Increased Myocardial Susceptibility to Repetitive Ischemia With High‐fat diet‐induced Obesit

Section of Atherosclerosis and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 11/2008; 16(12):2593-600. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.414
Source: PubMed


Obesity and diabetes are frequently associated with cardiovascular disease. When a normal heart is subjected to brief/sublethal repetitive ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), adaptive responses are activated to preserve cardiac structure and function. These responses include but are not limited to alterations in cardiac metabolism, reduced calcium responsiveness, and induction of antioxidant enzymes. In a model of ischemic cardiomyopathy inducible by brief repetitive I/R, we hypothesized that dysregulation of these adaptive responses in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice would contribute to enhanced myocardial injury. DIO C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 15 min of daily repetitive I/R while under short-acting anesthesia, a protocol that results in the development of fibrotic cardiomyopathy. Cardiac lipids and candidate gene expression were analyzed at 3 days, and histology at 5 days of repetitive I/R. Total free fatty acids (FFAs) in the cardiac extracts of DIO mice were significantly elevated, reflecting primarily the dietary fatty acid (FA) composition. Compared with lean controls, cardiac FA oxidation (FAO) capacity of DIO mice was significantly higher, concurrent with increased expression of FA metabolism gene transcripts. Following 15 min of daily repetitive I/R for 3 or 5 days, DIO mice exhibited increased susceptibility to I/R and, in contrast to lean mice, developed microinfarction, which was associated with an exaggerated inflammatory response. Repetitive I/R in DIO mice was associated with more profound significant downregulation of FA metabolism gene transcripts and elevated FFAs and triglycerides. Maladaptive metabolic changes of FA metabolism contribute to enhanced myocardial injury in diet-induced obesity.

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    • "A decreased myocardial tolerance to ischaemia-reperfusion damage was observed in in vivo [[18],[19]] and ex vivo [[20]-[22]] studies using hyperphagia-induced obese insulin resistant male rats. Similar findings were reported in other animal models [[9],[23]-[26]]. Collectively, these studies have shown that an increased infarct size is associated with concomitant poor functional recovery in hearts from obese animals compared to the controls. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although obesity is still considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disorders, recent studies suggested that it may also be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality, the so-called “obesity paradox”. Experimental data on the impact of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury are controversial. Similar conflicting data have been reported regarding the effects of ischaemic preconditioning on ischaemia/reperfusion injury in hearts from such animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the susceptibility to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion damage in two models of diet-induced obesity as well as the effect of ischaemic and pharmacological preconditioning on such hearts. Methods Three groups of rats were fed with: (i) normal rat chow (controls) (ii) a sucrose-supplemented diet (DIO) (iii) a high fat diet (HFD). After 16 weeks, rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts perfused in the working mode and subjected to 35 min regional ischaemia/60 min reperfusion. Endpoints were infarct size and functional recovery. Infarct size was determined, using tetrazolium staining. Activation of PKB/Akt and ERKp44/p42 (RISK pathway) during early reperfusion was determined using Western blot. Statistical evaluation was done using ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction. Results Infarct sizes of non-preconditioned hearts from the two obese groups were significantly smaller than those of the age-matched controls. Ischaemic as well as pharmacological (beta-adrenergic) preconditioning with a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist, formoterol, caused a significant reduction in infarct size of the controls, but were without effect on infarct size of hearts from the obese groups. However, ischaemic as well as beta-preconditioning caused an improvement in functional performance during reperfusion in all three groups. A clear-cut correlation between the reduction in infarct size and activation of ERKp44/p42 and PKB/Akt was not observed: The reduction in infarct size observed in the non-preconditioned hearts from the obese groups was not associated with activation of the RISK pathway. However, beta-adrenergic preconditioning caused a significant activation of ERKp44/p42, but not PKB/Akt, in all three groups. Conclusions Relatively long-term administration of the two obesity-inducing diets resulted in cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion damage. Further protection by preconditioning was, however, without effect on infarct size, while an improvement in functional recovery was observed.
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