Tobacco and tuberculosis


Smoking is not only the most important source of avoidable disability and death, but a risk factor for TB infection, disease and death. Even passive smoking exposure may increase the risk of infection and disease in adults and children exposed to TB. Considering the increase in tobacco consumption in developing countries, where the prevalence of TB is the highest, smoking may be responsible for a large part of the burden of disease. Therefore, medical advice and counselling in smoking cessation is an important activity for all care providers engaged in management of TB.

Download full-text


Available from: Jean-Pierre Zellweger, May 21, 2014
  • Source
    • "In recent years, a series of epidemiologic reports as well as 3 meta-analyses have implicated active or passive CS exposure as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis234567891011121314151617181920. However, a plausible mechanistic explanation has not been demonstrated experimentally. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is an epidemiological risk factor for tuberculosis, although the biological basis has not been elucidated. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to CS for 14 weeks and examined their ability to control an aerosol infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. CS-exposed mice had more M. tuberculosis isolated from the lungs and spleens after 14 and 30 d, compared with control mice. The CS-exposed mice had worse lung lesions and less lung and splenic macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) producing interleukin12 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). There were significantly more interleukin 10-producing macrophages and DCs in the spleens of infected CS-exposed mice than in non-CS-exposed controls. CS-exposed mice also showed a diminished influx of interferon γ-producing and TNF-α-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector and memory T cells into the lungs and spleens. There was a trend toward an increased number of viable intracellular M. tuberculosis in macrophages isolated from humans who smoke compared with nonsmokers. THP-1 human macrophages and primary human alveolar macrophages exposed to CS extract, nicotine, or acrolein showed an increased burden of intracellular M. tuberculosis. CS suppresses the protective immune response to M. tuberculosis in mice, human THP-1 cells, and primary human alveolar macrophages.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    • "In parallel, tobacco smoking has increased substantially over the past few decades, in developing countries where TB is co-prevalent with an estimated 930 million of the world's 1.1 billion smokers currently living in the low-income and middle-income countries [12-14]. Furthermore, a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers or involuntarily exposed to other people's tobacco smoke [12,15-18]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the participants (51.3%) were moderately dependent to nicotine. A moderately large proportion of the respondents (41.2%) reported that they have ever attempted to quit smoking, while more than half (56.3%) have not. Less than half (47.5%) of the study participants had knowledge about the body system on which cigarette smoking has the greatest negative effect. The majority wrongly believed that smokeless tobacco can increase athletic performance (60%) and that it is a safe and harmless product (46.2%). An overwhelming proportion (>80%) of the patients believed that: smoking is a waste of money, tobacco use is very dangerous to health, and that smokers are more likely to die from heart disease when compared with non-smokers. The use of smokeless tobacco was moderately prevalent among the participants with 28.8% reporting ever snuffed, but the use of cigar and pipe was uncommon. Smoking prevalence rate is high among patients with TB in Malaysia. These patients generally had deficiencies in knowledge of tobacco use and its health dangers, but had positive attitudes against tobacco use. Efforts should be geared towards reducing tobacco use among this population due to its negative impact on TB treatment outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Tobacco Induced Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that tobacco smoking slows the sterilisation of sputum culture in pulmonary tuberculosis, but the factors that could delay culture conversion in patients who smoke are not known. Our aim is to identify the factors influencing sputum culture conversion in smokers with pulmonary tuberculosis. Ninety-nine patients with a smoking history and diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis were analysed retrospectively. The relationship between sputum culture status at the second month and the following variables: age, gender, pack-years index, comorbid diseases, number acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smear examination, radiological findings (cavitary, extensive or limited disease), drug susceptibility pattern and initial treatment, was analysed. The Student t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression model with forward stepwise conditional methods were used for statistical analysis. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Twenty six patients (26.2%): 18 males (22.2%) and 8 females (44%) were sputum culture positive at the end of the second month of treatment. In univariate analysis, culture conversion time was significantly associated with female gender and extensive disease, but in a logistic regression analysis was only correlated with female gender (OR=5.63 95% CI 1.21-20.64-p=0.02). In current smokers with pulmonary tuberculosis, the 'time to culture' conversion relates only to the female gender.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace / Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Università di Napoli, Secondo ateneo
Show more