Article

Christianity and character education: Faith in core values?

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Abstract

Character education is important within the Christian tradition but tends to be viewed with suspicion by educators who privilege autonomy as the aim of a liberal education. Equally, Christians may have concerns that character education places too great an emphasis upon good works rather than God’s grace. This article reasons that character education need not be indoctrinatory, in the pejorative sense, on the one hand nor conflated with Christianity on the other. It shows that Christian‐ethos schools can promote the autonomy of their students in matters of religion while also providing character education that enables them to choose well. Research from a case study of character education in a school with a Christian ethos is drawn upon to illustrate the capacity such schools have for sharing values while disagreeing about their sources. This is seen as an important feature of character education that is critical and also fosters a tolerant, respectful and inclusive school and society. It is suggested that acknowledging this complexity demonstrates an appreciation of the value of the Christian tradition in character education and within schooling. It also clearly distinguishes between being a Christian and being of good character.

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... Character has from the time immemorial been perceived as a word that is acclaimed with special connotations. In other words, when someone is attributed as having a good character as it is commonly used, that person also possesses some other qualities such as trustworthiness, integrity, passionate, reliable, and dependable (Pike, 2010). According to developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind (as cited in Berkowitz & Fekula, 2006), character as the measurement of our perceived manners; namely, it is an overall evaluation of our inward and outward behaviors. ...
... Hoge (2002) defined character education as a way of adjusting the behaviors of the students, in order to become good citizens of the future. According to Pike (2010), these students were being instructed, guided, and toward having some sets of prescribed behaviors. Marshall, Caldwell, and Foster (2011) claimed that character education is perpetually believed, to some kind of ways through which the students are being nurtured in the direction of seeing things in different perspectives; in other words, training them is always to exert maturity while in the mist of challenging situations. ...
... Another challenge will be the confusions that could take place when the students of different religious backgrounds are studying under one roof, how then will you decipher the situation. A tested solution is to work around the perimeters of some "shared value" (Pike, 2010). However, this could also lead to some disagreement between all the concerned people as they would have different meaning, or interpretation to what is being perceived as shared value. ...
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Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order words, education policy should take the lead to actualize moral education. Taken together, parents, teachers, and administrators as stakeholders, should join this camp to encourage students to manifest those good values in their lives. The outline of this paper is that first the definition of character education is provided. Then, the historical perspective of character education is reviewed. Third, the issue of context in character education is disclosed. The challenge and controversy of implementation of character education is also presented. Finally, the implication and further research are discussed.
... These previous studies, however, are confined to smaller, more specific samples (mostly in a US context), whereas the current study is designed to extend this work using a comprehensive sample in different cultural and policy contexts. More generally, we also know that better responses to moral dilemma tests have been associated with being female (Thoma, 1986;White, 1999;Nunner-Winkler, 2007;Malti & Buchmann, 2010;Pan & Sparks, 2012;Van der Graaf et al., 2014;Sparks, 2015), and it is suspected that having a religion might also translate into an advantage on such tests (Arthur, 2010;Pike, 2010Pike, , 2011. The participation in various kinds of extra-curricular activities such as charity work, music and drama has also been associated with improved moral functioning (Bouchard, 2002;Adderley et al., 2003;Campbell et al., 2007;Carr, 2008;Hill et al., 2009;Arthur, 2010;Lies et al., 2012), and there is a widely held belief that sport builds character (Doty, 2006;Shields & Bredemeier, 2008). ...
... Variances in ICM scores based on various demographic categories were also found, although these were generally small in magnitude. For example, positive correlations with having a religion (and more so for practising religion) may indicate the influence of the explicit teaching of virtue in many religions (Arthur, 2010;Pike, 2010Pike, , 2011. Religion could also be operating for some pupils in much the same way as a 'maintaining norms' moral schema might. ...
Article
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... Due to the increasing tendency of negative behavior in youth, attention towards character education in public schools has been growing 4 . These students are guided to adopt certain prescribed behaviors 5 . Character education is a gradual process of building the character of students 6 . ...
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... Character of a person can be defined as how he/she normally responds to something such as fascination, terror, difficulties, or other feelings (Pala, 2011). Pike (2010) states that perseverance, honor, and excitement towards something can be mentioned as the criteria of good character. As a person who spends much time at school, character can be received and learned by the influence of the school environment. ...
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... Situasi seperti itu menggambarkan bahwa karakter yang baik tidak hanya akan berkontribusi pada pengembangan aspek sosialemosional tetapi juga untuk mempengaruhi aspek kognitif siswa (Zurqoni, Retnawati, Arlinwibowo & Apino, 2018). Ketika seseorang dianggap memiliki karakter yang baik seperti yang biasa digunakan, orang itu juga memiliki beberapa kualitas lain seperti kepercayaan, integritas, semangat, dan dapat diandalkan (Pike, 2010). ...
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Buku Inovasi Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia di Era Digital membahas tentang teori dan praktik pembelajaran di era digital. Ada empat model yang disajikan sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan oleh pembaca sebagai perbandingan bagaimana mengajarkan bahasa Indonesia berbasis genre.
... Such situations illustrate that good character will not only contribute to the development of social-emotional aspects but also to influence the cognitive aspects of students (Zurqoni, et al., 2018). When someone is considered to have good character as is commonly used, that person also has several other qualities such as trust, integrity, passion, and reliability (Pike, 2010). ...
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Education in the 21st Century currently requires students to be intelligent and of character. Because of the various demands that teachers must have in order to meet all current learning goals, knowledge and skills, sometimes the teacher forgets to focus on shaping student character. This is reflected in the increasing crime, violations of human rights, legal injustice, and various forms of bad behavior that are increasingly reaching all sectors of life. The teacher has an important role to overcome these problems. Based on this background, this study aims to determine teacher perceptions regarding the formation of student characters. This research is a descriptive study with a questionnaire collection technique. The instrument used was a questionnaire sheet. The questionnaire was developed via Google form and distributed online through social media whatsup on the group discussion group of English subjects in West Sumatra. The number of respondents who filled out the questionnaire was 62 teachers. The results show that for now some teachers have integrated the strengthening of student character through intracuricular, extracurricular, and non-curricular activities.
... It takes careful planning and implementation of learning from a teacher so that the actions of plans and practices related to character education in learning can be implemented properly where students are instructed and guided in one form of prescribed treatment (Pike, 2010). In order to increase the students' interest and learning achievements, this character education is taught and learned through proper pedagogy (Cooley, 2008). ...
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... It is imperative to create an environment for students to benefit from revealing for themselves what desired and undesirable behaviors, and what values are necessary for the long-term well-being of themselves and others. On the other hand, if the values educator acts like the preacher and practices direct instruction instead, value education will then become value indoctrination [6]. When a person is considered to have good character as is usually used, that person also has several other qualities such as trustworthiness, integrity, passion, dependability [7]. ...
... Therefore, parents hand over some responsibility to the school. Thus, education in schools is a part of education in the family [16]. ...
... Nationalism values which are needed to be instilled in students including love for the motherland, self-sacrifice, pride on diverse cultures, respecting the services of heroes and accepting diversity (Aman, 2011). The implementation values of nationalism is expected to be the provision of the community to keep the spirit in maintaining the unity and integrity of the nation (Onotani, 2012;Pike, 2010;Todosijevic, 2001). ...
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The purposes of this study are to find out: (1) the implementation of Radin Inten II’s resistance nationalism values in the learning process; (2) the obstacles experienced by teachers when implementing Radin Inten II’s resistance nationalism values in the learning process; (3) the efforts made by teachers in overcoming obstacles during the implementation of Radin Inten II’s nationalism values in the learning process. This study used qualitative approach with the type of case study conducted at SMAN 1 Kalianda. Data collection techniques consisted of observation, interviews, and documentary studies. Data analysis techniques used the model of Miles & Huberman consisting of data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion. The results show: (1) the implementation of Radin Inten II’s nationalism resistance values in the process of learning local history was carried out by compiling a syllabus and implementing learning plan (RPP) by incorporating local history into Indonesian historical material which was consisted of planning, implementation, and evaluation, (2) the obstacles experienced by teachers included: the ability of teachers during learning process, students’ attitudes, and time constraints, (3) the efforts made by the teacher were taking the initiative to instill the values of nationalism in the resistance of Radin Inten II’s, applying various models, strategies, methods and singing a national song before learning. Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (1) implementasi nilai-nilai nasionalisme perlawanan Radin Inten II dalam proses pembelajaran, (2) kendala yang dialami oleh guru saat implementasi nilai-nilai nasionalisme perlawanan Radin Inten II dalam proses pembelajaran, (3) upaya yang dilakukan guru dalam mengatasi kendala yang dihadapi saat implementasi nilai-nilai nasionalisme perlawanan Radin Inten II dalam proses pembelajaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis studi kasus di SMAN 1 Kalianda. Teknik pengumpulan data terdiri dari observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data menggunakan model Miles & Huberman yang terdiri dari pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1) implementasi nilai-nilai nasionalisme perlawanan Radin Inten II dalam proses pembelajaran sejarah lokal dilakukan dengan menyusun silabus dan rencana pelaksana pembelajaran (RPP) dengan memasukkan sejarah lokal kedalam materi sejarah Indonesia yang terdiri dari perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi, (2) kendala yang dialami oleh guru diantaranya: kemampuan guru dalam proses pembelajaran, sikap siswa, dan adanya keterbatasan waktu, (3) upaya yang dilakukan oleh guru yaitu berinisiatif menanamkan nilai-nilai nasionalisme dalam perlawanan Radin Inten II, menerapkan berbagai model, strategi, metode dan menyanyikan lagu nasional sebelum pembelajaran.
... Karakter sejak dahulu kala dianggap sebagai kata yang diakui dengan konotasi khusus. Dengan kata lain, ketika seseorang dianggap memiliki karakter yang baik seperti biasanya digunakan, orang tersebut juga memiliki beberapa kualitas lain seperti kepercayaan, integritas, bersemangat dan dapat diandalkan (Pike, 2010). ...
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... A person with good character is perceived to have other qualities like trustworthiness, integrity, passionate, reliable and dependable [9]. According to developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind, a character is the yardstick of our perceived manners, which is a general evaluation of our inward and outward behaviours [10]. ...
... These manners are influenced by inside and outside behaviour. Pike (2010) stresses that when someone has a good character, she or he also has good trustworthiness, integrity, and passion. It can be said that character education is important in developing many aspects such as academic achievement and behaviour. ...
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The recent phenomena of moral degradation of Indonesian youth are responded by policy in moral and character education. Character education in schools is included in the curriculum and it must be integrated into the subjects matter. This study aims at investigating how English teachers perceive character education in the context of teaching English as well as the strategies in inserting character education into the lesson by conducting explanatory sequential mixed method design. The participants of this study were seventh and eighth grade English teachers in SMPN 6 Singaraja. The data were collected by means of questionnaire, observation sheet, and interview guide. As the result, this study revealed that English teachers had sufficient knowledge of Character Education concept. The way they implemented the character education did not really represent how character education should be inserted. Furthermore, they also were not sure of its impact to the students’ character development. It indicates that they had lack understanding of character education and the implementation of character education. The way English teachers integrate character education into further learning is discussed in a research discussion. Furthermore, enriching their knowledge of the character education should be the first step done.
... H. Schultz & Selman, 2004;Lynn Hickey Schultz, Barr, & Selman, 2001;Stetson, Hurley, & Miller, 2003) The term 'character' generally refers to a specific connotation that points out a public understanding of the interrelating factors of attitude. The notion is comprehended by the phrase 'the better someone attitude is, the more excellent he is' in the aspects of trustworthiness, integrity, passion, responsibility, and reliability (Pike, 2017). It affirms that character education is the implementation of moral values that aims to uphold the values of knowledge and enable human to establish a Divine connection and mundane communication. ...
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... According to Cooley (2008), character values can be learned and taught through appropriate pedagogy. Furthermore, Pike (2010) states that the effects of planting character values can improve personal qualities such as being a trusted person, having integrity, high spirits, tough, persistent, mutually respectful, fair and responsible. ...
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... Religiosity (and practising religion) also influenced results. Those that were selfacclaimed as practising tended to have higher Ad-ICM (UK) results, which confirmed other claims made regarding the relationship between faith schools, or faith generally, and the development or teaching of virtue (Arthur, 2010;Pike, 2010Pike, , 2011. The Jubilee Centre's Knightly Virtues report (Arthur et al., 2014) described the greater likelihood that students in faith (rather than non-faith) schools had, before beginning an intervention, a firmer grasp of virtue language. ...
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... In regard to the importance of the administered character education within Christian Tradition Values, Pike (2010) points out that character education in schools need not to be indoctrinatory, in the pejorative sense, on the one hand nor conflated with Christianity on the other. It can promote the autonomy of students in matters of religion by providing character education that enables them to choose well. ...
... In regard to the importance of the administered character education within Christian Tradition Values, Pike (2010) points out that character education in schools need not to be indoctrinatory, in the pejorative sense, on the one hand nor conflated with Christianity on the other. It can promote the autonomy of students in matters of religion by providing character education that enables them to choose well. ...
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Isu-isu intoleransi dan radikalisme sudah merasuki dimensi pendidikan di Indonesia. Perilaku buruk peserta didik yang mengarah pada intoleransi dan radikalisme sudah meresahkan kehidupan berbangsa. Pemerintah menyikapi permasalahan tersebut dengan mencanangkan program pendidikan karakter dan gerakan revolusi mental. Program dan gerakan tersebut masih belum maksimal berdampak sehingga perlu melibatkan dunia pendidikan. Penelitian ini perlu dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi pemahaman peserta didik tentang pentingnya pembelajaran PAK dalam rangka pembentukan karakter berwawasan kebangsaan; menemukan pemahaman peserta didik dalam menyikapi bahaya radikalisme dan intoleransi; dan, memberikan alternatif solusi untuk membentuk karakter berwawasan kebangsaan dalam mencegah intoleransi dan radikalisme. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif-analitis dengan menggunakan berbagai data yang diperoleh melalui wawancara dan kuesioner sebagai data primer dan sekunder melalui buku-buku, jurnal, majalah, surat kabar dan sumber-sumber relevan lainnya. Setelah wawancara secara tidak terstruktur, penyuluhan dilakukan untuk pengayaan dan selanjutnya penyebaran kuesioner kepada peserta didik. Penelitian diadakan di Panti Asuhan Asih Lestari Jakarta terhadap penghuni panti yang disebut peserta didik dari berbagai tingkatan dan usia. Hasil pengumpulan data kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa: pertama, peserta didik memahami dengan yakin bahwa pembelajaran PAK sangat mendukung untuk membangun karakter berwawasan kebangsaan; kedua, peserta didik mampu untuk menyatakan sikap terhadap bahaya intoleransi dan radikalisme; ketiga, pembentukan karakter berwawasan kebangsaan sebagai upaya untuk mendukung gerakan revolusi mental dan alternatif solusi untuk mencegah intoleransi dan radikalisme. Dengan demikian maka semua Pendidikan Kristen diharapkan mampu mengembangkan pembelajaran PAK sebagai sarana pembentukan karakter berwawasan kebangsaan sehingga peserta didik memiliki sikap nasionalisme untuk pencegahan bahaya tindakan intoleransi dan radikalisme.
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In this paper, we explore the concept of virtue in nursing care. We particularly examine the description of ‘virtue’ offered by Aristotle, who considers it the mental constitution that forms the basis for laudable social behaviour. We then turn to Katie Eriksson's work on caritative caring ethics and draw parallels between the Aristotelian concept of virtue and being a good nurse. Eriksson suggests that embracing an ethos, a set of basic values, affects nurses’ attitudes as well as the way they speak and take on their responsibility for the patient. We discuss these ideas in relation to a tentative ideal model of the movement from ethos to action to understand and address nurses’ ethical thinking and acting. Here, we focus on the catalytic role of virtue as a means for realizing a deliberate, intentional acting with the best of the patient in mind. As an outcome of our analysis, we suggest that the movement of virtue from ethos to action is most usefully conceptualized as knowledge about facts, habits of the heart, deeds of the hand and the power of words. Implications for nursing leadership are suggested, including incorporating organizational values through the means of ethical conversations.
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One of the most researched topics in education has been character education. It has close links with some educational approaches such as values education and moral education. This paper simply touches on the concepts of character and character education by offering literature review shortly from many publications. It also mentions moral education and values education in terms of their common qualities as they all resemble each other in a lot of ways. One’s character is who we are ac-tually and receiving effective character education is highly significant to produce a respectable, moral member for the society. Hence, being exposed to character edu-cation must be a priority for all human beings and educators need to consider it se-riously.
Article
This article examines the antecedents of the ‘British Values’ (democracy, rule of law, equality of opportunity, freedom of speech and the rights of all men and women to live free from persecution) which it is incumbent upon British schools to teach. But it also seeks to move the debate forward by pointing to the ‘British Virtues’ without which it is impossible to live by ‘British Values’. The argument advanced here is that the inculcation of virtues (moral habits and dispositions underpinning good character) as well as values (beliefs and ideals) is foundational in schooling for life in a liberal democracy. On the view that schools are both ‘by’ and ‘for’ society (being the products of the society they seek to serve) the article problematises attempts to conceive of schooling in general, and character education in particular, in exclusively post-Christian terms. Although increasingly secular, as British culture is not quite the palimpsest that easily permits a millennium of Christian social and legal ‘writing’ to be ‘over-written’, some of its central concepts are drawn upon in the recommendations made here for the curriculum and governance of schools.
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Jelajah Alam Sekitar " Integrated Character Value Portfolio Assessment In Plant Tax-onomy Learning. This study with title is " Jelajah Alam Sekitar " Integrated Character Value Portfolio Assessment In Plant Taxonomy Learning have aimed to produce an accountable Jelajah Alam sekitar portfolio assessment (JAS-PA) in developing character value which is integrated in plant taxonomy learning. Method used in this study was modified R&D. Results showed that integrated character value JAS-PA is included JAS-AP thinking ability, JAS-PA intra-inter personal attitude ability, JAS-PA metacognition ability, and JAS-PA student's social ability. These forth model of JAS-PA have validity and reliability range of 0,490 for each item and 0,812 – 0,949 with significance level of 0,01. Based on analysis, it can be said that JAS-PA produced is acccountable to be used for measuring student's ability in JAS learning, specifically for taxonomy concept and biology concept as general. Abstrak: Asesmen Portofolio Jelajah Alam Sekitar Terintegrasi Dengan Nilai-Nilai Karakter pada Pembelajaran Taksonomi Tumbuhan. Penelitian dengan judul " Asesmen Portofolio Jelajah Alam Seki-tar Terintegrasi Dengan Nilai-Nilai Karakter Pada Pembelajaran Taksonomi Tumbuhan " bertujuan untuk menghasilkan seperangkat Asesmen Portofolio Jelajah Alam Sekitar (AP-JAS) yang akuntabel untuk mengem-bangkan nilai-nilai karakter yang terintegrasi dalam proses pembelajaran taksonomi tumbuhan. Metode yang digunakan adalah R and D yang dimodifikasi dari model Borg & Gall. Hasil penelitian pengem-bangan ini telah menghasilkan produk berupa Asesmen Portofolio Jelajah Alam Sekitar (AP-JAS) terinte-grasi dengan nilai-nilai karakter yaitu AP-JAS kemampuan berpikir, AP-JAS kemampuan sikap intra-inter personal, AP-JAS kemampuan metakognisi, dan AP-JAS kemampuan sosial peserta didik. Hasil uji coba produk menunjukkan bahwa keempat model AP-JAS tersebut secara empirik adalah valid dan reliabel, sehingga akuntabel sebagai asesmen autentik yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur keempat nilai-nilai karakter peserta didik yang terintegrasi dalam pendekatan Jelajah Alam Sekitar pada pembelajaran konsep taksonomi tumbuhan pada khususnya dan konsep biologi pada umumnya. Nilai-nilai karakter yang dapat dimunculkan dari AP-JAS yang dihasilkan adalah moral knowing, moral filling, moral action, disiplin, tanggung jawab, jujur, rasa ingin tahu, toleransi, dan gotong-royong. Kata kunci: asesmen portofolio, jelajah alam sekitar, karakter, pembelajaran taksonomi tumbuhan Biologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari tentang alam dan fenomena serta gejala-gejala yang menyertai-nya, sehingga untuk mempelajarinya sedapat mung-kin dapat langsung berinteraksi dengan alam. Pembe-lajaran biologi yang dilakukan langsung berinteraksi dengan alam dapat memberikan hasil pembelajaran yang lebih bermakna. Hasil pembelajaran biologi tidak hanya berorien-tasi pada produk/pengetahuan, melainkan juga pada proses/keterampilan dan sikap/nilai-nilai ilmiah. Nilai-nilai ilmiah yang tercermin dari tingkah laku dari pem-belajaran biologi melalui metode ilmiah jika dibiasa-kan untuk diintegrasikan dalam proses pembelajaran dan dipraktekkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari mampu menumbuhkan karakter yang kuat untuk membangun pribadi yang baik. Pembelajaran biologi yang didesain langsung ber-interaksi dengan alam memberikan potensi untuk dapat menumbuhkan karakter, memberi pengalaman lang-sung dan kesempatan belajar yang lebih komperhensif 55
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Character Education at School: Understanding, Application Method, and the Role of Vision-mision, Staff Development, and Students’ Character. The aims of this study were to describe teachers’ understanding about character education, identify the application of methods of character education, and to identify the role of three main elements in the implementation of character education (vision-mision, staff development, and students’ character). This qualitative study employed structured interviews and open questionnaire for data collection. The participants consist of twenty four teachers of PKn (Pancasila & Ke­warganegaraan) and PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam) from different backgrounds. The results of the study indicate that most of the respondents confess that they understand the aims of character education, but they do not know how to apply them. The implementation of character education is still focused on students and the three main elements have no synergy in supporting the character education programs. Keywords: character education, method application, three main elements Abstrak: Pendidikan Karakter di Sekolah: Pemahaman, Metode Penerapan, dan Peranan Tiga Elemen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan pemahaman guru tentang maksud dan tujuan pen­didikan karakter, mengidentifikasi metode-metode yang digunakan guru dalam menerapkan pendidikan karakter, dan mengidentifikasi peranan tiga elemen utama (arah kebijakan sekolah, perkembangan staf, dan karakter peserta didik) dalam mendukung pendidikan karakter. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terarah dan kuesioner terbuka. Partisipan terdiri atas 24 guru Pancasila & Kewarganegaraan (PKn) dan Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI) Sekolah Menengah Pertama yang berlatar belakang berbeda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa partisipan telah memahami maksud dan tujuan pelaksanaan pendidikan karakter, namun sebagian partisipan belum me­ngerti bagaimana mengimplementasikannya. Penerapan pendidikan karakter dilakukan dengan tiga metode, yaitu: pemahaman, pembiasaan, dan keteladanan. Tiga elemen utama belum bersinergi dalam mendukung implementasi pendidikan karakter di sekolah. Kata kunci: pendidikan karakter, metode penerapan, tiga elemen utama
Article
The past decade has seen a significant increase in emphasis on values pedagogy, variously titled values education, character education and moral education, across the world, including heavily in governmental and broadly non faith-based educational contexts. The potential of such pedagogy to influence educational outcomes, ranging from socio-emotional to academic outcomes, has been demonstrated in ways that supersede most historical evidence. Granted that most of the earlier evidence about the effects of values pedagogy has come from faith-based contexts, the chapter explores the challenges for faith-based schools in an era that sees much of its traditional distinctive pedagogy being implemented and arguably perfected more widely outside such contexts.
Article
This article reports on an innovative empirical research project, using a quasi-experimental trial, in which 9–11-year-olds learned about character and virtues through the exploration of four classic stories. The overall aim of the programme was to enhance virtue literacy. Virtue literacy is defined as the knowledge, understanding and application of virtue language and is viewed as being integral to the development of character. The research assessed the impact of the programme on pupils attending faith and non-faith1 schools across England. The research findings provide substantial empirical evidence for the effectiveness of using stories to develop moral character. Children attending Catholic schools had significantly higher scores in the trials pre-test indicating that they had a better developed initial grasp of virtue language and concepts, and therefore virtue literacy, compared to the pupils from non-faith and Church of England schools.
Article
Globally, many Christian organizations seek to serve communities by providing schooling and education for children and young people who are not necessarily Christian. This article may inform the work of such Christian organizations as it reports findings from a funded research project that investigated three schools in England with a Christian ethos that provide education for largely secular students, many of whom live in areas characterized by social and economic deprivation and also educational underachievement. Analysis of findings from observations, transcripts of focus groups with students, and an anonymous survey of more than 500 children age 14 years and more than 300 teachers in three schools are reported. Drawing on this data, an assessment is made of the value of Christian ethos schooling for students who are, in this case, predominantly secular. Answers are sought to questions concerning how such schools can legitimately provide comprehensive, rather than limited, approaches to moral and character education. This article evaluates the central place of the core values and character education of the schools described here, which are widely endorsed by their secular students and also underpinned by Judeo-Christian sources.
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MORAL EDUCATION IN American public schools is inextricably intertwined with and influenced by various religious and secular narratives. Character education is a prime example. Although it attempts to find some shared virtues within a pluralistic society, a historical overview and a Christian deconstruction of the movement reveals the illusionary nature of this agreement. In reality, character education often smuggles particular narratives into public schools that are antagonistic to other religious or secular narratives. Recognition of this fact should lead educators to make serious adjustments in moral education within public schooling and in the structure of public schooling.
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Whereas character education is not new, scientific study of its effectiveness has been only sporadically implemented during the past thirty-five years. Much of the application of character education is therefore not informed by a scientific knowledge base. This article introduces a scientific perspective on character education and a summary of the research base examining the student impact of school-based character education. From this research base, general principles of effective practice are derived. This in turn is used to offer suggestions to practitioners and policy makers for the improvement of school-based character education.
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This essay examines James Davison Hunter's claim that the moral education establishment is responsible for the death of character. I contend that although Hunter's rhetoric about the "death of character" is distracting and his claims against the moral education establishment are overstated, moral educators must grapple with his finding that effective moral education requires a coherent moral culture with a clear conception of public and private good. I attempt to draw out the implications of Hunter's finding by comparing past Soviet and current American forms of moral education. Finally, I conclude that the effectiveness of moral education is threatened not only when character is separated from its nourishing social, historical and cultural moorings, but also when moral autonomy and respect for diversity is undermined. Thus, in the last part of the essay, I discuss three possibilities for how public education can both allow comprehensive approaches to moral education and adhere to liberalism's appreciation for moral autonomy and diversity.
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It is widely held that personal autonomy is a quality of character at which educators ought to aim. In this paper I argue that those who hold this view are misguided. I identify two ordinary senses of autonomy, and a range of technical senses currently popular with philosophers, and show that none of them constitutes a defensible educational aim.
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A short introduction (4-pages) to the 11 principles of character education espoused by the Character Education Partnership (CEP)
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Moral and citizenship education are again at the forefront of educational attention with the recent governmental announcements about revisions to the National Curriculum frameworks to 2000 and beyond. This book addresses some of the central issues in moral and citizenship education facing teachers today, embedding practical considerations in a theoretical context and reviewing teaching, learning and assessment strategies. It draws extensively on research but is written in a clear, accessible style. Citizenship and Moral Education examines the key concepts and provides an up-to-date overview of policy, particularly addressing: theoretical issues, aims and approaches in relation to moral and citizenship education in a pluralist society the contributions of the curriculum, extra-curricular activities and the school ethos to citizenship and moral education in school teaching strategies, materials, pupil assessment and school evaluation. The book also focuses on key professional and personal issues for teachers in undertaking moral citizenship education.
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The Academies Programme in England, whereby new schools may be privately sponsored and managed but publicly funded, has expanded rapidly with over 200 academies already open before 2010 and many more likely given the education policies promoted by Michael Gove as Conservative Secretary of State for Education. A significant number of academies are sponsored by Christian organisations and this article draws upon the author's recent case study of Trinity Academy which has both a business sponsor and a Christian ethos. Trinity Academy, which is located at the heart of a former mining community in South Yorkshire and serves a social priority area with a history of educational underachievement, was designated ‘England's Most Improved Academy’ and the ‘Most Improved School in Yorkshire and Humberside’ just prior to the commencement of the research. In this article the contribution made by Trinity is assessed and the perspectives of sponsor, school leaders, teachers and 14‐year‐olds are evaluated. The concept of the ‘transaction’ to indicate exchange and interdependence informs both research design and analysis. The nature and quality of transactions between those who ‘author’ the authorised ‘texts’ of school life and the young people and teachers who ‘read’ and respond to these value‐laden ‘texts’ at Trinity Academy are reported. The conclusion is drawn that transactions between Trinity Academy's students, its ‘secular’ core values and its Christian ethos, and also between the public and private sectors, have supported an innovation in schooling that has transformed the opportunities and life‐chances of young people. Transactions such as those at Trinity are advocated as an ethical and socially just means of bringing about transformation in educational attainment while providing moral education that fosters autonomy and critical thinking.
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Despite there being significant numbers of state maintained Catholic schools in England, they have until recently proved to be of interest only to a minority of researchers, usually those directly involved in their promotion. New Government initiatives encouraging further diversity in the provision of schools have proved controversial and, in reopening the religious debates of the 19 and early 20 centuries, have prompted interest in the academic performance of Church schools. This paper takes a longitudinal approach in reviewing information already in the public domain, as well as presenting new evidence based on national examination performance data. Standards of academic attainment at Key Stage 4 in Catholic schools compare favourably with national norms. Such schools are particularly effective with more socially disadvantaged pupils and, as such, appear to offer much to the common good of society. Further areas for research are suggested.
Article
Character education is a specific approach to morals or values education, which is consistently linked with citizenship education. But how is it possible for a heterogeneous society that disagrees about basic values to reach a consensus on what constitutes character education? This article explores how character education has returned to the agenda of British education policy, having been largely neglected since the 1960s in response to unsatisfactory attempts at character education going back to the nineteenth century. Between 1979 and 1997 Conservative governments attempted to reverse a perceived decline in moral standards, established State control of the schools curriculum, imposed on State schools the duty to provide for moral and other development, and established a National Forum which attempted to articulate a set of consensus values in education. Labour has extended these developments in the curriculum, introduced compulsory citizenship education, and its White Paper of September 2001 speaks of ‘education with character’. The character and virtues Labour seeks to promote through schools are pragmatic and instrumental in intention, linked to raising pupil school performance, meeting the needs of the new economy, and promoting democratic participation. Otherwise the vision is pluralistic and evades explicit directives, and there is no explanation or analysis of its theoretical basis. The question of how agreement can be reached on what counts as character education may benefit from Sunstein's analysis of how law is possible in a heterogeneous society –‘incompletely theorized agreements on particular cases’ allow for common laws without agreement on fundamental principles. Many schools in fact operate in this way, but such a consensus is not entirely stable and runs the danger of teaching character education as a series of behaviour outcomes taught in a behaviourist fashion.
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This paper evaluates the extent to which the implementation and assessment of the new citizenship curriculum in England treats learners as citizens or subjects by evaluating whether the interests of state or citizen predominate. Philosophical, contextual, and practical perspectives on citizenship education are drawn upon to evaluate mechanisms which mediate state power in young citizens' lives. Current methods of delivering and assessing the citizenship curriculum in schools are challenged and the ideology underpinning citizenship education, as conceptualized in official discourse, is questioned. The view is advanced that citizenship cannot be reduced to what learners know ( the informed citizen) or do ( the active citizen) as it cannot be divorced from who they are. This paper focuses on citizenship education in the context of English liberal democracy but has a wide application as it addresses issues relevant to the state education of citizens elsewhere.
Article
In this article I synthesise and apply elements of political and reading theory to demonstrate how central themes in learners' lives (such as freedom, faith, autonomy, equality, rationality and rights) can be read and interpreted differently. I suggest that policy and pedagogy for citizenship and democratic education informed by research into reader response can shift the locus of control not simply from state to citizen but towards an understanding of the transaction between the two. To promote ethical participation I propose changes to the 'text' of the curriculum and the 'reading' stance of learners so that learners are liberated to bring legitimate moral and religious conviction to their readings of state-sponsored values. I conclude that young citizens are respected and freedom is protected when educational readings become more nuanced and move beyond the polarities of freedom and restraint, autonomy and heteronomy, public and private, aesthetic and efferent, faith and reason, secular and religious or even democratic and faith-based.
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The premise advanced here is that reading is of religious and spiritual significance; consequently, when literacy is secularized, divorced from faith and considered apart from readers’ beliefs and values, there are consequences for learning. It is suggested that current educational policy which legitimates the view that literacy is more concerned with skills (which are often misguidedly regarded as neutral) than beliefs (and interpretation) militates against the fostering of morally aware citizens. Young people need to do more than communicate accurately and in an appropriate form; they need to be sufficiently discriminating readers of the world they inhabit and of people’s beliefs and values. It is suggested that when proper attention is devoted to values in literacy education (as well as skills) children will have the language they need to negotiate wisely in a market place of ideas where an astonishingly diverse array of goods is on offer.
Article
Those who would defend liberal democracy in today’s changing world face a new toleration debate. While we still want to help our children grow up to see the world from other perspectives than their own, we are no longer as sure as we were that we know what toleration means or what it entails. Where education is concerned, it seems the focus is on tolerance as an attitude—encouraging people to be tolerant—but where the public debate is concerned, the focus is narrower. It becomes a question of what should be tolerated and what the law should allow or proscribe. But however interpreted, the underlying unclarity remains and it inevitably affects educational choices. Must we approve as well as permit? Must we refrain from judgement? Is tolerance something that is due to people themselves or does it include their views and opinions? And how should we respond if it should turn out to be impossible to tolerate one group or view without discriminating against another? In this paper I discuss two particular aspects of the new toleration debate, both of which involve presuppositions about personal and family life and religious and cultural identity. These are: (1) the moral and political issues prompted by the presence of newcomers in societies with different religious and cultural traditions from their own; and (2) a new and combative form of secularism within those societies.
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