A 4-Year Trial of Tiotropium in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1690,USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 10/2008; 359(15):1543-54. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0805800
Source: PubMed


Previous studies showing that tiotropium improves multiple end points in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) led us to examine the long-term effects of tiotropium therapy.
In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared 4 years of therapy with either tiotropium or placebo in patients with COPD who were permitted to use all respiratory medications except inhaled anticholinergic drugs. The patients were at least 40 years of age, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 70% or less after bronchodilation and a ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of 70% or less. Coprimary end points were the rate of decline in the mean FEV(1) before and after bronchodilation beginning on day 30. Secondary end points included measures of FVC, changes in response on St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), exacerbations of COPD, and mortality.
Of a total of 5993 patients (mean age, 65+/-8 years) with a mean FEV(1) of 1.32+/-0.44 liters after bronchodilation (48% of predicted value), we randomly assigned 2987 to the tiotropium group and 3006 to the placebo group. Mean absolute improvements in FEV(1) in the tiotropium group were maintained throughout the trial (ranging from 87 to 103 ml before bronchodilation and from 47 to 65 ml after bronchodilation), as compared with the placebo group (P<0.001). After day 30, the differences between the two groups in the rate of decline in the mean FEV(1) before and after bronchodilation were not significant. The mean absolute total score on the SGRQ was improved (lower) in the tiotropium group, as compared with the placebo group, at each time point throughout the 4-year period (ranging from 2.3 to 3.3 units, P<0.001). At 4 years and 30 days, tiotropium was associated with a reduction in the risks of exacerbations, related hospitalizations, and respiratory failure.
In patients with COPD, therapy with tiotropium was associated with improvements in lung function, quality of life, and exacerbations during a 4-year period but did not significantly reduce the rate of decline in FEV(1). ( number, NCT00144339.)

    • "Besides smoking cessation and other nonpharmacologic treatment, medication plays an important role in the current treatment of COPD. The efficacy of currently available maintenance medication for COPD has been shown in numerous studies, mainly performed in well-controlled settings with highly motivated patients and who demonstrate good medication adherence [2] [3]. However, medication adherence is considerable lower in daily practice [4e6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The association between non-adherence to medication and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Different ways to deal with methodological challenges to estimate this association have probably contributed to conflicting results. Aim: To investigate the association between medication adherence and HRQoL, thereby illustrating methodological challenges that need to be addressed. Methods: We used longitudinal patient-level data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial (i.e. RECODE) including three-year data on type and dose of COPD maintenance medication prescribed and HRQoL (Clinical COPD Questionnaire [CCQ], st. George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], EuroQol 5-dimensions [EQ-5D]) of 511 patients. A linear mixed model was used to assess the association between adherence and HRQoL using a fixed cut-off of 80% of the proportion of days covered (PDC) to define adherence. Subsequently, we investigated the impact of differences in disease severity; lifestyle; and reversed causality, representing the methodological challenges. Additionally, we investigated the impact of changing the definition of adherence. Results: In unadjusted analyses, and analyses adjusting for demographic characteristics only, SGRQ score was worse in the adherent compared to the non-adherent group. This association disappeared when correcting for disease severity and/or lifestyle. A better SGRQ score was predictive of decreased adherence in the following year. However, accounting for the previous HRQoL did not result in positive associations between adherence and HRQoL. When defining four categories of adherence, patients with a PDC between 80 and 99% had a significantly worse SGRQ score compared to patients with a PDC <60%, even after correction for lifestyle. There was no significant association between adherence and CCQ or EQ-5D. Conclusion: This study showed persistent methodological challenges in the investigation of the effect of medication adherence on HRQoL in COPD. A positive association of adherence and HRQoL was not found, even after adjusting for lifestyle, disease severity, and previous HRQoL.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Respiratory medicine
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    • "The safety profile of bronchodilators in COPD remains of prime importance [4] [5]. Studies such as Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) and Understanding Longterm Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) have provided the evidence that long-acting bronchodilators at therapeutic doses in stable COPD do not increase risk of the cardio-and cerebrovascular (CCV) mortality or morbidity in patients with COPD [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To further assess the safety profile of the fixed-dose combination of indacaterol and glycopyrronium (QVA149) and its monocomponents; we investigated the impact of individual patient-level factors and time by integrating the patient-level safety data from the QVA149 clinical programme with relevant information from the independent indacaterol and glycopyrronium safety databases. Methods Data from 11,404 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were pooled from 14 clinical studies of QVA149, indacaterol and glycopyrronium of ≥3 month’s duration with at least two of the treatment groups: QVA149 110/50 μg, glycopyrronium 50 μg, indacaterol 150 μg, placebo or tiotropium 18 μg. Overall hazard ratio (HR) was assessed between the active treatments and placebo and in various subgroups related to severity of airways obstruction, inhaled corticosteroid use, cardiovascular risk factors, sex, age and body mass index for death, serious cases of cardio- and cerebrovascular (CCV) events, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), pneumonia, COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalisation or atrial flutter/fibrillation (AF/F). Results The HR for QVA149 versus placebo showed no significant increase in the overall risk for death (HR [95% confidence interval]: 0.93 [0.34–2.54]); CCV events (0.60 [0.29–1.24]); MACE (1.04 [0.45–2.42]); pneumonia (1.10 [0.54–2.25]); COPD exacerbations (0.60 [0.40–0.91]); and AF/F (1.03 [0.49–2.18]). Similar results were observed for indacaterol, glycopyrronium and tiotropium versus placebo for overall risk and in analysed subgroups. Conclusions There was no increase in the risk for the investigated safety endpoints for the fixed-dose combination QVA149, and it had a comparable safety profile as its monocomponents and tiotropium versus placebo.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Respiratory Medicine
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    • "Tiotropium is also associated with a reduction in and prolongation of time to exacerbations.148 However, there does not appear to be any reduction in the rate of decline in lung function.149 The benefits come with an increase in adverse effects such as dry mouth and urinary retention.150 "
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    ABSTRACT: Adult-onset asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. This review presents a comprehensive synopsis of their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations; describes how they can be distinguished; and considers both established and proposed new approaches to their management. Both adult-onset asthma and COPD are complex diseases arising from gene-environment interactions. Early life exposures such as childhood infections, smoke, obesity, and allergy influence adult-onset asthma. While the established environmental risk factors for COPD are adult tobacco and biomass smoke, there is emerging evidence that some childhood exposures such as maternal smoking and infections may cause COPD. Asthma has been characterized predominantly by Type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokine-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. In established COPD, the inflammatory cell infiltrate in small airways comprises predominantly neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells (CD8 positive lymphocytes). Parenchymal destruction (emphysema) in COPD is associated with loss of lung tissue elasticity, and small airways collapse during exhalation. The precise definition of chronic airflow limitation is affected by age; a fixed cut-off of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in the elderly. Traditional approaches to distinguishing between asthma and COPD have highlighted age of onset, variability of symptoms, reversibility of airflow limitation, and atopy. Each of these is associated with error due to overlap and convergence of clinical characteristics. The management of chronic stable asthma and COPD is similarly convergent. New approaches to the management of obstructive airway diseases in adults have been proposed based on inflammometry and also multidimensional assessment, which focuses on the four domains of the airways, comorbidity, self-management, and risk factors. Short-acting beta-agonists provide effective symptom relief in airway diseases. Inhalers combining a long-acting beta-agonist and corticosteroid are now widely used for both asthma and COPD. Written action plans are a cornerstone of asthma management although evidence for self-management in COPD is less compelling. The current management of chronic asthma in adults is based on achieving and maintaining control through step-up and step-down approaches, but further trials of back-titration in COPD are required before a similar approach can be endorsed. Long-acting inhaled anticholinergic medications are particularly useful in COPD. Other distinctive features of management include pulmonary rehabilitation, home oxygen, and end of life care.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of COPD
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