Article

Biofunctionalization of Biomaterials for Accelerated in Situ Endothelialization: A Review

Centre of Nanotechnology, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Biomacromolecules (Impact Factor: 5.75). 11/2008; 9(11):2969-79. DOI: 10.1021/bm800681k
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The higher patency rates of cardiovascular implants, including vascular bypass grafts, stents, and heart valves are related to their ability to inhibit thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and calcification. In native tissue, the endothelium plays a major role in inhibiting these processes. Various bioengineering research strategies thereby aspire to induce endothelialization of graft surfaces either prior to implantation or by accelerating in situ graft endothelialization. This article reviews potential bioresponsive molecular components that can be incorporated into (and/or released from) biomaterial surfaces to obtain accelerated in situ endothelialization of vascular grafts. These molecules could promote in situ endothelialization by the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from the bone marrow, encouraging cell-specific adhesion (endothelial cells (EC) and/or EPC) to the graft and, once attached, by controlling the proliferation and differentiation of these cells. EC and EPC interactions with the extracellular matrix continue to be a principal source of inspiration for material biofunctionalization, and therefore, the latest developments in understanding these interactions will be discussed.

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Available from: Gavin Jell, Jan 31, 2014
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    • "Furthermore, besides the use of integer ECM components, various ECM peptide sequences including functional domains of proteins, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans have been isolated and grafted on biomaterials to control cell behavior, for example, RGD, and REDV within the CS5 (EEIQIGHIPREDVDYHLYPHG) sequence of fibronectin [7] , laminin-derived recognition sequences IKLLI, IKVAV, LRE, PDSGR, and YIGSR [8] , and the collagen type I derived sequences DGEA [9] and TPGPQGIAGQRGVV (P15) [10] . However, these peptides, nicely reviewed by de Mel et al. [5] , are not cell-selective as they bind to integrins, present on many epithelial cells. Nevertheless, Blindt et al. demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), reported to induce endothelialization resembling the natural innermost layer of blood vessels [11] , could be successfully recruited to polymer-based stent coatings modified with cyclic RGD [12] . "

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    • "Similarly a bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and insulin growth factor (IGF) can be immobilized to assist in the differentiation of osteoblast cells [70]. Furthermore vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can be immobilized on the matrix to enhance endothelial cell adhesion for vascular tissue engineering [71]. Several excellent recent reviews describe the function of many biologically relevant short peptide groups, growth factors, and cytokines [46, 68, 70, 71]. "
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    • "Bioactive scaffolds employed as a support for engineered tissue endothelialization are fabricated with synthetic or natural polymers and possess several properties useful for facilitating neovascularization [46]. Favorable materials might be also biofunctionalized in order to accelerate in situ endothelialization and provide a specific microenvironment mimicking the natural properties of the native tissue [47]. Examples of molecules that can be conjugated to the polymer material aimed at improving vessel formation are usually natural components of the extracellular matrix or their functional domains. "
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