ArticlePDF Available


The fashion apparel industry has significantly evolved, particularly over the last 20 years. The changing dynamics of the fashion industry have forced retailers to desire low cost and flexibility in design, quality, and speed to market, key strategies to maintain a profitable position in the increasingly demanding market. This article reviews the literature on changes that have happened in the fashion apparel industry since the 1990s, highlighting the emergence of a concept of ‘throwaway’ or fast fashion. It describes fast fashion from a supplier as well as a consumer's perspective, and draws attention to several potential research issues.
Fast fashion: response to changes in the fashion industry
Vertica Bhardwaj* and Ann Fairhurst
Retail and Consumer Sciences, The University of Tennessee,Knoxville, USA
(Received June 2009; final version received October 2009)
The fashion apparel industry has significantly evolved, particularly over the last
20 years. The changing dynamics of the fashion industry have forced retailers to
desire low cost and flexibility in design, quality, and speed to market, key
strategies to maintain a profitable position in the increasingly demanding market.
This article reviews the literature on changes that have happened in the fashion
apparel industry since the 1990s, highlighting the emergence of a concept of
‘throwaway’ or fast fashion. It describes fast fashion from a supplier as well
as a consumer’s perspective, and draws attention to several potential research
Keywords: fast fashion; supplier; consumer; quick response; fashion season
The fashion apparel industry has significantly evolved, particularly over the last 20
years, when the boundaries of the industry started to expand (Djelic and Ainamo
1999). The changing dynamics of the fashion industry since then, such as the fading
of mass production, increase in number of fashion seasons, and modified structural
characteristics in the supply chain have forced retailers to desire low cost and
flexibility in design, quality, delivery and speed to market (Doyle, Moore, and
Morgan 2006). In addition to speed to market and design, marketing and capital
investment have also been identified as the driving forces of competitiveness in the
fashion apparel industry (Sinha 2006). Franks (2000) suggested ‘sense and respond’
as the key strategy to maintain a profitable position in the increasingly dynamic and
demanding market. A key defining characteristic of rapid responsiveness and greater
flexibility, in this context, is to maintain closer relationships between suppliers and
buyers (Wheelright and Clark 1992).
Looking at the basic structure of the fashion industry until the late 1980s,
traditionally fashion apparel retailers used their capability of forecasting consumer
demand and fashion trends (known as ready-to-wear) long before the actual time of
consumption in order to compete in the market (Guercini 2001). However, recent
years have seen fashion retailers compete with others by ensuring speed to market
with their ability to provide rapidly the fashion trends revealed by fashion shows and
runways. According to Taplin (1999), such retailers could be credited with the
adoption of ‘quick fashion’ that is an outcome of an unplanned process on the
reduced time gap between designing and consumption on a seasonal basis.
*Corresponding author. Email:
The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
Vol. 20, No. 1, February 2010, 165–173
ISSN 0959-3969 print/ISSN 1466-4402 online
Ó2010 Taylor & Francis
DOI: 10.1080/09593960903498300
Today’s fashion market is highly competitive and the constant need to ‘refresh’
product ranges means that there is an inevitable move by many retailers to extend
the number of ‘seasons’, that is, the frequency with which the entire merchandise
within a store is changed. With the emergence of small collections of merchandise,
fashion retailers are encouraging consumers to visit their stores more frequently with
the idea of ‘Here Today, Gone Tomorrow’. This indicates a shorter life cycle and
higher profit margins from the sale of fast selling merchandise, skipping the mark-
down process altogether (Sydney 2008). In addition, desire to have variety and
instant gratification with price mavenism is motivating consumers to prefer retailers
such as Zara and H&M (National Post 2009).
Several studies have examined various aspects of the buyer-supplier relationship
with quick or fast fashion, such as the apparel design process relative to quick
response (Forza and Vinelli 1996), the role of the supplier in fast moving fashion
(Doyle, Moore, and Morgan 2006), buyer behaviour (Bruce and Daly 2006), and
financial performance (Hayes and Jones 2006). However, there appears to be a gap
in the literature focusing on the overall concept of ‘fast fashion’ that has emerged in
the fashion industry from a consumer perspective. Among numerous studies on fast
fashion, only a few studies have focused on the consumer aspects that
drive the changes in the fashion industry (for example, Barnes and Lea-Greenwood
The purpose of this paper is to explore the changes that have occurred in the
fashion apparel industry in the past two decades and attempt to understand how fast
fashion emerged to the extent that it is today. Specifically, the study examines the
changes in the fashion apparel industry leading to the evolution of ‘throwaway or
fast fashion’. A brief review of the literature serves to systemize and appraise the
existing work. This study further attempts to align the research capabilities with
market growth potential for fast fashion and proposes different venues for
conducting research to acquire a better understanding of fast fashion as a
consumer-driven approach, not only supplier-driven.
Overview of the fashion apparel industry
In the course of the last two decades, the fashion apparel industry across the globe
has undergone profound transformation due to various changes in the business
environment. To understand the areas for research in fast fashion for the future, it is
important to consider how it has evolved. The following sections discuss the changes
that have occurred in the fashion industry since the 1990s.
Fading of mass production
Until the mid 1980s, success in the fashion industry was based on low cost mass
production of standardized styles that did not change frequently due to the design
restrictions of the factories, such as Levi’s 501 jeans and a man’s white shirt,
although there were exceptional cases of rapid changing haute couture (Brooks
1979). Apparently, consumers during that time were less sensitive toward style and
fashion, and preferred basic apparel.
Bailey and Eicher (1992) reported a sudden increase in the import of fashion
oriented apparel for women as compared to the standardized apparel in the 1980s.
166 V. Bhardwaj and A. Fairhurst
This reduced the demand for classic though simple apparel as consumers started
becoming more fashion-conscious (Bailey 2001). For instance, the women’s legwear
industry introduced colours and textures to basic hosiery to coordinate with every
outfit (Donnellan 1996). Unfortunately, this change in fashion oriented apparel
contributed to an increase in mark-downs in the market, which became necessary
due to the failure to sell fashion apparel during the forecasted season (OTA 1987).
This argument was further supported by Malone (1998, 1999) who provided
evidence that mass production of fashion products was not a solution to gain profits
in the fashion business.
Fashion seasons
As fashion is considered to be a temporary cyclical phenomena adopted by
consumers for a particular time (Sproles 1979), it becomes evident that the life cycle
for fashion is quite small. Since the 1980s, a typical life cycle for fashion apparel had
four stages: introduction and adoption by fashion leaders; growth and increase in
public acceptance; mass conformity (maturation); and finally the decline and
obsolescence of fashion. Also, the fashion calendar during this time was primarily
based on the fabric exhibitions, fashion shows and trade fairs, that consisted of the
basic pattern of Spring/Summer and Autumn/Winter ranges which typically resulted
in developing a seasonal range in one full year.
However, towards the beginning of the 1990s, retailers started focusing on
expanding their product range with updated products and faster responsiveness to
the ‘newness’ of the fashion trends; and providing ‘refreshing’ products instead of
only cost efficiencies for manufacturing (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006; Hines
2001; Hoffman 2007). In order to increase the variety of fashion apparel in the
market, the concept of adding more phases to the existing seasons (that is, the period
of time during which fashion products are sold) in a fashion calendar came into
existence. The addition of 3 to 5 mid-seasons forced immense pressure on suppliers
to deliver fashion apparel in smaller batches with reduced lead time (Tyler, Heeley,
and Bhamra 2006). For instance, Liz Claiborne developed six seasons instead of just
two (Bailey 2001). These changes to the number of mid-seasons arose partly from the
changes in consumers’ lifestyles and partly from the need to satisfy consumers’
demand for fashion clothing for specific occasions.
Structural characteristics
Towards the late 1980s, the fashion apparel industry was dominated by several large
retailers which increased the competition levels in the market (Barnes and Lea-
Greenwood 2006). In order to survive the competition, other fashion apparel
retailers switched from product-driven to buyer-driven chains, developed alliances
with suppliers in different markets, and promoted their distinctive brands (Tyler,
Heeley, and Bhamra 2006). This resulted in an increase of profits from unique
combinations of high-value research, design, sales and marketing that would allow
them and the manufacturers to act strategically by linking with overseas factories
(Gereffi 1999, 43). Tyler, Heeley, and Bhamra (2006) illustrated that the fashion
apparel industry developed an infrastructure around the late 1980s with an emphasis
on promoting responsiveness (quick response) through reduced lead times, along
The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 167
with maintaining low costs. Hereafter, the phenomena of sourcing manufacturing
and processes in fashion apparel industry to offshore places with low labour costs
became a trend, thereby resulting in a substantial cost advantage.
Despite the merits of outsourcing, it led to significantly longer lead times,
complicated supply chains due to geographic distances, inconsistency and variability
in processes at both ends of the chain, and complex import/export procedures
(Birtwistle, Siddhiqui, and Fiorito 2003; Bruce and Daly 2006). In fact, the idea of
cost savings through outsourcing manufacturing to low wage nations became
deceptive as the savings sometimes were significantly low compared with the cost of
obsolescence, forced mark-downs, and inventory carrying costs (Christopher,
Lowson, and Peck 2004). Tyler, Heeley, and Bhamra (2006) highlighted product
development as the weakness for the longer lead times to deliver fashion apparel to
point-of-sale to consumers. As further explained, they illustrated that all the key
players in a supply chain (that is, fashion and textile designer, retail buyer and
manufacturers) worked in sequence in order to contribute their role, resulting in
excessive costs, lack of effective communication and reworks due to inaccurate
product developments. Furthermore, instead of translating the trends into the
market quickly, fashion retailers failed to sell the merchandise during the
appropriate season, adversely impacting the profits (Fiorito, May, and Straughne
1995). Not surprisingly, the situation became worse due to the rapid changing
lifestyles and consumers’ choices for fashion and clothing in the market.
All these shortcomings forced the industry toward restructuring in order to
improve their operational performance (Taplin 2006). Some of the examples of
restructuring that emerged around the 1990s include just-in-time techniques and
quick a response with shorter lead times. For example, the number of fashion
apparel retailers in the USA that started implementing a quick response (QR)
strategy grew from 60% to 72% from 1994 to 1995 (Jones 1995). In recent years,
these changes in the fashion apparel industry in the USA in terms of outsourcing
manufacturing to low wage countries and demand-driven flexible supply chains have
shown that quick responsiveness is possible even in the presence of long physical
Fast fashion
Fashion is defined as an expression that is widely accepted by a group of people over
time and has been characterized by several marketing factors such as low
predictability, high impulse purchase, shorter life cycle, and high volatility of
market demand (Fernie and Sparks 1998). Thus, in order to be profitable in the
industry, fashion apparel retailers need to take the ‘speed to market’ approach to
capitalize on fashion that is not in the stores of their competitors. It has been further
emphasized that market responsiveness and agility through rapid incorporation of
consumer preferences into the design process in product development increases the
profit margins for retailers (Christopher, Lowson, and Peck 2004).
Looking at history, fashion runways and fashion shows were the biggest
inspiration for the fashion industry. Along with this, these trend shows were
primarily restricted to designers, buyers and other fashion managers. However from
1999 onwards, fashion shows and catwalks became a public phenomenon, where
photographs of the recent fashion shows could be seen in magazines and on the web
leading to demystification of the fashion process (Sydney 2008). As a result, fashion-
168 V. Bhardwaj and A. Fairhurst
conscious consumers were exposed to exclusive designs and styles inspired from
runways. Retailers such as Zara, H&M, Mango, New Look, and Top Shop were
adopting such designs rapidly to attract consumers and introduce interpretations of
the runway designs to the stores in a minimum of three to five weeks (Barnes and
Lea-Greenwood 2006).
Drawing on the foundations of quick responsiveness, the fashion apparel
industry shifted from forecasting future trends to using real-time data to understand
the needs and desires of the consumers (Jackson 2001). The inability to accurately
forecast or predict future trends (Christopher, Lowson, and Peck 2004) or failure to
quickly imitate and produce fashion apparel as seen on runways (Richardson 1996)
can lead to risk associated with longer lead times and hence failure to attract fashion-
conscious consumers. Using real-time data can eliminate this possible risk.
United Kingdom retailers
The UK fashion industry has been widely acknowledged to have initiated this unique
strategy in the fashion industry (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006). Since its
beginning, the fashion apparel industry has been characterized by high levels of
dominance by large retailers in the UK with inflexible supply chains (Hines and
Bruce 2001). Around the 1990s, apparel manufacturers and retailers, primarily from
the UK witnessed price pressure from the strong players in the market. In order to
stay in competition, UK retailers such as New Look and George shifted sourcing of
merchandise to the Far East for a low cost advantage. In doing so, supply chains
became more complex due to extensive geographical distance, thereby forcing these
retailers to introduce practices such as just-in-time (JIT), computer integrated
manufacturing (CIM), total quality management (TQM) in manufacturing along
with emphasis on shorter supply lines and quick response in the market (Bruce,
Daly, and Towers 2004).
As an outcome, retailers in the UK started providing increased variety and
fashionability to their customers, keeping in mind the low cost of the merchandise.
In addition, they also added mid-season purchasing to their previous two-season
calendars, resulting in providing high fashion at a low price ‘throwaway market’.
Since then the ‘throwaway market’ (now called fast fashion) has become a trend or
norm (Tokatli, Wrigley, and Kizilgu
¨n 2008). In sum, the concentrated UK fashion
market resulted in street fashion as an attempt to gain a competitive edge along with
market share through speed to market (Birtwistle and Freathey 1998).
The following sections provide supplier and consumer perspectives in regard to
fast fashion.
Fast fashion from the supplier perspective
Apparel markets have become more varied and faster-changing in the present retail
environment. The development of new, quick fashion appears symptomatic of the
transition from a production-driven to a market-driven approach in the fashion
apparel industry. Retailers have started realizing that flexibility and rapid
responsiveness to the market are the areas that are most important in today’s
During the past two decades, the fashion apparel industry has received increased
attention in the context of buyer-supplier relationships, and quick response and
The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 169
supply chain management to gain a competitive edge in the market (Crewe and
Davenport 1991; Fiorito, May, and Straughne 1995; Sohal, Perry, and Pratt 1998;
Perry and Sohal 2000). In academic study, fast fashion has been researched from the
perspective of a business model with a quick response strategy to reduce production
times (Bailey 2001). Literature on fast fashion reflects association with pressure on
lead-time reduction in an organization and coordination with various players in the
supply chain (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006; Wensley 1999).
The obsolete long-buying cycles for many fashion retailers has forced them to
improve responsiveness in reduced time, resulting in an introduction of several
practices in the fashion industry that describe shorter, more flexible supply chains
such as quick response (Fernie and Azuma 2004), just-in-time (Bruce, Daly, and
Towers 2004) and agile supply chains (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004; Christopher,
Lowson, and Peck 2004). In order to improve efficiency in the demand-driven
market, these practices have often been related to vertical integration focusing on
collaboration, information sharing and trust between entities in a supply chain
(Birtwistle, Siddhiqui, and Fiorito 2003). In addition, improvements in communica-
tion between retailers and producers through technology such as computer-aided-
design (CAD) and electronic data interchange (EDI) have contributed to shortening
lead times (Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004).
Fast fashion from a consumer perspective
Consumers are becoming more demanding and fashion savvy which is forcing
fashion retailers to provide the right product at the right time in the market in
other words, provide quick (fast) fashion (The Economist 2005). As the consumer
market is fragmented in terms of consumption patterns, fast fashion is gaining in
importance among consumers. With such developments, researchers should identify
the full spectrum of consumer behaviour towards fast fashion. The literature on fast
fashion highlights various aspects of supply chain management, supported by supply
chain theory to improve the business model of fashion retailers. It is worth noting
that not many studies have addressed fast fashion as a consumer-driven approach,
leaving this an under-researched area.
Information and trends are moving around the globe at tremendous speeds,
resulting in consumers’ ability to have more options and thus shop more often
(Hoffman 2007). Changes in lifestyle due to sociocultural factors and a need for
uniqueness forces fashion retailers to renew merchandise constantly to deal with the
growing competition in the market (Sproles and Burns 1994). The constant, varying
demands by consumers has impacted the process of forecasting and product
planning shifting; towards replicating famous designs and styles from fashion
magazines and fashion shows in small quantities more frequently (Christopher,
Lowson, and Peck 2004).
The perception of throwaway fashion varies among different generations. For
example, young people of the population that constitute Generation Y would prefer
a higher number of low-quality, cheap and fashionable clothes as compared to baby
boomers, who would prefer to purchase fewer number of higher quality clothes
(Crewe and Davenport 1992). From conservative consumers’ perspective, fast
fashion is viewed as a ‘waste’ because rather than buying one high quality item to
satisfy a wardrobe need, consumers buy multiples that are lower quality and then
throw old merchandise away as quickly as they bring in new ones (Sydney 2008). In
170 V. Bhardwaj and A. Fairhurst
agreement with Barnes and Lea-Greenwood (2006) and based on different
perspectives of consumers toward fast fashion mentioned in this study, it is apparent
that fast fashion is a consumer-driven approach, in addition to a supplier-driven
Future research related to fast fashion
Review of existing research on different aspects of fast fashion indicates that the past
20 years have seen substantial progress in knowledge generation about the topic, as
evidenced by the increasing number of journal publications over time and the variety
of topics addressed, though these are mostly restricted to the supply chain domain.
Literature on fast fashion implies that rapid responsiveness techniques such as
just-in time, quick response, and agile supply chains can be valuable to the fashion
industry because such techniques can create a competitive edge in the market (see,
for example, Bruce, Daly, and Towers 2004; Christopher, Lowson, and Peck 2004;
Fiorito, May, and Straughne 1995; Sohal, Perry, and Pratt 1998). However, minimal
evidence addresses consumer behaviour towards fashion that is quickly changing
(see, for example, Barnes and Lea-Greenwood 2006). By knowing how and to what
extent rapid changing fashion affects consumers’ purchase behaviour and satisfac-
tion levels, retailers can develop strategies that can lead to improved profitability.
The phenomenon of fast fashion has been extensively discussed in the fashion
press. However, the existing academic literature on fast fashion is somewhat limited
and calls for additional research on aspects such as factors that motivate consumers’
purchase intention such as exclusivity, price-consciousness, hoarding merchandise
for future use, consumers’ perceived risk due to trade-off between quality and price,
consumer expectation and satisfaction after the consumption process, and
consumers’ efficiency in terms of cost–benefit analysis.
The dramatic change in the fashion apparel industry, coupled with environ-
mental concerns giving rise to conscious consumers in terms of fair trade, the green
market and organic clothing, implies that researchers will need to broaden, redesign
and align their research to match the fashion markets in the twenty-first century.
Further research can also examine the pricing strategy used for fast fashion apparel
along with analysis of consumers’ willingness to pay more for environmentally
friendly and sustainable fast fashion apparel (for example, organic and green cotton
apparel used by Zara and H&M) (see Ethical Style 2009). Currently, little is reported
in the literature regarding the segmentation of consumers based on the acceptance of
fast fashion. Therefore, it is important to conduct research to analyse the acceptance
of fast fashion across different consumer segments. Another area of research interest
could be to see whether consumers perceive fast fashion brands as counterfeit due to
lower price and quality offered by the retailers. Also, it will be worth understanding
how consumers differentiate value retailing and fast fashion retailing as both aim to
offer lower prices.
Fast fashion is a concept that will continue to affect the fashion apparel industry
over the next decade and will have a direct effect on the way consumers purchase and
react to trends. Although continued research relative to the supply-side of fast
fashion is important, emphasis should be placed on examining consumers’
The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 171
perception of fast fashion. Empirical understanding of consumer characteristics and
their motivation to make purchase decisions for throwaway fashion can help
retailers in developing effective marketing strategies to perform more effectively in
the market.
Bailey, T. 2001. Organizational innovation in the apparel industry. Industrial Relations 32, no.
1: 30–48.
Bailey, T., and T. Eicher. 1992. The North America Free Trade Agreement and the US
apparel industry. Report prepared for the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment.
Barnes, L., and G. Lea-Greenwood. 2006. Fast fashioning the supply chain: Shaping the
research agenda. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 10, no. 3: 259–71.
Birtwistle, G., and P. Freathey. 1998. More than just a name above the shop: A comparison of
the branding strategies of two UK fashion retailers. International Journal of Retail and
Distribution Management 26, no. 8: 318–23.
Birtwistle, G., N. Siddhiqui, and S.S. Fiorito. 2003. Quick response: Perceptions of UK
fashion retailers. Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 31, no. 2: 118–28.
Brooks, J. 1979. A friendly product. New Yorker, November 12: 58–94.
Bruce, M., L. Daly, and N. Towers. 2004. Lean or agile: A solution of supply chain mana-
gement in the textiles and clothing industry? International Journal of Operations and
Production Management 24, no. 2: 151–70.
Bruce, G., and L. Daly. 2006. Buyer behavior for fast fashion. Journal of Fashion Marketing
and Management 10, no. 3: 329–44.
Christopher, M., R. Lowson, and H. Peck. 2004. Creating agile supply chains in the fashion
industry. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 32, no. 8: 367–76.
Crewe, L., and E. Davenport. 1991. The puppet-show: Changing buyer-supplier relationships
within clothing retailing. Transactions of the Institute for British Geogaphers 17, no. 2:
Djelic, M.-L., and A. Ainamo. 1999. The coevolution of new organizational forms in the
fashion industry: A historical and comparative study of France, Italy, and the United
States. Organizational Science 10, no. 5: 622–37.
Donnellan, J. 1996. Merchandise buying and management. New York: Fairchild Publications.
Doyle, S.A., C.M. Moore, and L. Morgan. 2006. Supplier management in fast moving fashion
retailing. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 10, no. 3: 272–81.
Ethical Style. 2009. The surprising top ten buyers of organic cotton.
Fernie, J., and N. Azuma. 2004. The changing nature of Japanese fashion: Can quick response
improve supply chain efficiency? European Journal of Marketing 38, no. 7: 749–69.
Fernie, J., and L. Sparks. 1998. Logistics and retail management, insights into current practice
and trends from leading experts. London: Kogan Page.
Fiorito, S., E. May, and K. Straughne. 1995. Quick response in retailing: Components and
implementation. International Journal of Retail and Distribution 23, no. 5: 12–21.
Forza, C., and A. Vinelli. 1996. An analytical scheme for the change of the apparel design
process towards quick response. International Journal of Clothing 8, no. 4: 28–43.
Franks, J. 2000. Supply chain innovation. Work Study 49, no. 4: 152–6.
Gereffi, G. 1999. International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain.
Journal of International Economics 48, no. 1: 37–70.
Guercini, S. 2001. Relation between branding and growth of the firm in new quick
fashion formulas: Analysis of an Italian case. Journal of Fashion Marketing and
Management 5, no. 1: 69–79.
Hayes, S.G., and N. Jones. 2006. Fast fashion: A financial snapshot. Journal of Fashion
Marketing and Management 10, no. 3: 282–300.
Hines, T. 2001. Globalization: An introduction to fashion markets and fashion marketing. In
Fashion marketing: Contemporary issues, ed. T. Hines and M. Bruce, 121–32. Oxford:
Elsevier Butterworth-Heineman.
Hines, T., and M. Bruce. 2001. Fashion marketing-contemporary issues. Oxford: Butterworth-
172 V. Bhardwaj and A. Fairhurst
Hoffman, W. 2007. Logistics get trendy. Traffic World 271, no. 5: 15.
Jackson, T. 2001. The process of fashion trend development leading to a season. In Fashion
marketing: Contemporary issues, ed. T. Hines, and M. Bruce, 121–32. Chapter 7. Oxford:
Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jones, J. 1995. Forces behind restructuring in US apparel retailing and its effect on the US
apparel industry. Industry, Trade, and Technology Review, March: 23–30.
Malone, S. 1998. Custom foot-falls into bankruptcy, but concept lives on, says founder.
Footwear News 54, no. 23: 5.
Malone, S. 1999. Making strides in mass customization. Women’s Wear Daily July: 12.
National Post. 2009. Fast fashion.
US Office of Technology Assessment. 1987. The US textile and apparel industry: A revolution
in progress. Washington, DC: US government Printing Office.
Perry, M., and A.S. Sohal. 2000. Quick response practices and technologies in developing
supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 30,
no. 7/8: 627–39.
Richardson, J. 1996. Vertical integration and rapid response in fashion apparel. Organization
Science 7, no. 4: 400–12.
Sinha, P. 2001. The machanics of fashion. In Fashion marketing: Contemporary issues, ed. T.
Hines and M. Bruce, 165–89. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Sohal, A., M. Perry, and T. Pratt. 1998. Developing partnerships and networks: Learning for
practices in Australia. Techovation 18, no. 4: 245–51.
Sydney. 2008. Fast fashion is not a trend.
Sproles, G. 1979. Fashion: Consumer behaviour toward dress. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing
Sproles, G., and L. Burns. 1994. Changing appearances: Understanding dress in contemporary
society. New York: Fairchild Publications.
Taplin, I.M. 1999. Continuity and change in the US apparel industry: A statistical profile.
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 3, no. 4: 360–8.
Taplin, I.M. 2006. Restructuring and reconfiguration: The EU textile and clothing industry
adapts to change. European Business Review 18, no. 3: 172–86.
The Economist. 2005. The future of fast fashion: Inditex. The Economist 375, no. 8431: 63.
Tokatli, N., N. Wrigley, and O
¨. Kizilgu
¨n. 2008. Shifting global supply networks and fast
fashion: Made in Turkey for Marks & Spencer. Global Networks 8, no. 3: 261–80.
Tyler, D., J. Heeley, and T. Bhamra. 2006. Supply chain influences on new product
development in fashion clothing. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 10, no. 3:
Wensley, R. 1999. The basics of marketing strategy. In The marketing book, ed. M.J. Baker.
Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Wheelright, S., and K. Clark. 1992. Revolutionizing product development: Quantum leaps in
speed, efficiency, and quality. New York: The Free Press.
The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 173
Copyright of International Review of Retail, Distribution & Consumer Research is the property of Routledge
and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright
holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
... In the field of retailing, there has been a significant increase in research on the impact of weather on sales in the last ten years. The years prior are nicely summarized by [13], in which the work of [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] is discussed in greater detail. In the interest of space, we will not discuss these papers here. ...
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the importance of accounting for climate when determining the impact of weather on product sales. Using a France-wide scanner panel dataset provided by our industry partner, we show that if climate is not accounted for, product categories may be misclassified as being weather sensitive when they are not, and vice versa. This is motivated by previous research and industry reports that suggest a relationship between weather and retail sales. However, these studies often fail to distinguish between weather and climate, leading to inaccurate conclusions. Our results highlight the need to control for climate in order to accurately assess the effects of weather on retail sales. We use ordinary least squares regression to estimate the relationship between temperature and sales for 29 different product categories. The regression models control for various factors, including shelf space allocation, week of observation, quantity purchased, promotion, store brand, store surface area, store competition, and consumer behavior measures. We find that when accounting for climate, only a subset of the product categories is sensitive to weather. Additionally, we show that climate can be approximated using a week index, eliminating the need for additional data collection and approximation efforts. Our findings have implications for both researchers and practitioners. Researchers should be aware of the importance of accounting for climate when studying the impact of weather on retail sales, as failing to do so may lead to erroneous conclusions. Practitioners can use our results to inform their marketing and sales strategies, taking into account the weather sensitivity of different product categories and the role of climate in shaping consumer behavior. Overall, our study emphasizes the need to consider climate when determining the impact of weather on retail sales, and provides practical insights for retailers and economists.
... The charity shop sector is considered to be driven by the value of reused items rather than by environmental concerns [37], but the outcome is that products are nonetheless diverted from residual waste through reuse (via sale) and recycling (via ragging), and with associated environmental benefits. Purchasing second-hand items from charity shops rather than new items reduces the resource consumption, freshwater use, chemical and plastic pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions incurred when new products are manufactured [21,22]. ...
Full-text available
The social benefits of charity retail are widely recognized. However, data relating to the potential benefits to the sustainable use of end-of-use consumer goods are scarce. A general survey and an observational study at a typical charity shop aimed to quantify and evaluate reuse via charity retail outlets. We reveal valuable insights to stock data recording, procedures for receiving/dealing with donations (by category), use of standard approaches, quantification of key variables, and accuracy of previous survey data. Methods were successfully developed and trialled to (a) quantify diversion of end-of-use products from residual waste via reuse/recycling, and (b) estimate the cost of unsaleable donations. Future routine use of these methods for charity retail shops is recommended while acknowledging the limitations due to reporting capabilities. We identify four key groups of beneficiaries: (1) the parent charity, (2) charity shop workers (paid and unpaid), (3) donors, and (4) customers. Specific benefits, such as social interactions, are not exclusive to specific beneficiaries. Efforts to improve positive impacts should focus on securing appropriate donations, facilitating information capture, and promoting reuse. An important balance is required between maximising income and reuse, and retaining the social benefits that charities provide to communities.
... Tren fesyen bergerak lebih cepat dari sebelumnya, salah satu alasannya bahwa beberapa koleksi merupakan edisi terbatas dan tidak diproduksi kembali setelah habis, membuat pelanggan untuk datang ke toko lebih sering (Mintle, 2008). Hal ini mengakibatkan adanya persaingan antar pasar mode menjadi sangat kompetitif dan terus mengubah semua lini produk dan menyesuaikan lini produk dengan tren atau musim yang akan datang (Bhardwaj & Fairhurst, 2010). Peningkatan produksi menggunakan bahan yang murah dan mengonsumsi pakaian murah yang sekali pakai yang mengabaikan keberlanjutan, dikenal sebagai tren "Fast Fashion" (Brandão & Costa, 2021). ...
Full-text available
This research aims to analyze the effect of voluntary simplicity on purchase intention mediated by environmental concern . The research conducted was descriptive quantitative research by distributing questionnaires. This study uses the hypothesis testing method. Hypothesis testing uses the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS 25 software. The data in this study were collected from 200 respondents in DKI Jakarta. With the withdrawal method using Purposive Sampling. The results of hypothesis testing in this study show that there is an influence of voluntary simplicity on purchase intention and environmental concern mediate the effect between voluntary simplicity and purchase intention. From the results of this study it is hoped that it can provide input for company managers so that they can pay attention to the factors that might help to increase the selling. Keywords: Voluntary Simplicity, Environmental Concern, Purchase Intention
... Sie versuchen sich aber nichtsdestotrotz eine Vorstellung darüber zu machen, was eine potentielle Kundin kaufen wollen würde und sehen die Verkäufe, die auf der Plattform getätigt werden. Die Produktion musikalischer Ähnlichkeit erinnert dabei an die fast fashion (Bhardwaj & Fairhurst, 2010) aus der Modewelt. Die Musikschaffenden müssen sich an kommerziellen Trends orientieren und es bleibt kaum Zeit, einen plötzlichen Erfolg in urheberrechtlich-monopolistischer Weise auszunutzen. ...
Full-text available
Neue Produkte herzustellen, die bereits existierenden bis zur Verwechslung ähneln, verlangt von Kreativen den paradoxen Spagat zwischen Neuheit und Bekanntheit auf die Spitze zu treiben. Gerade Auftragszusammenhänge der Kreativwirtschaft können die Produktion ähnlicher Artefakte einfordern und dem Wunsch nach Einzigartigkeit widersprechen, der Gegenwartsgesellschaften angeblich auszeichnet. Diese bewerten das Besondere, das Werk als kreativ und stellen ihm Kopien oder Plagiate gegenüber, die als unkreativ gelten. Die Analyse intentionaler Produktionen von Ähnlichkeit öffnet hier den Blick auf die vielfältige und von Unsicherheiten geprägte liminale Kreativität der Versionen. Fallbeispiele der Herstellung von Soundalikes zeigen anhand von Beobachtungen, Interviews und Gerichtsfällen, wie ästhetische, rechtliche, wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Grenzziehungen musikalisches Versionieren anleiten. Kreative nutzen Kombinationen kleinster Transformationen, um Musikprodukte einer Referenz anzunähern und von ihr zu entfernen, und produzieren dabei Artefakte im Graubereich zwischen Werk und Plagiat.
From the idea of being swanky at an affordable cost to wearing the most flattering outfit from the latest fashion week, fast fashion has paved the way for fashionistas. Over the last twenty years apparel industry has never seen a setback whether inflation or deflation, demonetization, G.S.T. implementation, or a pandemic the industry has a record of its most remarkable journey from fashion to fast fashion and now from fast fashion to ultra-fast fashion. In capturing the minds and wardrobes of the mass population, especially the youth, fashion houses have been successful in introducing cheap, trendy, and affordable clothing lines through their online and traditional retail stores, along with digital marketing. The increased clothing expenditure has also led to fast fashion creating a huge economic impact. Since the growth in the apparel market has been witnessed faster than in the global economy, it is responsible for the recent economic growth (on average 4.78%) and future growth (5.90% in the next three years) of the apparel industry. The study also focuses on the desires of the students to keep pace with trends at all times under some social influences. But since everything comes at a cost, the idea of disposable clothing has created a huge negative impact on our environment.
Full-text available
I klesbransjen kan man se et paradoks mellom forbrukernes intensjoner til å handle bærekraftig og deres faktiske kjøpsatferd, hvor intensjonene deres sjeldent overføres til atferd. Noen studier prøver å forklare dette ved å finne potensielle barrierer som forhindrer forbrukerne fra å velge bærekraftig, mens andre indikerer at bærekraft ikke er så viktig som forbrukeres intensjoner kan gi inntrykk av. I denne oppgaven har jeg tatt et steg tilbake i beslutningsprosessen til forbrukerne ved å undersøke hvor viktig ulike konvensjonelle produkt- og nettbutikkattributter er når forbrukerne handler klær på nett. Videre gjennomførte jeg en hierarkisk clusteranalyse basert på attributtpreferansene til 161 respondenter, for å se om det er en forskjell i respondentenes preferanser til bærekraft. Til slutt profilerte jeg de identifiserte segmentene med forbruksrelaterte, demografiske og psykografiske variabler, for å se hva som kjennetegnet disse. Funnene mine indikerer at det er en forskjell i forbrukernes preferanser til bærekraftige produktattributter, hvor jeg kunne identifisere tre segmenter av forbrukere; «Miljøsynderne», «De bevisste» og «De uengasjerte». De profileringsvariablene som viste størst forskjell var de psykografiske, hvor spesielt segmentenes grønne forbruksverdier og opplevelser av barrierer for å handle bærekraftig, hadde størst innvirkning på deres preferanser for de bærekraftige produktattributtene. Overordnet blant alle respondentene så fant jeg også ut at både konvensjonelle produkt- og nettbutikkattributter er viktigere enn de bærekraftige, hvor kvalitet, utseende, verdi for pengene, passform og rabatt ble valgt som viktigst. De viktigste bærekraftige produktattributtene var de sosiale aspektene, herunder lønns- og arbeidsforhold og dyrevelferd, tett etterfulgt av klimaavtrykk.
Full-text available
The chapter is on ERP & SCM
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is one of the greatest innovations that has been widely accepted in the supply chain and logistics for obtaining accurate and fast information. Utilizing RFID technology in a variety of industries, such as automotive, manufacturing, fashion, and textiles, can alter business dynamics and promote a sustainable future. RFID technology provides not only economic benefits in manufacturing and supply chain processes, but also numerous tangible business benefits, such as competitive advantage, improved customer relationships, resiliency, and increased profitability. Several brands of fast fashion have already adopted eco-friendly production techniques using RFID technology. Other brands should also begin focusing on sustainable practices to ensure their long-term success, which will benefit both the company and the environment. This paper investigates the sustainability benefits realized through the application of RFID technology in the fashion and textile supply chain focusing the manufacturing and retail operations in Vietnam. As Vietnam is one of the emerging economies that produces fashion and textiles for numerous international fashion brands, Vietnamese fashion and textile companies were selected for this study. The results revealed that numerous businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were unaware of RFID technology and its benefits in the production and supply chain. There were several environmental, social and economic benefits, achieved through the implementation of new technologies such as RFID. Social benefits included customer satisfaction, reducing employee stress level and better labor management; the environmental benefits included saving energy, reducing wastage and pollution level; the economic benefits included saving resources, reducing cost and increasing profitability.KeywordsSustainabilityRFID technologyFashion supply chainSustainable benefitsEmerging economies
Full-text available
Purpose: Fashion is an important aspect of day-to-day life. There are various factors influencing fashion trends such as social, cultural, political, environmental, and psychological factors. A bigger interest in fashion has developed at present. This study is conducted to prove the importance of fashion trends to understand and develop the dynamic capacities to guarantee long-term Success the fashion. In clothing and apparel products, the aesthetic sphere is socially and culturally grounded. All groups have their likes and dislikes. This study explores clothing practices and personality traits among young college students. Daily choices of clothing depend on social, economic, and psychological reasons. Social recognition is a major part of an individual’s identity, attitude, and self-evaluation. Hence this article synthesizes many scholarly research articles on wearer perception, published in a few of the globally familiar journals. Design: The study was able to identify the key influencing variables and essential constituent aspects of the young adolescent’s fashion consciousness. This paper pertaining to the research agenda of body image and fashion trends, extensively evaluated personality traits of young adolescents for this study. Findings/ Results: This literature synthesis establishes that the concept of body image and clothing is highly interrelated. This study focuses on depicting the correlation between fashion adoption and personality traits. The researchers have found that the drive for a well-dressed fashionable presentation is highlighted among men and women. Social comparison and objectification together determine their confidence. Some expressed that they used to dress to confirm their selves young. Here we want to explore that fashionable clothing, accessories, makeover are the main means to meet their needs to be fashionable. Through clothing self-descriptions of a person can be presented. Discussion of the concept of self-presentation is included in this research taking into consideration of individual behavior according to their clothing, personal values, interest, religion, culture, and customs. Originality/ Value: Clothing practices reflect one's standard. Sociology is being used to study clothing and human confidence after being well-dressed. This review of literature focuses on the relationship between human behavior and fashion. Information in this review will be useful for the referrer to understand the social psychology of fashion. Body makeover illustrates the impact of changing standards of attractiveness on appearance in the presentation of one’s self. Paper Type: Literature Review
The research aimed to analyse the correlation between age and consumer behaviour within the fast fashion industry. The aim was to gain deeper insights into consumption patterns that can damage people and the planet. This insight was gained through a thematic analysis using an adapted ecology scale originally developed by Maloney and Ward (1972) This could conceivably help companies take a larger responsibility and provide solutions to the fast fashion problem. After an analysis of the key literature, focus groups were identified as the most appropriate application approach for this type of qualitative research. Based on the literature review key themes identified were pricing, quality, influences, technology and feelings. The conclusion of the dissertation will discuss the key findings and provide recommendations.
Full-text available
Full-text available
UK fashion retailing is characterised by high levels of market concentration, centralisation and outlet standardisation. In the pursuit of market share, the multiple fashion retailers are implementing branding strategies that aim to differentiate their product offer and reinforce their market positioning. Empirical research, via key informant interviews, examined the branding decisions of two multiple fashion retailers and established four main methods of brand differentiation.
The fourth edition of Merchandise Buying and Management has been updated to cover the most current information on merchandising and retailing. Written for college-level courses dealing with retail buying and the management for retail inventories, the text covers topics relevant to future buyers and store management personnel. The material is presented within the context of a contemporary retail environment-with examples from both fashion and non-fashion retailers-in which buyers often act as fiscal managers as well as product developers, and store managers play important roles in sales productivity and assortment planning. Retail technology is a theme that runs throughout the book, tied to topics such as space management, electronic data exchange, point-of-sale systems, and floor ready merchandise. Merchandise Buying and Management has been updated to cover the most current information on merchandising and retailing. Written for college-level courses dealing with retail buying and the management for retail inventories, the text covers topics relevant to future buyers and store management personnel. The material is presented within the context of a contemporary retail environment-with examples from both fashion and non-fashion retailers-in which buyers often act as fiscal managers as well as product developers, and store managers play important roles in sales productivity and assortment planning. Retail technology is a theme that runs throughout the book, tied to topics such as space management, electronic data exchange, point-of-sale systems, and floor ready merchandise.
This paper considers the recent restructuring of the clothing retailing sector. The focus is upon changing relationships between clothing manufacturers and retailers. The traditional conceptualization of retailer control mechanisms throughout the 1980s was that there exists a spectrum ranging from the tight control 'marionette' model to the arms length approach. Our aim here is to refine this unrealistic representation of inter-organizational linkages, and to suggest that the traditional polar extreme control model is being replaced by a hierarchical or pyramidal model, with close control being exercised over preferred suppliers, alongside an increasingly fragmented chain of sub-contracting relationships further down the chain. We consider the implications of such changing buyer-supplier relations on the future of the British clothing industry, and argue that the prospect of an equalizing out of the asymmetrical relationship between retailers and clothing manufacturers seems remote.
Fashion apparel is a highly competitive business where product life is short and differentiation advantages are built on brand image and product styling that can be quickly imitated. Over the past two decades, competition on price and quality has intensified as low cost global manufacturing became available to even small competitors. Recently, competition has shifted to the arena of timing and know-how where vertically integrated firms gained the lead in implementing a set of process innovations known as 'quick response.' designed to shorten the production cycle. Less integrated firms have begun to erode that advantage, but the integrated firms that have linked quick response into retailing continue to have superior capabilities. These firms demonstrate the elements of organization needed to link flexible and fast cycle manufacturing with rapid learning about demand and customer satisfaction.
This paper discusses the development of partnerships and networks in Australian industry. Two projects are discussed. Project one is funded by the Commonwealth Government and involves the retailers, manufacturers and suppliers in the textiles, clothing and footwear industry. The aim of this project, which started in 1992, is to improve the competitiveness and responsiveness of the industry by implementing quick response technologies and methodologies. Fifty companies are involved in this project which have been brought together into clusters of three supply-chain companies. Roundtable meetings, workshops and seminars have been conducted to establish good inter-company working relationships and the building of a climate where problems are openly shared.The second project is funded by industry to help promote the adoption of Best Practices amongst the companies in the southeast region of Melbourne. Over the past two years, 90 companies have been involved in various activities which has resulted in strong networks being developed around the region.The paper provides details of how these networks and partnerships have developed. Key success factors in establishing networks and partnerships are identified. Problems in facilitating and managing these networks and partnerships are also identified and discussed.
Quick fashion formulas can be described as a product/service characterised mainly by its potential to supply retailers with a range renewal service that is produced at short time gaps. The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that by adopting new quick fashion formulas clothing manufacturers can at least in part integrate the different factors that traditionally contributed to the success of operators in different strategic groups. In the case of the Italian firm analysed here, the range renewal service and consequently the development of a new production management model are integrated with construction of a strong brand identity, which has resulted in increased performance. The development of new quick fashion formulas appears symptomatic of transition from a production-driven to a market-driven characterisation of the apparel manufacturing sector. The development and success of quick fashion formulas such as those analysed in this paper may have important implications not only for the evolution of clothing distribution, but indeed for the whole supply chain upstream of the retailer, including textiles manufacturers who produce yarn and fabric.
Proposes models of a descriptive and interpretative type which examine the temporal sequences of the activities and decisions taken in the textile apparel chain with reference to design. Examines the opportunities for improvement and also identifies the obstacles that interfere with the realization of quick response (QR) in design. Analyses, using the proposed models, the possible interventions along the chain as regards design activities and interaction between these and the production and sales activities. Highlights the following: the reduction of design lead time, through the parallelization of fabric and garment design and through the use of information technology; the reduction of the variety of production input without penalizing the variety perceived by the final consumer; and the acquisition, during design, of preliminary information on future sales, in order to rationalize the offer and carry out the initial assortment of production input.