Infant Feeding and Feeding Transitions During the First Year of Life

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS K25, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 11/2008; 122 Suppl 2(Supplement 2):S36-42. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2008-1315d
Source: PubMed


Infancy is a time of rapid transition from a diet of virtually nothing but milk (either breast milk or infant formula) to a varied diet from nearly all food groups being consumed on a daily basis by most infants. Despite various recommendations about infant feeding, little is known about actual patterns of feeding among US infants. This article documents transitions in infant feeding patterns across the first year of life and determinants of key aspects of infant feeding.
Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, we analyzed responses to a 7-day food-recall chart that was administered every month. The sample size declined from 2907 at birth to 1782 at 12 months of age.
Although 83% of survey respondents initiated breastfeeding, the percentage who breastfed declined rapidly to 50% at 6 months and to 24% at 12 months. Many of the women who breastfed also fed their infants formula; 52% reported that their infants received formula while in the hospital. At 4 months, 40% of the infants had consumed infant cereal, 17% had consumed fruit or vegetable products, and <1% had consumed meat. Compared with infants who were not fed solid foods at 4 months, those who were fed solid foods were more likely to have discontinued breastfeeding at 6 months (70% vs 34%) and to have been fed fatty or sugary foods at 12 months (75% vs 62%).
Supplementing breast milk with infant formula while infants were still in the hospital was very common. Despite recommendations that complementary foods not be introduced to infants aged 4 months or younger, almost half of the infants in this study had consumed solid foods by the age of 4 months. This early introduction of complementary foods was associated with unhealthful subsequent feeding behaviors.

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    • "Considering that the brain growth and development occur during the first six months of life, an incidence of growth failure will lead to harmful consequences such as childhood mental retardation [8]. FTT is variously defined, but it is a term used to describe inadequate growth or the inability to maintain growth, usually in early childhood. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene
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    • "The consumption of high-sugar, high-fat foods increased with each age group; comparable observations have been reported in FITS [13]. Similarly, data from the 2005–2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) found that at 12 months two-thirds of infants were consuming high sugar and fat foods, including french fries, or sweetened drinks, and 77% of infants were consuming fruit juice [10]. Similarly we found that on a daily basis most toddlers consumed a dessert or snack and fruit juice more than once, and half consumed a sweetened drink. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To characterize food and nutrient intake and develop a population-specific food list to be used as a comprehensive dietary assessment tool for Baltimore infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. The data were used to inform the Growing Leaps and Bounds (GLB) program, which promotes early obesity prevention among Baltimore infants and toddlers. Research methods & procedures A cross-sectional dietary survey using 24-hour recalls among randomly selected primary caregivers of infants and toddlers was conducted. Results Data were collected from 84 children, (response rate 61%) 45 boys; 39 girls. Mean daily energy intakes were 677 kcal, 988 kcal, and 1,123 kcal for children 0–6 months, 7–12 months and 13–24 months, respectively. Infants 0–6 months had higher percentage of energy from fat (48%) than infants 7–12 months (34%) and 13–24 months (31%). Mean daily intakes for all nutrients among 0–12 months old were ≥ Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), while toddlers 13–24 months had inadequate vitamins A, D, and E intake. Breastfeeding occurred in 33% of infants and toddlers 0 to 6 months, while less than 3% of those aged 7 to 24 months were breastfed. A 104-item food list with eight food and drink categories was developed. Conclusions Infants were formula fed with a higher frequency than they were breastfed. The consumption of high-sugar and high-fat foods (e.g. sweetened drinks, French fries) increased with each age group, which can increase the risk of childhood obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Nutrition Journal
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    • "The U.S., Healthy People 2020 objectives for exclusive breastfeeding through 3 and 6 months of age are 46% and 25%, respectively, yet nearly 25% [60] to 42% [140] of breastfed infants in some cohorts receive formula while still in the hospital (before two days of age), decreasing the likelihood of development of a full milk supply by the mother. Moreover, recent survey data [61] indicate that 8% of mothers offered infants a combination of breastmilk and formula, from birth, during the first week of life. "
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal of obesity
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