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Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand

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Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.
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Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841 835
Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand*
Hong-kai WANG1, Kevin D. HYDE†‡2, Kasem SOYTONG3, Fu-cheng LIN†‡1
(1Biotechnology Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China)
(2Fungal Research Group, School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Tasud, Chiang Rai 571000, Thailand)
(3Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand)
E-mail: kdhyde1@gmail.com; fuchenglin@zju.edu.cn
Received July 28, 2008; revision accepted Aug. 15, 2008
Abstract: Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang
Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23
ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were
Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Col-
letotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and
the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is
discussed.
Key words: Ficus, Fallen leaves, Saprobes, Fungal diversity
doi:10.1631/jzus.B0860005 Document code: A CLC number: Q939.5
INTRODUCTION
Fungi are chemoheterotrophic organisms that
play an important role as decomposers in natural
ecosystems (Duarte et al., 2006; Gadd, 2007). Fungi
have additional economic importance as biocontrol
agents, chemical producers of bioactive compounds
used in the pharmaceutical and many other industries
(Yuen et al., 1999; Bucher et al., 2004; Duarte et al.,
2006). The economic impact of fungi in the envi-
ronment is likely related to the total fungal species
pool (Hyde, 2001; Piepenbring, 2007). Research on
fungal diversity therefore provides a basis for esti-
mating the functional role of fungi in ecosystems,
exploiting these economic fungi and estimating the
total fungal species richness in a region or globally
(Arnold et al., 2001; Mueller and Schmit, 2007).
Although the 1.5 million species estimated by
Hawksworth (2001) are commonly accepted (Hyde,
2001; Hyde et al., 2007), the actual quantity of fungal
species is unclear (Arnold et al., 2001; Hyde, 2001;
Hyde et al., 2007; Schmit and Mueller, 2007). Schmit
and Mueller (2007) estimated that there is a minimum
of 712 000 fungal species worldwide. This estimate
was primarily based on the observed ratio between
vascular plant species diversity and fungal diversity
in a certain area. Meta-analysis of fungal diversity in
small plots (Schmit et al., 2005) demonstrated that the
numbers of tree species and macrofungal species
diversities are correlated (Mueller et al., 2007). The
actual number of fungi is still unknown; however,
only 5%~13% of the total estimated global fungal
species have been described. The undescribed fungi
may occur in poorly studied countries, hosts, habitats,
niches, or tissues, and are mostly microfungi (Hyde,
2001; Schmit and Mueller, 2007). To determine the
accuracy of fungal estimates, more information is
needed concerning species diversity in poorly studied
areas and hosts, especially in poorly studied areas
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
ISSN 1673-1581 (Print); ISSN 1862-1783 (Online)
www.zju.edu.cn/jzus; www.springerlink.com
E-mail: jzus@zju.edu.cn
Corresponding authors
* Project supported by the Mushroom Research Centre, Chiang Mai,
Thailand and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.
30670072) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province
of China (No. Y350568)
Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841
836
(Dulymamode et al., 2001; Hyde, 2001).
There have been several studies on fungi in
poorly studied habitats in Thailand (Jones and Hyde,
2004). This has included studies on larger fungi in the
forests of northern Thailand (Le et al., 2007a; 2007b),
fungi on peat swamp palms (Pinnoi et al., 2006; Pin-
ruan et al., 2007), fungi on other monocotyledons
(Photita et al., 2001; Thongkantha et al., 2008), fungi
on leaf litter of angiosperms (Promputtha et al., 2004;
2005; Duong et al., 2006; 2008), and fungi on decay-
ing wood (Kodsueb et al., 2008a; 2008b). There has
been, however, no study on the litter of Ficus species.
Whether fungi are host-specific or generalists
are significant in estimating species numbers (Zhou
and Hyde, 2001; Hyde et al., 2007), is particularly
important in studying leaf litter. In tropical forests,
plant litter comprises a mixture of diverse host leaves,
unlike that in many temperate forests where stands
contain low tree diversity. Several studies on the
saprobic microfungal diversity associated with plants
have been carried out (Hyde et al., 2001; Yanna et al.,
2001; Dulymamode et al., 2001; Paulus et al., 2006a;
2006b), and to a large extent, fungi tend to be
host-specific at the host genus level (Taylor et al.,
2001). Paulus et al.(2006a; 2006b) studied 6 tree
hosts from 4 families and found very little overlap.
The low overlap may be because the hosts studied
were from different families. The next question to ask
is whether litter of different species of the same host
genus has host-specific fungi or generalists? We,
therefore, chose to study the saprobes on 5 species of
Ficus to establish data on the fungal communities
involved in the decay of litter from different species
of the same host genus.
The genus Ficus (Moraceae) includes some 750
species of woody plants occurring in most tropical
and subtropical forests throughout the world
(Weiblen, 2000). Ficus is an evergreen or deciduous
tree, frequently growing on other trees (strangling)
with smooth pale gray bark and abundant white latex
(Gardner et al., 2000). There is little known con-
cerning the fungal diversity on this host genus
(Suryanarayanan and Vijaykrishna, 2001; Paulus et
al., 2006a). Paulus et al.(2006a; 2006b) reported on
the fungal diversity in leaf litter of 2 species of Ficus
in Australia, while Suryanarayanan and Vijaykrishna
(2001) isolated 28 endophyte fungi from Ficus
benghalensis. Ficus is the second largest tree genus in
northern Thailand after Syzygium with 30 species of
Ficus growing in the region (Gardner et al., 2000).
The purpose of the present study is to assess the
diversity of saprobic fungi on 5 species of Ficus in
northern Thailand in order to (1) investigate fungal
distribution on saprobic fallen leaves of Ficus species;
and (2) evaluate the different fungal communities
involved in the decay of litter from different species
of the same host genus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Survey design
To examine the effect of host species on micro-
fungal assemblages, 5 species of Ficus were chosen
for the study. Individual trees of each species were
located at each of the sites selected for sampling
(Table 1). Thirty fallen leaves at various stages of
decay were haphazardly collected from each Ficus
species from each site within 2 d. All samples were
placed in Ziplock plastic bags containing tissue paper
moistened with sterile distilled water and sealed and
incubated at room temperature. Material was exam-
ined in the laboratory on Days 5, 15 and 25 after
sampling.
Assessment of microfungal diversity
For the assessment of fungal presence, all leaves
were cut into 5 cm×5 cm quadrates for observation.
Table 1 Location of Ficus species surveyed in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand
Plant sepcies Location
Ficus altissima MRC, T. Pa Pae, A. Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 19°0712 N, 98°442.64 E.
F. virens Out door of MRC, T. Pa Pae, A. Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 19°0712 N, 98°442.64 E.
F. benjamina About 5 km east of MRC, M. Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 19°0512 N, 98°442.64 E.
F. fistulosa Near Mae Malai, M. Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, 19°050 N, 98°542 E.
F. semicordata
Tung Cho National Park, forest trail, Tung Joaw Village, Mae Teng Dist., Chiang Mai Province, Thailand,
19°084.2 N, 98°38 54 E.
Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841 837
Fruiting bodies of microfungi were observed under a
stereoscope. A slide was then prepared for one rep-
resentative fruiting structure of each taxon and placed
in water and observed under a compound microscope.
Micrographs were taken and stains were added as
appropriate. Slides were made semipermanent by the
addition of 90% (v/v) lactic acid. Species identifica-
tions were made using morphological characters.
Herbarium specimens and slides of all taxa are
maintained at the Mushroom Research Foundation
Herbarium with some duplicates in Zhejiang Univer-
sity Herbarium.
Definitions and statistical analyses
Taxa were recorded as either present or absent
from each leaf. The number of leaves, on which a
particular fungal species was observed, designated
the ‘occurrence of a fungus’ and was used to calculate
the ‘percentage occurrence’ of a taxon on leaves of
one tree species using the following formula (Tsui et
al., 2001; Yanna et al., 2002):
Percent occurrence of taxon A (%)=occurrence of
taxon A/occurrence of all taxa in one tree species×100.
Fungal species diversity on each Ficus species
was calculated using Shannon-Wiener’s index H:
H=−∑PilnPi,
where Pi is the frequency of fungal species i occurring
on specific host leaves (Begon et al., 1993; Wong and
Hyde, 2001).
Sørensen’s index of similarity (S) was applied
(Magurran, 1988; Tsui et al., 2001) to compare the
similarity of the species on leaves of different Ficus
spp.: S=2c/(a+b), where a is the total number of spe-
cies on host A leaves, b is the total number of species
on host B leaves, and c is the number of species on
both host leaves. Similarity is expressed with values
between 0 (no similarity) and 1 (absolute similarity).
RESULTS
Species richness and dominant fungi on Ficus spp.
Examination of decaying leaves of 5 species of
Ficus from northern Thailand yielded 80 fungal taxa,
comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and
1 basidiomycete. We have identified many taxa to
species level, although in several cases the mor-
phology of the taxa in our study was not identified to
species (unidentified species, Table 2). Five species,
Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae,
Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and
Septonema harknessi were common species occurring
on all five host species (>3% occurrence, Table 2). In
addition, Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were
common genera, with several species occurring on the
Ficus leaves (Table 2). Figs.1~5 also show some rare
fungal taxa on the different host species.
(a) (b) (c)
Fig.1 Ellisiopsis gallesiae on fallen leaves of Ficus altis
-
s
ima. (a) Morphology of conidia; (b) and (c) Morpholog
y
of conidiophores. Bar=10 µm
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Fig.2 Morphology of Sagenomella striatispora on fallen
leaves of Ficus fistulosa. (a) Characters of conidiophore;
(b) Characters of conidia and conidiophore; (c) and (d)
developing conidia from conidiophores. Arrow indicates
the young conidium. Bar=10 µm
Fig.3 Morphology of Kirschsteiniothelia spp. on fallen
leaves of Ficus semicordata. (a) Characters of asci. Arrows
indicate the outer layer of the ascus wall; (b) Characters of
ascus; (c) Characters of pseudoparaphyses; (d) Charac-
ters of ascospores. (a) Bar=20 µm; (b)~(d) Bar=10 µm
(a)
(b) (c)
(d)
Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841
838
Fig.4 Morphology of Stachybotrys bisbyi on fallen leaves
of Ficus benjamina. (a) Characters conidia. Arrow in-
dicates the smooth wall of the conidium; (b) Characters
of conidiophore. Arrow indicates the rough wall of co-
nidiophore cell; (c) and (d) Characters of conidiophores.
Bar=10 µm
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fig.5 Morphology of Stachybotrys renispora on fallen
leaves of Ficus virens. (a) Characters of conidiophore;
(b) and (c) Characters of conidia and conidiophores.
Arrow indicates the succession of conidium; (d) and (e)
Characters of conidia. Bar=10 µm
(a) (b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Table 2 Percent occurrence (%) of fungal taxa on leaves of 5 species of Ficus in northern Thailand
Fungus name FV FF FA FS FB Fungus name FV FF FA FS FB
Ascomycetes Mitosporic fungi
Amphisphaeria fallax 2.3 Ellisiopsis gallesiae 2.3
Anthostomella limitata 2.2 2.4 Fusariella hughesii 4.4 4.7
Anthostomelle nannorrhopis 2.3 3.4 5.8 Fusariella obstipa 2.3
Chaetomium sulphureum 4.7 Fusarium chlamydosporum 4.8
Diaporthe adunca 4.7 Fusarium oxysporum 5.5
Diaporthe perjuncta 2.4 3.4 Fusarium solani 4.4
Eutypella scoparia 2.4 3.4 Giulia tenuis 1.7
Glomerella acutata Kellermania yuccifolia 2.4
Glomerella cingulata 1.1 1.2 Kontospora halophila 1.7
Guignardia spp. 1.1 2.4 1.2 2.9 Koorchaloma jamaicensis 2.4
Hyponectria populi 3.4 Lasiodiplodia theobromae 3.3 4.8 3.6 6.8 5.8
Kirschsteiniothelia spp. 1.7 Menispora ciliata 3.4
Lasiosphaeria breviseta 4.4 Menispora glauca 3.4
Lophiostoma minosporum 6.8 Microdochium phragmitis 4.8 4.7
Massarina hepaticarum 4.7 Mycoenterolobium platysporum 2.2 2.3
Melanospora brevirostris 3.4 Periconia byssoides 4.4 4.8 4.7 6.8 4.3
Munkovalsaria appendenta 1.1 1.7 1.4 Pestalotiopsis gigas 2.2 2.9
Mycoenterolobium platysporium 2.2 2.3 Pestalotiopsis owenii 4.4 2.9
Mycosphaerella dianthi 4.8 2.9 Phaeoisaria clematidis 2.3
Mycosphaerella freycineitae 4.4 3.4 Phoma eupyrena 5.8
Nectria sinopica 1.2 Phoma valerianae 2.2 2.4
Ophioceras leptosporum 4.4 4.8 4.7 6.8 5.8 Phomopsis asparagi 2.2 1.2 1.4
Rhytisma acerinum 3.4 Plectophomella nypae 2.2
Mitosporic fungi Sagenomella striatispora 2.4
Acremonium charticola 2.3 Schwarzmannia goebeliae 1.1
Ajrekarella polychaetriae 2.2 Septonema harknessi 4.4 4.8 4.7 5.1 5.8
Alternaria alternata 4.8 4.3 Sphaeridium candidum 2.4 2.9
Beltraina querna 1.2 Stachybotrys bisbyi 2.9
Beltraniella nilgirica 4.4 4.8 3.6 6.8 5.8 Stachybotrys nephrospora 2.9
Cercospora apii 2.2 2.9 Stachybotrys oenanthes 4.4 2.3 2.9
Chaetospermum artocarpi 4.8 Stachybotrys renispora 3.3
Chaetospermum chaetosporum 5.8Stachybotrys sansevieriae 2.3 3.4
Cladosporium cladosporioides 3.3 3.6 6.8 Torula graminis 5.8
Colletotrichum dematium 2.2 4.8 3.6 2.9 Torula herbarum 4.4
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 3.6 Trichothecium roseum 2.4 3.6 3.4
Colletotrichum graminicola 4.7 Volutella ciliata 4.4 3.6 6.8
Cylindrocolla urticae 5.8Wiesneriomyces javanicus 2.2 4.8 3.4
Dicyma state of Ascotricha chartarum 2.2 2.3 Xylohypha nigrescens 4.7
Dinemasporium strigosum 2.2 4.8 2.9 Zygosporium chartarum 2.9
Discosia artocreas 2.4 Basidiomycete
Discosia brasiliensis 1.4Halocyphina spp. 1.2
FV: Ficus virens; FF: F. fistulosa; FA: F. altissima; FS: F. semicordata; FB: F. benjamina
Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841 839
Fungal diversity
Communities of fungal taxa on different Ficus
species leaf litter were relatively distinct. The number
of taxa varied from 24 (F. semicordata) to 33 (F.
virens and F. altissima) (Table 3). The fungal com-
munities on F. virens and F. altissima were the most
similar but were different from those on F. semicor-
DISCUSSION
Studies of fungal diversity on Ficus have not
been carried out until recently, although this genus is
very common in forests throughout the world
(Weiblen, 2000; Paulus et al., 2006a; 2006b). Sury-
anarayanan and Vijaykrishna (2001) studied fungal
endophyte diversity on different host tissues of F.
benghalensis in India. They found little overlap be-
tween fungal endophyte composition on the leaves
and aerial roots. Paulus et al.(2006a; 2006b) studied
saprobic microfungi in leaf litter of Australia tropical
rainforests, including two Ficus species. They found
that fungal assemblages of F. destruens and F. pleu-
rocarpa grouped closely together. The overlapping
species were Beltraniella portoricensis, Beltrania cf.
concurvispora, Cylindrocladium coulhounii, Dic-
typchaeta cf. novae-guineensis, Cylindrosympodium
cryptocaryae, Idriella acerosa, Idriella lunata, Me-
nisporopsis theobromae, Ophiognomonia elasticae,
Parasypodiella elongate and Trichoderma viride. In
the present study, we investigated fungal diversity on
leaves of five Ficus species. Our results show that the
data (Table 4). The percentages of ascomycetes on F.
virens and F. altissima were similar (24% and 30%,
respectively). F. semicordata had the highest per-
centage of ascomycetes (46%) among the host species.
The percentages of anamorphic taxa on F. virens and
F. altissima were also similar.
overlap of fungal species was much higher than that
in previous studies on fallen leaves from different
hosts in different families. Similarity ranged from
28% to 45%. Some species, such as Ophioceras lep-
tosporum, Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia
theobromae, Periconia byssoides and Septonema
harknessi, were shared by all hosts with high occur-
rence, indicating that a ‘core fungal group’ might be
responsible for the decay of Ficus leaves (Wong and
Hyde, 2001). In this study some fungi are new records
on Ficus. Among these, many species are widespread,
such as Diaporthe adunca, Lasiosphaeria breviseta,
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Torula herbarum.
At least one species, Munkovalsaria appendenta, is a
new record for Thailand. Further studies are needed to
find more fungi on the leaves of Ficus, for our inves-
tigation was limited, with one tree of each host being
sampled once.
Some previous research results showed that the
hosts or tissues are important factors that influence
the fungal communities (Ho et al., 2001; Paulus et al.,
2003; Rambelli et al., 2004) and that some saprobes
might be host-specific (Hyde et al., 1997). Wong and
Table 3 Diversity of fungi on different Ficus species
Number of species
Ficus species Ascomycetes Mitosporic fungi Basidomycetes Total Index H
Ficus virens 8 25 33 3.3525
F. fistulosa 6 19 25 3.0887
F. altissima 10 22 1 33 3.3196
F. semicordata 11 13 24 3.0881
F. benjamina 5 21 26 3.1496
Table 4 Index of similarity among different Ficus species
Ficus virens F. fistulosa F. altissima F. semicordata F. benjamina
Ficus virens 0.41 0.45 0.35 0.44
F. fistulosa 0.31 0.41 0.43
F. altissima 0.35 0.31
F. semicordata 0.28
F. benjamina
Wang et al. / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 9(10):835-841
840
Hyde (2001) investigated fungal diversity on
Gramineae, and their results showed that fungal
composition on host species level varied. Studies on
microfungi of tree leaves in tropical regions sug-
gested that the fungal assemblages on different host
species were variable, and some other terms, such as
‘host exclusivity’, ‘host fidelity’, ‘host affinity’, ‘host
affinity’, ‘host preference’ and ‘host recurrence’,
were used to describe plant-fungal associations with
definitive host (Zhou and Hyde, 2001). Taylor et
al.(2001) noted that saprobic fungi were specific at a
host genus level. In the present study, our results
indicated that saprobic fungal diversity was high at
the host species level, with some rare fungal taxa
occurring on each of the different host species.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to Dr. Dhanasekaran Vijayk-
rishna, University of Hong Kong, China and Dr.
Ruilin Zhao, Southwest Forestry University, China
for technical help.
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... If indeed saprobes initially have an endophytic lifestyle, then it is more likely that they will have developed a relationship with the host and become host-specific (Andrews and Hirano 1991;Promputtha et al. 2007Promputtha et al. , 2010de Silva et al. 2019;Chethana et al. 2021). Therefore, this can account for the vast fungal numbers in host species (Fröhlich and Hyde 1999;Wang et al. 2008;Doilom et al. 2017). This is further confirmed in this study, where a large number of fungal species occurred uniquely on one tree species (Fig. 15). ...
... The ratio of 6:1 is still being debated, since most plants harbor considerably more (higher than six) possibly hostspecific fungal species (Fröhlich and Hyde 1999;Wang et al. 2008;Doilom et al. 2017;Mapook et al. 2020;Tennakoon et al. 2021b). Fröhlich and Hyde (1999) examined the fungi of three individual palms of Licuala sp. in Brunei Darussalam and three individual palms of Licuala ramsayi in Australia. ...
... These findings suggested that a ratio of 26:1 or even 33:1 would be more appropriate at least for palm species in the tropics. Wang et al. (2008) conducted an experimental study to check whether fungi are host-specific or generalists by using five Ficus species (F. altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata) in Thailand. ...
... Considerable attention in the extensive investigation of beneficial microorganisms from the plant tissues fully demonstrate their unique abilities to produce secondary metabolites of the host plant and collection of functionalities ( Figure 1) with their possible applications in agriculture, pharmaceutical and industrial sectors [17][18][19][20]. Importance of endophytes came into light only after the demonstration of toxic syndrome in cattle caused by endophytes of pasture grasses [21,22]. ...
... The secondary metabolites and other functions from endophytes could have potential applications in therapeutics without causing damage to the respective plant species. The bacterial and fungal endophytes suitable for therapeutic purposes are listed in Table 2 (2.1 and 2.2). (14), 3βhydroxy-ergosta-5-ene (15), 3-oxo-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22tetraene (16), 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22diene (17), 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9(11),22-triene, 3-oxo-ergosta-4-ene (18), 6isoprenylindole-3-carboxylic acid (19), 3β,5αdihydroxy-6β-acetoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene (20) and 3β,5α-dihydroxy-6β-phenylacetyloxy-ergosta-7,22diene (21). ...
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Endophytes associated with plants have the property to produce active biomolecules with their possible applications in agro-industrial sectors. This study provides a project work on analyzing various activities of fungal endophytes isolated from Swertia chirayita of Sikkim Himalayan region. Among several fungal endophytes screened, isolate UTCRF6 was found most active with the secretion of enzymes protease, cellulase, amylase and chitinase, as well as other metabolites Indoleacetic acid and siderophores. This endophyte was found active in restricting the growth of phyto-pathogens, including strains of Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Pestalotiopsis theae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Morphological and molecular studies of this endophytic fungus showed similarity with Penicillium citrinum.
... Therefore, numerous species are awaiting discovery or re-study based on morphology and molecular phylogeny (Hyde et al. , 2020aBaldrian et al. 2021). A possible reason for the large numbers of undiscovered taxa is that they occur in poorly studied countries, hosts and substrates (Wang et al. 2008;Hyde et al. , 2020a. Hence, we selected the island of Taiwan to carry out our fungal collections from poorly studied hosts and substrates. ...
... p Colonies from below (on PDA). Scale bars: d-g = 3 µm, h-n = 4 µm include the studies of fungi on specific host species (Bills and Polishook 1991;Fröhlich and Hyde 1999;Promputtha et al. 2002Promputtha et al. , 2004Promputtha et al. , 2017Wang et al. 2008;Doilom et al. 2017;Mapook et al. 2020), compared the fungi on different hosts in the same forest (Parungao et al. 2002;Paulus et al. 2006). Another method to examine the host-specificity is to compare the fungi on host genus and family level in a same forest. ...
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This article provides descriptions and illustrations of microfungi associated with the leaf litter of Celtis formosana, Ficus ampelas, F. septica, Macaranga tanarius and Morus australis collected from Taiwan. These host species are native to the island and Celtis formosana is an endemic tree species. The study revealed 95 species, consisting of two new families (Cylindrohyalosporaceae and Oblongohyalosporaceae), three new genera (Cylindrohyalospora, Neodictyosporium and Oblongohyalospora), 41 new species and 54 new host records. The newly described species are Acrocalymma ampeli (Acrocalymmaceae), Arthrinium mori (Apiosporaceae), Arxiella celtidis (Muyocopronaceae), Bertiella fici (Melanommataceae), Cercophora fici (Lasiosphaeriaceae), Colletotrichum celtidis, C. fici, C. fici-septicae (Glomerellaceae), Conidiocarpus fici-septicae (Capnodiaceae), Coniella fici (Schizoparmaceae), Cylindrohyalospora fici (Cylindrohyalosporaceae), Diaporthe celtidis, D. fici-septicae (Diaporthaceae), Diaporthosporella macarangae (Diaporthosporellaceae), Diplodia fici-septicae (Botryosphaeriaceae), Discosia celtidis, D. fici (Sporocadaceae), Leptodiscella sexualis (Muyocopronaceae), Leptospora macarangae (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Memnoniella alishanensis, M. celtidis, M. mori (Stachybotryaceae), Micropeltis fici, M. ficina (Micropeltidaceae), Microthyrium fici-septicae (Microthyriaceae), Muyocopron celtidis, M. ficinum, Mycoleptodiscus alishanensis (Muyocopronaceae), Neoanthostomella fici (Xylariales genera incertae sedis), Neodictyosporium macarangae (Sordariales genera incertae sedis), Neofusicoccum moracearum (Botryosphaeriaceae), Neophyllachora fici (Phyllachoraceae), Nigrospora macarangae (Apiosporaceae), Oblongohyalospora macarangae (Oblongohyalosporaceae), Ophioceras ficinum (Ophioceraceae), Parawiesneriomyces chiayiensis (Wiesneriomycetaceae), Periconia alishanica, P. celtidis (Periconiaceae), Pseudocercospora fici-septicae (Mycosphaerellaceae), Pseudoneottiospora cannabacearum (Chaetosphaeriaceae) and Pseudopithomyces mori (Didymosphaeriaceae). The new host records are Alternaria burnsii, A. pseudoeichhorniae (Pleosporaceae), Arthrinium hydei, A. malaysianum, A. paraphaeospermum, A. rasikravindrae, A. sacchari (Apiosporaceae), Bartalinia robillardoides (Sporocadaceae), Beltrania rhombica (Beltraniaceae), Cladosporium tenuissimum (Cladosporiaceae), Coniella quercicola (Schizoparmaceae), Dematiocladium celtidicola (Nectriaceae), Diaporthe limonicola, D. millettiae, D. pseudophoenicicola (Diaporthaceae), Dictyocheirospora garethjonesii (Dictyosporiaceae), Dimorphiseta acuta (Stachybotryaceae), Dinemasporium parastrigosum (Chaetosphaeriaceae), Discosia querci (Sporocadaceae), Fitzroyomyces cyperacearum (Stictidaceae), Gilmaniella bambusae (Ascomycota genera incertae sedis), Hermatomyces biconisporus (Hermatomycetaceae), Lasiodiplodia thailandica, L. theobromae (Botryosphaeriaceae), Memnoniella echinata (Stachybotryaceae), Muyocopron dipterocarpi, M. lithocarpi (Muyocopronaceae), Neopestalotiopsis asiatica, N. phangngaensis (Sporocadaceae), Ophioceras chiangdaoense (Ophioceraceae), Periconia byssoides (Periconiaceae), Pestalotiopsis dracaenea, P. formosana, P. neolitseae, P. papuana, P. parva, P. portugallica, P. trachycarpicola (Sporocadaceae), Phragmocapnias betle (Capnodiaceae), Phyllosticta capitalensis (Phyllostictaceae), Pseudopestalotiopsis camelliae-sinensis (Sporocadaceae), Pseudopithomyces chartarum, P. sacchari (Didymosphaeriaceae), Pseudorobillarda phragmitis (Pseudorobillardaceae), Robillarda roystoneae (Sporocadaceae), Sirastachys castanedae, S. pandanicola (Stachybotryaceae), Spegazzinia musae (Didymosphaeriaceae), Stachybotrys aloeticola, S. microspora (Stachybotryaceae), Strigula multiformis (Strigulaceae), Torula fici (Torulaceae), Wiesneriomyces laurinus (Wiesneriomycetaceae) and Yunnanomyces pandanicola (Sympoventuriaceae). The taxonomic placement of most taxa discussed in this study is based on morphological observation of specimens, coupled with multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of sequence data. In addition, this study provides a host-fungus database for future studies and increases knowledge of fungal diversity, as well as new fungal discoveries from the island.
... Considerable attention in the extensive investigation of beneficial microorganisms from the plant tissues fully demonstrate their unique abilities to produce secondary metabolites of the host plant and collection of functionalities ( Figure 1) with their possible applications in agriculture, pharmaceutical and industrial sectors [17][18][19][20]. Importance of endophytes came into light only after the demonstration of toxic syndrome in cattle caused by endophytes of pasture grasses [21,22]. ...
... The secondary metabolites and other functions from endophytes could have potential applications in therapeutics without causing damage to the respective plant species. The bacterial and fungal endophytes suitable for therapeutic purposes are listed in Table 2 (2.1 and 2.2). (14), 3βhydroxy-ergosta-5-ene (15), 3-oxo-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22tetraene (16), 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22diene (17), 3β-hydroxy-5α,8α-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9(11),22-triene, 3-oxo-ergosta-4-ene (18), 6isoprenylindole-3-carboxylic acid (19), 3β,5αdihydroxy-6β-acetoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene (20) and 3β,5α-dihydroxy-6β-phenylacetyloxy-ergosta-7,22diene (21). ...
Article
Full-text available
Endophytes represent microorganisms residing within plant tissues without typically causing any adverse effect to the plants for considerable part of their life cycle and are primarily known for their beneficial role to their host-plant. These microorganisms can in vitro synthesize secondary metabolites similar to metabolites produced in vivo by their host plants. If microorganisms are isolated from certain plants, there is undoubtedly a strong possibility of obtaining beneficial endophytes strains producing host-specific secondary metabolites for their potential applications in sustainable agriculture, pharmaceuticals and other industrial sectors. Few products derived from endophytes are being used for cultivating resilient crops and developing non-toxic feeds for livestock. Our better understanding of the complex relationship between endophytes and their host will immensely improve the possibility to explore their unlimited functionalities. Successful production of host-secondary metabolites by endophytes at commercial scale might progressively eliminate our direct dependence on high-valued vulnerable plants, thus paving a viable way for utilizing plant resources in a sustainable way.
... Soil fungal diversity has been estimated to~80 500 operational units or~1.5 million fungal species under natural systems in the world [15]. However, only 5-13% of the global fungal species have been fully characterised [16] due to difficulties in identification, isolation, and culturing processes. The impact of different quality organic nutrient resources or applied mineral fertilizers on fungi under integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) remain an unknown in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advocacy for Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) in smallholder farming systems in east and southern Africa show substantial evidence of increased and sustained crop yields associated with enhanced soil productivity. However, the impact ISFM on soil fungi has received limited attention, yet fungi play key roles in crop growth. Following total soil DNA extraction with ZR soil microbe miniprep kit, illumina sequencing was used to, examine the fungal communities (ITS1F) under a maize crop following co-application of organic nutrient resources including Crotalaria juncea , cattle manure and maize stover with inorganic fertilizers at three-time periods (T1-December, T2-January, and T3-February) in Zimbabwe. Ninety-five fungal species were identified that were assigned to Ascomycota (>90%), Basidiomycota (7%) and Zygomycota (1%). At T1, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were identified across treatments, with Ascomycota attaining > 93% frequency. Fungal succession was noted and involved reduction of Ascomycota coupled by increase in Basidiomycota under the different treatments. For example at T3, Basidiomycota increased to 34% while Ascomycota declined to 66% under manure but remained unchanged in other two organics. Pre-season mineral nitrogen (N) associated with the ‘Birch effect’ apparently influenced the fungal community structure at T1 while readily available fertilizer N was critical at T2 and T3. The low-quality maize stover promoted the presence of Exophiala sp SST 2011 and this was linked to N immobilization. The impact of N addition was more pronounced under medium (manure) to low-quality (maize stover) resources. Fungi required phosphorus (P) and N for survival while their proliferation was dependent on substrate availability linked to resource quality. Interactive-forward test indicated that soil available P and N were most influential (P < 0.05) factors shaping fungal communities. Co-application of medium to high quality organic and inorganic resources show promise as a sustainable entry point towards enhancing belowground fungal diversity critical in driving nutrient supply.
... Lasiodiplodia theobromae was found to occur as common taxa on the fallen leaves of the five species of Ficus i.e. Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand (Wang et al., 2008). Interestingly in our study Lasiodiplodia theobromae was not common taxa but only appeared once in the sampling. ...
Article
The diversity of microfungi associated with decomposing leaf litter of Careya arborea and Dendrocalamus strictus and the sequence of fungal colonization and sporulation was investigated and compared. A litter bag experiment was conducted to study the diversity of fungi during decomposition of the litter. The litter was subjected to moist chamber incubation and particle filtration techniques. A total of 136 species of fungi belonging to 112 genera were identified from the two plant species during the 8 month study period. These comprised 108 anamorphic fungi, 12 undetermined forms, 11 Coelomycetes, 4 ascomycetes and 1 non-sporulating mycelium. The number of fungi differed significantly between the various months of sampling. However, it did not differ between the two hosts. There were no significant differences in the number of fungi between the two hosts and in different months of sampling. Most fungi were common to both hosts, while a few species were isolated exclusively from one or the other of the two.
... There are several methods by which we can establish whether fungi are host-specific. This includes the study of fungi on specific hosts (Promputtha et al. 2002(Promputtha et al. , 2004Wang et al. 2008;Doilom et al. 2017;), comparisons of fungi on different hosts in the same forest (Parungao et al. 2002;Paulus et al. 2006), or to establish how saprobes could be host-specific (Chethana et al. pers. comm.). ...
Article
The recent realistic estimate of fungal numbers which used various algorithms was between 2.2 and 3.8 million. There are nearly 100,000 accepted species of Fungi and fungus-like taxa, which is between 2.6 and 4.5% of the estimated species. Several forums such as Botanica Marina series, Fungal Diversity notes, Fungal Biodiversity Profiles, Fungal Systematics and Evolution—New and Interesting Fungi, Mycosphere notes and Fungal Planet have enhanced the introduction of new taxa and nearly 2000 species have been introduced in these publications in the last decade. The need to define a fungal species more accurately has been recognized, but there is much research needed before this can be better clarified. We address the evidence that is needed to estimate the numbers of fungi and address the various advances that have been made towards its understanding. Some genera are barely known, whereas some plant pathogens comprise numerous species complexes and numbers are steadily increasing. In this paper, we examine ten genera as case studies to establish trends in fungal description and introduce new species in each genus. The genera are the ascomycetes Colletotrichum and Pestalotiopsis (with many species or complexes), Atrocalyx, Dothiora, Lignosphaeria, Okeanomyces, Rhamphoriopsis, Thozetella, Thyrostroma (relatively poorly studied genera) and the basidiomycete genus Lepiota. We provide examples where knowledge is incomplete or lacking and suggest areas needing further research. These include (1) the need to establish what is a species, (2) the need to establish how host-specific fungi are, not in highly disturbed urban areas, but in pristine or relatively undisturbed forests, and (3) the need to establish if species in different continents, islands, countries or regions are different, or if the same fungi occur worldwide? Finally, we conclude whether we are anywhere near to flattening the curve in new species description.
... Little information is available concerning the effect of cultivation systems on fungal diversity and the level of fungal diversity between different crops in the same farm (Lentendu et al., 2014;Lopes et al., 2014;Kazeeroni and Al-Sadi, 2016). The fungal diversity ecosystem is still undefined; though, Wang et al. (2008) reported that about 5-13% of the total estimated global fungal species have been described. Since many fungi are unculturable and rarely produce visible sexual structures, molecular techniques have become widely used for taxonomic detection of species to understand shifts in their richness and composition along environmental gradients (Persˇoh, 2015;Balint et al., 2016;Tedersoo and Nilsson, 2016;Tedersoo et al., 2018). ...
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Fungal diversity in agro-ecosystems is influenced by various factors related to soil and crop management practices. However, due to the complexity in fungal cultivation, only a limited number has been extensively studied. In this study, amplicon sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region was used to explore their diversity and composition within long-term farming system comparison trials at Chuka and Thika in Kenya. Sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity and taxonomy assigned via BLASTn against UNITE ITS database and a curated database derived from GreenGenes, RDPII and NCBI. Statistical analyses were done using Vegan package in R. A total of 1,002,188 high quality sequences were obtained and assigned to 1,128 OTUs; they were further classified into eight phyla including Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Kickxellomycota, Mortierellomycota and unassigned fungal phyla. Ascomycota was abundant in conventional systems at Chuka site while Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were dominant in conventional systems in both sites. Kickxellomycota and Calcarisporiellomycota phyla were present in all organic systems in both sites. Conventional farming systems showed a higher species abundance and diversity compared to organic farming systems due to integration of organic and inorganic inputs.
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Chapter
Soil is identified to be a complex microhabitat for two distinguishing properties. Firstly, the microbial inhabitants in the soil are enormously diverse and secondly, the soil remains a structured, heterogeneous, and discontinuous system, generally poor in essential nutrients and energy sources. Soil microflora plays the most substantial part in the rhizosphere of the higher plants, where the plant growth-promoting traits of beneficial microorganisms influence the soil and plant health. Beneficial microorganisms used to improve agricultural products are broadly termed as Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (AIMs). AIMs represent a wide range of microorganisms which include Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Biocontrol Agents (BCA), Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi (PGPF), Actinomycetes, Mycorrhiza, and Endophytes. AIMs can influence plant growth and the health of the soil through direct and indirect mechanisms along with molecular signaling. Plant signaling molecules play important roles in efficient root colonization, modulation of root system architecture, cell to cell communication, gene regulation, plant immunity development process, and finally, influence plant health. Integration of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms in agriculture is a promising sustainable solution to improve production, however, commercialization of bioformulations will require addressing a number of issues like a selection of broad-spectrum microbial strains, retention of quality and efficacy under field conditions, and product registration. A rational approach to comprehend the key mechanisms associated with AIMs-Plant interaction and development of model-based inoculum would facilitate productive field application and sustainable agriculture production under the changing climatic conditions.
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Pseudohalonectria suthepensis sp. nov. isolated from dead leaves of Magnolia liliifera Baill. (Magnoliaceae) collected in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand, is described and illustrated. The new species, which is compared with other species in the genus, differs in its longer ascospores.
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Fungal communities on decaying fronds of Livistona australis, Oraniopsis appendiculata (Australia), Arenga engleri, Livistona chinensis (Hong Kong), Arenga undulatifolia, Salacca affinis, and Oncosperma horridum (Brunei) were examined for fungi. In all, 288 different taxa were identified. The fungal communities on different frond parts (i.e. leaves, rachis-tips, mid-rachides and rachis-bases), on different hosts, at different sampling sites, at different stages of decay, and in different seasons were compared. Fungal species compositions were distinct on different hosts and at different sites. Three-dimensional correspondence analysis resulted in: (a) three clusters corresponding to distinct communities on samples in Australia, Brunei and Hong Kong; (b) fungi on palms of the same genera (Arenga undulatifolia and A. engleri; Livistona australis and L. chinensis) at different sites, being more coherent than on palms of different genera at different sites; (c) fungi on palms of different genera at the same site being more coherent than on palms of the same genera at different sites. Fungal taxa on the same palm genus or species in different sampling sites were significantly different. Evidence for host specificity and fungal recurrence on different hosts and frond parts were found. No evidence of seasonal patterns of fungal communities was found on the palm hosts. Only 10% of the fungi were common to all three palm species studied in Brunei and 17% were common to the two palm species at Victoria Peak, Hong Kong. Significant differences were found in the fungal communities colonising each of the different frond parts (leaves, rachis-tips, mid-rachides and rachis-bases). The greatest differences in most palms were found between the leaves and rachides. When investigating fungal diversity it is recommended to examine a combination of naturally occurring fronds and frond baits throughout the decomposition process. Since a large number of forests, plant species and even types of plant tissues have yet to be explored by mycologists, we predict that there are an incredibly large number of fungi on these unexplored substrata. This study has confirmed that fungi on palms are very diverse and suggests some reasons for this. The data has important implications towards future biodiversity studies and estimates of global fungal numbers. Future studies and estimations must reflect and incorporate these results.
Article
An investigation of saprobic fungi associated with dead leaves of Magnolia liliifera at Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand was carried out from June to September 2001. Ninety dead leaves fallen on the forest floor were collected and examined for fungi. Thirty-seven taxa of saprobic fungi comprising 20 ascomycetes and 17 anamorphic fungi (4 coelomycetes and 13 hyphomycetes) were discovered. Dominant species were Bionectria ochroleuca, Cylindrocladium floridanum, Dokmaia monthadangii, Gliocladium sp. 1, Hyponectria manglietiae, H. manglietiagarrettii, Hypoxylon sp., Lasiosphaeria sp., Pseudohalonectria suthepensis and Sporidesmium crassisporum which comprised 12.2%, 17.8%, 11.1%, 21.1%, 41.1%, 14.4%, 14.4%, 17.8%, 15.6%, 52.2% of the total collections, respectively. The diversity of fungi on this host is compared with that found in other studies.
Article
Studies of fungi on Dracaena and Pandanus were initiated in Thailand in order to investigate the biodiversity of fungi from wild and cultivated Dracaena lourieri, Pandanus amaryllifolius P. penetrans and P. odoratissimus. One-hundred and twenty-seven saprobes were found on decaying tissues, particularly on leaves, and comprised 40 ascomycetes, 1 basidiomycete and 86 anamorphic taxa. Eight ascomycetes and 3 anamorphic taxa were new to science. Distinct fungal communities were found on samples of Dracaena and Pandanus species. In terms of the numbers of taxa recovered, fungi were more diverse on wild species than on the cultivated species. Fifty-five fungal taxa were identified from leaf baits of Pandanus penetrans hung on host plants in Doi Suthep Pui National Park during the decomposition process. Distinct fungal communities were observed in sequence on the leaf baits, with different species being dominant at each succession stage. The highest fungal diversity occurred between months 7 and 12 (mature stage). At month 18, the leaf baits were found to be skeletonised, so the fungal communities had decreased in number. Only half of the taxa identified from P. penetrans occurred on both baits and natural leaves. Twenty-three fungi were identified from samples showing symptoms of anthracnose on leaves, leaf blast or leaf spots. Factors affecting the colonization of fungi on Draceana and Pandanus are discussed.
Article
This paper examines the taxonomic composition of saprobic fungi on dead culms of Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. in the Philippines and in Hong Kong. A total of 2044 collections of saprobic fungi were made, comprising 24 ascomycetes, 56 mitosporic taxa, and 1 basidiomycete. The most commonly encountered ascomycete families on both hosts and at both sites were the Xylariaceae and Valsaceae, which were represented by 20% and 21.7% of the total collections, respectively. Other common families were the Amphisphaeriaceae (8.9%) and Chaetomiaceae (11.9%). The most common hyphomycetes on both hosts at both sites were Acrodictys bambusicola (9.6%), Curvularia lunata (9%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (8.3%), Corynespora foveolata (7.9%), Ellisembia vaginata (6.1 %), Phaeoisaria philippinensis (6.5%), and Acremonium kiliense (6%). With the exception of Diplozythiella bambusina which was observed on Bambusa at both sites, the genera of coelomycetes differed at both sites. Species of Bambusa from both sites yielded more collections of saprobic fungi (1537), than did Dendrocalamus (507). Differences in the mycota between the two sites were observed. Collections of saprobes on both hosts in the Philippines were higher (1278) than in Hong Kong (766).
Article
Seventy-three fungal taxa were identified during the decomposition process of frond baits of Phoenix hanceana, comprising leaves, rachis-tips, mid-rachides and rachis-bases. Pioneer, mature and impoverished communities were observed in sequence on the frond baits. Fungal communities on different frond parts reached pioneer, mature and impoverished communities at different rates. Fungal communities on leaves and rachis-tips matured more slowly than other parts, but became impoverished rapidly thereafter, and samples were completely decayed at month 13. On the contrary, fungal communities on mid-rachides and rachis-bases matured earlier at month 1, but became impoverished at month 13. Naturally occurring fronds were also examined at the same time. Only half of the fungi were common to baits and naturally occurring fronds. Thus, examination of both frond baits at different stages of decomposition and naturally occurring fronds is recommended to obtain a better estimation of biodiversity.
Chapter
A quick dip into the literature on diversity reveals a bewildering range of indices. Each of these indices seeks to characterize the diversity of a sample or community by a single number. To add yet more confusion an index may be known by more than one name and written in a variety of notations using a range of log bases. This diversity of diversity indices has arisen because, for a number of years, it was standard practice for an author to review existing indices, denounce them as useless, and promptly invent a new index. Southwood (1978) notes an interesting parallel in the proliferation of new designs of light traps and new permutations of diversity measures.