The effect of metformin on leptin in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, 5. sokak No: 48, Bahcelievler, 06490, Ankara, Turkey. Acta Diabetologica
(Impact Factor: 2.4).
11/2008; 46(2):113-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-008-0067-2
Insulin resistance is a major feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies pointed out the possible role of increased leptin in NAFLD in humans. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of metformin on plasma leptin levels in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and NAFLD compared with lifestyle interventions. Thirty-four obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus were prospectively followed for 6 months. All patients had ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD at baseline. The patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 15) followed lifestyle changes only and group 2 (n = 19) received metformin (1,700 mg/day). At the end of treatment, BMI, WHR, HbA1c, fasting glucose, leptin, HOMA-IR, alanine aminotransferase values decreased in both groups. No significant difference in the end-points was observed between two groups. Only in group 2, LDL decreased and HDL increased significantly. Liver echogenity decreased significantly at the end of study in both groups. The percentage of patients who no longer had evidence of NAFLD was not significantly different between the groups (20% of patients on lifestyle intervention vs. 16% of patients on metformin). The data demonstrate that, metformin and lifestyle interventions equally affected the plasma leptin levels, BMI and degree of NAFLD in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the effects of metformin on the variables were not found to be mediated by leptin.
Available from: Lars Bechmann
- "Some studies report a beneficial effect of MF on liver function with improvement of liver enzymes or even improvement of tissue steatosis or inflammation in NAFLD and/or NASH      . Though there is also conflicting data    , two studies demonstrated improvement of liver enzymes in patients with PCOS under MF treatment, indicating that MF positively influences liver function  . PCOS is a frequent endocrinopathy and includes a high percentage of young women, who are potentially at high risk for serious liver disease, and IR plays a key role in the pathophysiology of both entities, PCOS and NAFLD. "
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), key features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Cytokeratin 18 fragments (M30) have been established as a serum marker for NASH. The insulin sensitizer metformin improves hepatic IR. This study evaluates the influence of MF on serologic NASH (sNASH) in patients with PCOS. Patients and Methods. In 89 patients, metabolic parameters, liver injury indicating fatty liver (LIFL), and M30 were assessed at baseline and after metformin treatment. Patients with initial IR were subdivided into dissolved (PCOS-exIR) and persistent IR (PCOS-PIR) after treatment and compared to an initially insulin sensitive PCOS group (PCOS-C). Results. Improvement of LIFL prevalence could be seen in PCOS-C and PCOS-exIR compared to PCOS-PIR (−19.4, resp., −12.0% versus 7.2%, Chi2 = 29.5,
) without change in sNASH prevalence. In PCOS-PIR, ALT levels increased significantly accompanied by a nominal, nonsignificant M30 increase. Conclusions. Metformin improves LIFL in subgroups of patients with PCOS without influencing sNASH. This could either indicate a missing effect of metformin on NAFLD or slowed disease progression. Further studies are needed to elucidate NAFLD in the context of PCOS and potential therapeutic options.
Available from: Ilaria Dicembrini
- "g/day) alone or in association with vitamin E  or lifestyle intervention [75, 78, 84]. Only three open-label studies have found no benefits of metformin treatment on aminotransferase levels and IR markers [85–87]. However, only few studies shown an improvement in liver histology [77, 78, 81, 83]. "
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a clinical condition shared by many diseases besides type 2 diabetes (T2DM) such as obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Experimental evidence, produced over the years, suggests that metformin has many benefits in the treatment of these diseases. Metformin is a first-line drug in the treatment of overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients, offering a selective pathophysiological approach by its effect on insulin resistance. Moreover, a number of studies have established the favorable effect of metformin on body weight, not only when evaluating BMI, but also if body mass composition is considered, through the reduction of fat mass. In addition, it reduces insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, lipid parameters, arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. In particular, a new formulation of metformin extended-release (ER) is now available with different formulation in different countries. Metformin ER delivers the active drug through hydrated polymers which expand safe uptake of fluid, prolonging gastric transit and delaying drug absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In addition, Metformin ER causes a small, but statistically significant decrease in BMI, when added to a lifestyle intervention program in obese adolescents. Because of the suggested benefits for the treatment of insulin resistance in many clinical conditions, besides type 2 diabetes, the prospective exists that more indications for metformin treatment are becoming a reality.
Available from: Lisa Vanwagner
- "Two RCTs (n ¼ 144) evaluated the effect of metformin on radiological and biochemical indices of NAFLD alone [Nar and Gedik, 2009; Bugianesi et al. 2005] Bugianesi and colleagues showed that metformin normalized aminotransferases in 69% versus 31% in the dietary therapy group (p ¼ 0.0003) [Bugianesi et al. 2005]. However, in the trial by Nar and Gedik, biochemical and radiological improvement was nonsignificant compared with diet plus exercise [Nar and Gedik, 2009]. Overall, when added to lifestyle intervention, metformin enhanced weight loss (mean weight loss 4.37.9%) "
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ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which includes dyslipidemia, central obesity, hypertension, and insulin resistance. These diseases collectively and individually increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subset of NAFLD that can progress to cirrhosis in up to 30% of patients and lead to decompensated liver disease requiring liver transplantation in many patients. Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological hallmark of NASH and addressing insulin resistance is an important aspect of NASH management. Lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise improve insulin sensitivity and are the cornerstone of therapy, but are often difficult to maintain long term. Not surprisingly, insulin-sensitizing agents have been a focus of pharmacologic investigation in NASH. Insulin sensitizers such as the thiazolidinediones, biguanides, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, also known as incretins, will be discussed with respect to their mechanism of action and how these drugs might target aspects of NASH pathophysiology. Finally, we will summarize the available clinical data and review both the risks and benefits of insulin sensitizers in the treatment of NASH.
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