ...
Creative thinking is found more or less in each individual, and is a skill that can be learned. Creative drama is one of the methods used to acquire this skill. This study examined the effect of applying the creative drama approach for the development of creative thinking skills in students with imtellectual disabilities. The study was carried out using a randomized pretest-post test control group design. A modified version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Figural Form "Circles" was used as the data collection tool. The fluency and flexibility scores of the students were evaluated. The activities were carried out in 2-hour sessions two days a week for a total of 32 hours. The experimental group fluency and flexibility post test and follow-up test scores were significantly higher than their pre-test scores, while no significant difference was found between the post test and follow-up results. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the improvement of the students' fluency and flexibility scores was linked to the activities, i.e., that the creative drama method had contributed positively to the development of creative thinking skills of students with intellectual disabilities. ARTICLE HISTORY
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El artículo analiza el arte dramático: talleres, juego dramático, drama creativo, dramatización, improvisación y el teatro mismo, como terapia alternativa para contrarrestar problemáticas psicosociales en sujetos vulnerables y excluidos. Para llevar a cabo este propósito, se utilizó un diseño cualitativo, a través de una perspectiva de tipo documental, que se centró en las categorías arte dramático, y poblaciones vulnerables y excluidas. Se presentan los hallazgos de las relaciones sobre estos conceptos, luego de revisar y analizar las bases de datos Apa Psyc Net, Cambrige J, DOAJ, JSTOR, SCIELO, Science Direct, EBSCO, Wilson, Web of Science, entre otras fuentes. En esta perspectiva, a partir de un trabajo llevado a cabo en un horizonte crítico-interpretativo, se revisaron las producciones realizadas por investigadores usando los instrumentos de matriz bibliográfica y matriz analítica de contenido. Como resultado, se reconoció el arte dramático como herramienta para ayudar a población vulnerable y se identificaron diferentes metodologías y resultados de las investigaciones en las que se utilizó el arte dramático para disminuir las exclusiones. Se concluye que el arte dramático, a partir de la atención al lenguaje corporal, al pensamiento, a la obra teatral, a los cambios que el sujeto tiene en la representación de personajes, entre otros, acrecienta el ingenio y la comunicación, y posibilita un desarrollo estético y plástico. Este tipo de modificaciones aportan a mejorar el nivel biopsicosocial de la población vulnerable y excluida, a reconfigurar su personalidad e historias personales, desarrollar habilidades sociales, mejorar su comunicación, darles herramientas para resolver problemas, a gestionar sus emociones y a potenciar su autoestima; estas capacidades y desarrollos humanos, son sustanciales para contrarrestar las problemáticas psicosociales que acarrean su situación de fragilidad y marginación.
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This study aims to determine the effect of playing sand and plasticine on the creativity of early childhood in CEMERLANG PAUD Deli Serdang. This study used a quantitative descriptive type with quasi experiments design, and used the Time Series Design system. The research subjects were 20 young children aged 5-6 years which were divided into 2 experimental groups, namely experiment I with sand games consisting of 10 students and experiment II with plasticine games. consists of 10 students at CEMERLANG PAUD Deli Serdang. Hypothesis testing is done using the Wiloxon Signed Rank Test.Hypothesis test results show that there is an effect of early childhood creativity before and after playing sand games with an average value (0.00 α = 0.021), there is an effect of early childhood creativity before and after playing plasticine games with an average value (0.00α = 0.022), and there is a difference in the creativity of children playing with sand and plasticine (0.00 α = 0.09). The results showed that there was an effect of playing sand on the creativity of early childhood in CEMERLANG PAUD Deli Serdang with an increase of 21.1%. There is an effect of playing plasticine on the creativity of early childhood in CEMERLANG PAUD Deli Serdang with an increase of 22%. There is a difference in the effect of playing sand and plasticine on the creativity of early childhood in CEMERLANG PAUD Deli Serdang by 0.9%.
There is a great interest in studying creativity in children. Yet, the current literature on preschool creativity is sparse. Extending on work in the innovation literature, we propose that uncertainty, curiosity, and exploration are vital components of a larger model of creativity. In the current chapter, we examine this new model of creativity and its implications for preschool children. Specifically, we propose that play is an ideal context for supporting the components of the creativity model. We investigate challenges in implementing the model in educational settings and explore outstanding questions in the field of preschool creativity.
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Tested the hypothesis that children's play can have a general facilitating effect on associative responding. Data from 36 middle-class preschool Ss show that those in the play condition produced significantly more standard and more nonstandard uses for a variety of materials than Ss in either imitation or intellectual task (i.e., verbal cues) conditions.
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A series of 4 experiments were conducted to investigate ideational productivity. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were carried out under controlled conditions and involved a test of ideational productivity based on producing different interpretations of a diagram. In the first experiment, the pattern of ideational produc- tivity of adult volunteer participants was studied over 30 min of thinking time. Experiment 2 investigated whether, as predicted by Mednick (1962), a negative correlation exists between the rate of change of pro- ductivity and the overall productivity of adult partici- pants. Results confirmed a significant correlation, providing further support for the connectionist model of creativity put forward by Martindale (1995). Ex- periment 3 measured the effect of a strategy that en- couraged adult volunteers to defocus their thinking before attempting to find another new interpretation of the diagram. On returning to the problem, the aver- age time taken to produce a new interpretation was significantly reduced. These results are discussed in terms of Martindale's connectionist model and the role of context. Based on these findings, an instruc- tional strategy was devised that might support the ideational productivity of children. In Experiment 4, the effectiveness of such a strategy was investigated within the classroom environment for children aged 8 to 10 years, and was shown to be effective in raising their ideational productivity. A creative idea is generally considered to possess two
To investigate the extent to which free play vs a sequenced questioning paradigm were general facilitators of preschoolers' associative fluency 36 children (15 girls and 21 boys, M age . = 52.52 mo.; SD = 9.197 mo.) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, free play, questioning, or control. In the first two conditions children interacted with two conventional objects, randomly chosen from a set of four. Children in all conditions were asked to articulate novel uses for conventional objects they had not interacted with during their respective treatments. The condition significantly affected creative responses. Responses in the questioning condition were significantly greater than in the other conditions; there was no significant difference between play and control conditions.
Research over the last 25 years on the contribution of aloneness to creativity enhancement has had mixed results. Early studies of sensory deprivation generally found negative effects while more recent research on flotation isolation has reported positive influence. Sports performance, for example, has been improved by means of directed imagery and flotation aloneness. However, there has been only one study which has attempted to enhance creativity through the flotation method and while this study reported positive results, it lacked several control features and was based on a very small sample of highly selected subjects.The present study was designed to evaluate directly the potential contribution of floating to creativity enhancement as measured by the Guilford fluency test and other measures. Subjects were male and female university students, half of whom spent one hour in a float environment and the other half in a darkened room. Each was tested before and after experimental trial on the Guilford and other creativity measures and on two personality/affect scales. Float subjects showed significant increases on the Guilford test from the pre- to post-float and meaningful increases on other thinking measures as compared to non-floating control subjects. Floating was associated with a decrease in anxiety/tension, depression, hostility, and fatigue, but with an increase in vigor and a maintenance of curiosity scores, and it is speculated that the creativity benefits may be a result of these state changes.
The article summarizes, critiques, and extends experimental studies attempting to facilitate young children's associative fluency. The earliest studies had children playing with or exploring objects as a treatment for their generating creative uses for objects. This research suggests that play enables children to establish a playful disposition towards objects which results in their increased associative fluency. The review, which differentiates play from exploration, suggests that children in these earlier studies may have been trained in exploration not play. The review then discusses studies which guided children's exploration of objects by engaging them in an exploration open question dialogue with an adult, about the objects. The review concludes that the guided exploration questioning technique is a more effective facilitator of associative fluency than a free play treatment because the former has children being guided in the exploration of more object attributes in a relatively short period of time.
The intent of the study was to investigate the extent to which free play vs. sequenced questioning conditions facilitated preschoolers' associative fluency. Twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls, age of 50.7 months) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: free play, questions, control, in the first two conditions, children interacted with randomly chosen conventional objects. Children in all conditions were asked for novel uses for the conventional objects. Children in the sequenced questioning condition generated significantly more novel responses than children in the other two conditions (p < .002). No significant difference was observed between the play and control conditions. Implications for pedagogy are discussed. Teachers should pose the sequence of questions so as to enable children to explore their hypotheses.
Presents an introduction to experimental design and analysis in psychology. Topics include types of independent and dependent variables, common design problems, and the relationship between design and theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)