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Abstract We investigated whether multitasking with media was a unique predictor of depression and social anxiety symptoms. Participants (N=318) completed measures of their media use, personality characteristics, depression, and social anxiety. Regression analyses revealed that increased media multitasking was associated with higher depression and social anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for overall media use and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. The unique association between media multitasking and these measures of psychosocial dysfunction suggests that the growing trend of multitasking with media may represent a unique risk factor for mental health problems related to mood and anxiety. Further, the results strongly suggest that future research investigating the impact of media use on mental health needs to consider the role that multitasking with media plays in the relationship.

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... Nonetheless, some researchers believe that cyberloafing can promote the recovery of work, temporarily reduce pressure and mental tension brought by work; through providing a feeling of relaxation to employees, cyberloafing can improve employees' devotion to follow-up work; this is because cyberloafing can further complement important emotional resources for employees and indirectly promotes their efficiency in achieving work tasks (12). Research on college students' cyberloafing showed that using the Internet in class was related to lower emotional wellbeing, which showed more depression symptoms and higher social anxiety (13). However, some studies have found that students would experience more positive emotions and less negative emotions after participating in cyberloafing (14). ...
... Researchers have pointed out that cyberloafing will increase employees' work anxiety, thus depleting their emotional resources and weakening their sense of meaning in work (20). In addition, excessive use of the Internet will have a negative impact on the physical and mental health of individuals, such as the increase of anxiety and depression (13). Previous studies have shown that addiction to social media would have a negative impact on individuals. ...
... According to the stress transactional model of Lazarus and Folkman (22), when people think the events they experience are harmful or threatening, exposure to these pressures will lead to negative physical (such as elevated blood pressure), psychological (anger and anxiety) or behavioral (leaving the status quo) results. According to the research by Becker et al. (13) students who used the Internet in class exhibited more depressive symptoms, higher stress and anxiety. Thus, it can be inferred that college students' cyberloafing during learning can be regarded as an investment of limited learning resources (such as time and energy) in nonlearning fields. ...
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Background With the gradual penetration of network media into various fields of people's life, the relationship between network behavior and the sense of meaning of life is bound to be closer and closer. The purpose of this study is to explore the mediating role of state anxiety between cyber loafing and the sense of meaning of life, and the moderating role of psychological flexibility in this mediating relationship. Methodology With 964 undergraduates recruited as subjects three-wave-time-lagged quantitative research design was conducted in China. All participants were required to complete a self-reported electronic questionnaire. Then, the mediating mechanism and moderating effect were explored with utilization of SPSS25.0. Results The results showed that cyberloafing had significant negative correlation with the sense of meaning of life. Our analysis testing the mediating effect showed that state anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cyberloafing and the sense of meaning of life (indirect effect = −0.05, p < 0.01,), while the mediating effect was 31.25% of the total effect. Our analysis testing the moderating effect showed that psychological flexibility significantly moderated the relationship between cyberloafing and state anxiety (interaction effect = −0.26, p < 0.01). And our analysis testing the moderated mediating effect showed that psychological flexibility played a moderating role in the mediating effect of state anxiety. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, college students' cyberloafing negatively affects their sense of meaning of life. Therefore, appropriate measures should be taken to supervise and restrict college students' Internet use and provide them with corresponding guidance; certain psychological adjustment measures should also be taken when necessary to help college students with low psychological flexibility in reducing their state anxiety and improving their sense of meaning of life.
... This was based on the perceived involvement of executive function processes (previously stated in section 1.3), as detailed in Diamond's (2016) theory of executive functioning, in the specific media multitasking situation implemented in this study. State mood, trait anxiety and depression were also explored considering the associations between executive function performance and mood (Shields et al., 2016;Ursache & Raver, 2014), and previous findings of associations between high trait anxiety and self-reported media multitasking (Becker et al., 2013;Seddon et al., 2018). Additionally, there is a need to examine state and trait variables that can impact performance stability when undertaking an individual differences approach (Goodhew & Edwards, 2019). ...
... Thus, the findings indicate that media multitasking may alter mood in terms of reducing individuals' self-reported level of arousal. Trait anxiety and depression were not significantly associated with media multitasking ability, which contrasts with previous research showing high levels of self-reported media multitasking to be associated with trait anxiety (Becker et al., 2013;Seddon et al., 2018). Trait anxiety and depression scores were also not associated with executive function task performance. ...
... An individual's tendency to feel anxious or depressed was not associated with their ability to media multitask measured in terms of remembering content from the session. However, it is likely that anxiety is a driving force to compel people to engage in media multitasking in the first place, considering the associations between anxiety and how frequently individuals media multitask (Becker et al., 2013;Seddon et al., 2018). Reinecke et al. (2017) found that a specific type of anxiety, fear of missing out, was a driving force for media multitasking with A.L. Seddon et al. ...
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Previous research on media multitasking has often focussed on the frequency with which people perform this type of behaviour. Heavy media multitaskers have been found to differ from light media multitaskers in their performance of tasks involving executive functioning (although these differences have not always been found consistently). The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ executive functioning in relation to their ability to media multitask (i.e., their ability to retain information presented during the session), rather than their propensity to media multitask. Participants (N = 116, aged 18–25, male N = 32) completed an executive function task battery, inclusive of working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility tasks, followed by a studious media multitasking situation. Individual executive function task performance scores were correlated with media multitasking ability scores. Greater cognitive flexibility was significantly associated with greater ability to media multitask, in terms of retention of information from a media multitasking situation. Furthermore, media multitasking influenced mood, reducing levels of self-reported arousal. Thus, the present study provides some elucidation as to what cognitive characteristics are involved in being able to media multitask, whilst also indicating a possible cognitive mechanism for negative associations found between media multitasking and academic performance.
... Media multitasking has also been associated with mental health problems. Becker et al. [50] for instance, reported that media multitasking was positively correlated with depression and social anxiety scores, even after controlling for total time on media and personality traits. High levels of media multitasking have been linked to less sleep, difficulties to fall asleep at night and to keep awake during the day, at school [51,52]. ...
... Finally, media multitasking has been linked to negative academic performance and other school related variables. Some studies for instance report that heavy media multitaskers are less efficient academic learners [54] and may have less grit [50]--the ability to maintain perseverance in otherwise aversive tasks, which seems important for academic success [55]. Cain et al. [56] studied 12-16 year olds and reported that heavy media multitasking was associated with lower academic performance on standardized tests (Math and English) but also with lower performance on computerized executive functions tests and higher impulsivity, along with lesser growth mindset (but neither grit nor conscientiousness, in contrast to other studies mentioned), suggesting that media multitasking is a critical variable to consider when investigating the effects of media [see also 57,58]. ...
... The partial pairwise correlations highlight large and significant partial correlations linking media multitasking with numerous adverse, self-reported measures: higher levels of media multitasking were associated with higher levels of psychological distress (K6), lower levels of socioemotional functioning (SDQ), worse behavior and attention ratings by both teachers and parents, worse sleep and lower levels of grit. These results are in line with past research reporting an association between media multitasking and increased depression and anxiety among young adults after controlling for total time on media and various personality traits [50], or media multitasking and worse socioemotional outcomes and worse sleep among 8-to 12-year old girls [52]. The psychological network analysis further supports the negative link between media multitasking and worse sleep. ...
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The rise in digital media consumption, especially among children, raises the societal question of its impact on cognition, mental health and academic achievement. Here, we investigate three different ways of measuring technology use-—total hours of media consumed, hours of video game play and number of media used concurrently—-in 118 eight-to-twelve year-old children. At stake is the question of whether different technology uses have different effects, which could explain some of the past mixed findings. We collected data about children’s media uses as well as (i) attentional and behavioral control abilities, (ii) psychological distress, psychosocial functioning, and sleep, and (iii) academic achievement and motivation. While attentional control abilities were assessed using both cognitive tests and questionnaires, mental health and sleep were all questionnaire-based. Finally, academic performance was based on self-reported grades, with motivational variables being measured through the grit and the growth-mindset questionnaires. We present partial correlation analyses and construct a psychological network to assess the structural associations between different forms of media consumption and the three categories of measures. We observe that children consume large amounts of media and media multitask substantially. Partial correlation analyses show that media multitasking specifically was mostly correlated with negative mental health, while playing video games was associated with faster responding and better mental health. No significant partial correlations were observed for total hours on media. Psychological network analysis complement these first results by indicating that all three ways of consuming technology are only indirectly related to self-reported grades. Thus, technology uses appear to only indirectly relate to academic performance, while more directly affecting mental health. This work emphasizes the need to differentiate among technology uses if one is to understand how every day digital consumption impacts human behavior.
... Increased media multitasking is associated with higher social anxiety symptoms. 16 Further, the quantity of time spent using social media leads emerging adults to higher levels of anxiety. [17][18][19] Problematic social media is also significantly associated with higher anxiety among the Lebanese population. ...
... Consequently, if lower emotional stability predicts the likelihood to engage excessively in different online activities, this could mean that individuals who have a tendency toward anxiety may also demonstrate more intense SMF than those who are less anxious. By analogy, since socially anxious individuals are generally vulnerable to problematic Internet use, 16,[52][53][54] it may mean that generally anxious people become tired of constantly using social media, as well. Indeed, Teng et al 55 report that anxiety and fatigue are considered dominant factors within the context of negative usage of social media. ...
... It can also be assumed that anxiety might be a result of higher SMF, as shown by other researchers. 2,[16][17][18][19] In our study, there was also an unequal ratio of women to men. Therefore, in future research, greater participation of male respondents should be provided. ...
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Background: Interdisciplinary literature indicates different correlates of social media fatigue (hereinafter: SMF). Some studies show that high levels of anxiety may induce lowered Internet use and lead social media users to withdraw from Internet activities. Since the relationship between anxiety and social media use is complex, it is important to investigate mediating factors that may indirectly contribute to or exacerbate this association. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to verify whether fear of missing out (hereinafter: FoMO) is a potential factor accounting for why anxiety is associated with SMF. Participants methods and data collection: The research was conducted on a group of 264 adolescents and adults (85% women). The mean age of the respondents was M = 23.76 with SD = 5.98 (range = 14-50 years). The data were collected via online social networking among college students, their family members and friends. The participants answered the Trait Anxiety Scale (TAS), Social Media Fatigue Scale (SMFS), Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMO), and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Results: The outcomes showed that respondents with higher levels of trait anxiety report more intense cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and overall online fatigue. Concurrently, individuals who experience FoMO on the Internet declare being tired of social media use. Moreover, FoMO mediates the association between trait anxiety and all three dimensions of SMF, and its overall result. Conclusion: The present research increases our understanding of the possible role of apprehension related to missing out on the anxiety and fatigue connected to engagement in social media. It is possible to assess that trait anxiety might induce higher SMF when individuals experience a general apprehension that others are doing or having things that they do not.
... Multiple studies state that social media and digital technologies are pushing millennials towards, use of multitasking, anxiety, and lack of focus (Carrier, Cheever, Rosen, Benitez, and Chang, 2009;Ekşi, Turgut, and Sevim, 2019;Becker, Alzahabi, and Hopwood, 2013;Ovando, 2019). In the majority of the workplaces, the ability to juggle multiple tasks and switching quickly between them is an important job trait (Fleishman, Costanza, and Marshall-Mies, 1999, as cited in Kapadia and Melwani, 2020). ...
... Cambridge dictionary (n.d.) defines multitasking as "a person's ability to do more than one thing at a time". The majority of empirical research claims that multitasking is negatively affecting individuals' mental functions (Becker, Alzahabi, and Hopwood, 2013;Ovando, 2019), however, some also state that it may bring beneficial results (Kapadia and Melwani, 2020;Srna, Schrift, and Zauberman, 2018). One of the detrimental effects of multitasking is about pupils' working memory (Aharony and Zion, 2019). ...
... Another research gives importance to the relationship between multitasking and mental health. The results of this study revealed that media multitasking is correlated with depression and social anxiety (Becker, Alzahabi, and Hopwood, 2013). Previously mentioned studies clarified that teenagers who use multitasking more, prone to negativities caused by multitasking behaviors while using social media. ...
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The rapid and recent emergence of social media sites in individuals’ life and workplaces makes employers concerned about its effect on their employees. Therefore, this research aims to clarify the effect of social media sites on millennials’ productivity. The effect of social media sites on productivity discussed in five subtopics. These are depression, multitasking, mindfulness, coping strategies, emotional exhaustion. The structures that may cause social media addiction are stated in two subtopics, the big five traits and reward responsiveness. First, in the majority of the studies, depression is found significantly correlated with social media use and multitasking. Also, there is no doubt that depression causes productivity issues. Second, it is stated that prolonged social media use may push individuals into multitasking which leads to working memory deficits. Another study found correlations with the smaller anterior cingulate cortex that is responsible for attention control. However, scientists claimed that Gen Y members have bigger cognitive resources for multitasking, therefore, they may not get affected badly as older generations. Third, people who use social media extensively may show lower mindfulness, emotion-focused coping, and emotional exhaustion. Finally, when it comes to the predictors of social media addiction researchers state that fear of negative evaluation, reward responsiveness, high neuroticism, low conscientiousness, high agreeableness, and openness to experience may have the possibility to increase social media addiction. Despite the mentioned studies, further researches are needed for more precise generalizations.
... Furthermore, researchers have found multitasking to vary in impact according to some personality traits (Mark, Wang, & Niiya, 2014;Salomon, Ferraro, Petros, Bernhardt, & Rhyner, 2016;Küssner, 2017;Mesmer-Magnus, Viswesvaran, Bruk-Lee, Sanderso, & Sinha, 2014). For instance, they have found multitasking to be associated with anxiety (Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2018), an emotional state that is correlated with the two personality dimensions, neuroticism and extraversion (Gerber, Huber, Doherty, Dowling, & Ha, 2010;Leger, Charles, Turiano, & Almeida, 2016). Moreover, they have found multitasking to be associated with stress (Mark et al., 2014), a physiological state shown to be associated with personality during stimulating activities (Riedl, 2013). ...
... As we mention in Section 1, past work has associated multitasking with personality (Mark et al., 2016;Salomon et al., 2016;Küssner, 2017;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2014). As for why, some research has found multitasking to be associated with anxiety (Becker et al., 2018;Terry, Mishra, & Roseth, 2016) and stress (Mark et al, 2014), two emotional and physiological states whose manifestations vary with the personality trait, extraversion (Gerber et al., 2010;Leger et al., 2016;Riedl, 2013). Numerous studies have investigated personality dimensions in diverse contexts. ...
... Both phubbing and media multitasking involve paying attention to a media activity either during a social interaction or alongside another media activity. In addition to being conceptually related, these two behaviors also share the same directional relationships across multiple self-reported psychosocial, psychological, and personality constructs, including sensation seeking [14,[27][28][29], fear of missing out [6,7,13,29], general anxiety [13,30], and neuroticism [13,31]. Moreover, media multitasking has been extensively investigated through a cognitive framework. ...
... Further evaluating Ralph and colleagues' findings [35] brings up the question whether engagement in phubbing behavior can predict attentional failures. We did not explore this possibility because we wanted to remain consistent with most [8,13,28,29,33,46,55,57], though certainly not all [19,30,35,36,58], of past research, which has treated technology use and multitasking behaviors as outcomes and individual differences variables as predictors. ...
Article
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Phubbing, or using a phone to snub another person, has been investigated through social and personality frameworks. Phubbing involves attending to and performing competing tasks, implying the involvement of attentional abilities. Yet, past research has not yet used a cognitive framework to establish a link between phubbing and attention. Using self-report data from a large online sample, we explored the associations between phubbing and everyday attentional failures. Phubbing was associated with difficulties in attentional shifting and distractibility, frequent attentional lapses, spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, and attention-related cognitive errors. When examining these attention variables alongside several psychosocial and personality variables, attention-related cognitive errors acted as the biggest predictor of phubbing behavior. Phubbing was also positively correlated with media multitasking, which is a conceptually similar yet distinct technology use behavior. The results suggest that perceived everyday attentional failures are strongly associated with, and to an extent can predict, phubbing behavior, even more so than some social and personality variables. Technology has incorporated itself as a necessity, or at the very least a favored convenience, in most people’s lives. Characterizing technology multitasking behaviors from a variety of frameworks can help us better understand who is engaging in these behaviors and why.
... Besides, several studies have demonstrated that students' Internet use and their psychological well-being are related (e.g. Barry et al., 2017;Becker et al., 2013;Kross et al., 2013). For instance, Becker et al. (2013) showed that in-class Internet use is associated with lower emotional well-being indicated by more symptoms of depression and higher social anxiety. ...
... Barry et al., 2017;Becker et al., 2013;Kross et al., 2013). For instance, Becker et al. (2013) showed that in-class Internet use is associated with lower emotional well-being indicated by more symptoms of depression and higher social anxiety. Yet, the literature on the affective consequences of in-class Internet use is rather limited. ...
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With the technological advances, the use of digital devices, such as laptops, tablets, or smartphones in the educational setting has become prevalent among young people. Accordingly, there has been an increased concern among scholars on students’ in-class Internet use for personal purposes; namely, ‘cyberloafing’. Considerable research has demonstrated the adverse effects of in-class Internet use on students’ learning environment and academic performance. The present study particularly investigates the relationship between cyberloafing behaviors and positive and negative affect among university students. It examines five different online activities including sharing, shopping, real-time updating, accessing online content, and gaming/gambling separately to gain greater insight into students’ cyberloafing behaviors. The sample consisted of 267 undergraduate students who filled out questionnaires measuring cyberloafing behaviors, positive and negative affect, and demographical information including the use of the Internet and mobile technologies. The initial analyses showed that male students had higher scores in shopping, accessing online content, and gaming/gambling than females. The latent variable analysis revealed that among different activities of cyberloafing, accessing online content and gaming/gambling were positively correlated with positive affect, while sharing was positively associated with negative affect among students. The findings emphasize the importance of evaluating cyberloafing as a part of students’ psychological well-being rather than a variable merely related to academic achievement. The findings of the study also enlighten researchers and educators in developing appropriate policies and interventions to manage misuse of the Internet in class.
... A study of the effect of multitasking on 11-to 18-year-old adolescents working on academic tasks (Martín-Perpiñá et al., 2019) evidenced that those who multitasked most often tended to deliver poorer academic results, and displayed decreased cognitive performance in tasks that required human working memory and processing speed. A growing body of literature on media multitasking shows that it can represent a risk factor for psychosocial maladjustments associated with anxiety (Becker et al., 2013) as well as with addiction to technology (Lin et al., 2020). ...
... On the other hand, since socio-emotional competencies are a protective factor of cybernetic risks, it is presumable that they will also act as a protective factor of habitual digital behaviors that are conducive to such risks: of cybergossip, which predicts cyberbullying (Romera et al., 2018), of phubbing, which heightens exclusion (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2018), and of multitasking, which increases addiction to technology (Lin et al., 2020). Moreover, socio-emotional competencies could regulate emotions that generate habitual digital behaviors such as social acceptance or rejection stemming from evaluative comments on social media, as well as stress and anxiety stemming from multitasking (Becker et al., 2013) and feelings of being bothered by phubbing (Aagaard, 2020): thus, as an effect of such emotions, new online behaviors could be reduced (Rosen et al., 2013). H3. ...
Article
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Increased Internet use has introduced several behavior patterns into the daily routines of adolescents, such as phubbing, cybergossip, and media multitasking during homework. These habits can potentialize risks, particularly in post-pandemic situations. Socio-emotional competencies can act as protective factors against cybernetic risks; however, they have not yet been studied in relation with habitual digital behavior. To fill that gap, this study's objective is to analyze, across a sample of 776 students of secondary education (12–16 years old), to what extent socio-emotional competencies in digital interaction (“socio-emotional e-competencies”) are related to phubbing, cybergossip, and media multitasking during academic tasks, while being able to predict those behaviors in function of gender and age. We also propose to elicit whether those three behaviors can be regarded as indicators of habitual digital behavior in general. Our structural equation model results indicate that they act as a sole variable, which we denote as “habitual digital behavior”. On the other hand, emotional e-regulation and e-self-control of impulsiveness act as protective factors in adolescence, whereas emotional e-independence is crucial in girls and older students, and emotional e-awareness is important in boys. To close, we discuss the relevance of educating students in the matter of e-socio-economic competencies.
... The FoMO and subsequent behaviors have a negative impact on people lives, learning, friendship and work. There is growing concern that frequent interactions on social media may replace face-to-face interactions, thereby reducing the quality of social interactions and undermining our social mind (Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2013). Turkle argues that social media can make users lose face-to-face communication tactics; as human beings, our ability of information processing is limited. ...
... Traditional psychology theory holds that anxious individuals are prone to have multiple cognitive and evaluation obstacles, such as misinterpretation of risk factors in the situation and issue false alarms, which lead to their inabilities to systematically process relevant information and then affect their rational judgments (Dhir, Yossatorn, Kaur, & Chen, 2018). Thus, anxiety can result in a decline in the cognitive ability of the user, and insu cient regulation and control of emotions and attention (Becker et al., 2013). Cognitive manifestation of FoMO mainly includes anxiety. ...
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The widespread use of social media has a trans-formative effect on people’s work and lives. With the increasing information explosion and more cases of social media addiction, users have been always worried that they have missed some information. FoMO (Fear of Missing Out) of mobile users emerges. FoMO has affected users’ interpersonal relationship and behavior in the offline environment, especially for post-90s generation users (people born in the 1990’s). This paper explores the impact of FoMO of post-90s generation mobile users on romantic relationship in the context of social media. The sample size is 274 subjects. By using questionnaire survey and regression analysis, the impacts of FoMO on romantic relationship were analyzed from the perspectives of three dimensions of FoMO: cognitive, emotional and behavioral manifestations. Results show that behavioral manifestation of FoMO has a significant negative effect on romantic relationships, while emotional and cognitive manifestations of FoMO have no significant effects on romantic relationships. This paper enriches the research on the effects of psychology and information behavior of mobile social media users on their interpersonal relationship.
... Recent studies show a significant relationship between anxiety, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Especially, the time spent in social media is positively correlated with situational and social anxiety (24)(25)(26)(27). It was also proven that social media has an addictive role in modern life. ...
Article
Objective: Food addiction is a behavioral addiction that presents with addictive behavioral changes toward high sugar, high fat, and highly palatable foods. This study aims to determine the relationship between food addiction with personality traits, personal habits, and psychiatric symptomatology. Method: In a cross-sectional design study, the participation of 1500 students studying in Konya Selçuk University Central Campus was planned. A sociodemographic data form, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and Eysenck's Personality Inventory (EPI) were used for assessment. Results: A total of 1418 forms were included in the statistical analysis. Food addiction prevalence was 11.4% in the study group. The mean YFAS score for total sample was 3.2, whereas it was 3.0 for non-food addicts, and 4.7 for food addicts. According to the logistic regression analysis, there were positive correlations between food addiction and body mass index, social media consumption over 5 hours, psychoticism subscale of EPI, interpersonal relations subscale of SCL-90. Also, there was a positive correlation with irregular eating, skipping meals, the number of snacks, eating time (<10 min and >30 min) and eating alone. All sub-scores for SCL-90 strongly differed between food addicts and non-addicts. Psychoticism and neuroticism scores were positively correlated with food addiction. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that food addiction is associated with some personality traits, personal habits, and psychiatric symptoms in a large university sample.
... cognitive fatigue) ar kilti daugiaveikos (angl. multitasking) problemų, o tai trukdo gebėjimui adaptuotai reaguoti į stresorius ir sutrikdo emocijų ir elgesio savireguliaciją [40]. 2018 m. paskelbtoje publikacijoje nagrinėta, kaip 18-22 m. 581 jauno suaugusiojo naudojamų SŽ platformų skaičius daro įtaką psichikos sveikatai. ...
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Darbo tikslas – išnagrinėti naujausius tyrimus, jų išvadas ir įvertinti, kaip paauglių ir jaunų suaugusiųjų psichikos sveikata susijusi su socialinės žiniasklaidos naudojimu. Darbo metodika. Mokslinės literatūros paieška atlikta elektroninėse duomenų bazėse Pubmed ir Researchgate bei paieškos sistemoje Google Scholar, naudojant raktažodžius „social media“, „mental health“, „adolescent“. Nuosekliai apžvelgus straipsnius, analizei atrinktos 9 publikacijos pagal kriterijus: 1) publikacija anglų kalba; 2) nemokamas visatekstis straipsnis; 3) publikacija ne senesnė nei 5 metai; 4) turinys atitinka apžvalgos tikslą; 5) tyrimo imtis >450 tiriamųjų. Rezultatai. Apžvelgti 9 apklausos tipo tyrimai, iš jų 4 – ilgalaikiai. Tiriamųjų imtys – nuo 457 iki 10 904, o tiriamųjų amžius – nuo 10 iki 32 m. Tyrimuose dažniausiai naudota Epidemiologinių tyrimų centro vaikų depresijos skalė (angl. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children, CES-DC). Beveik visuose tyrimuose duomenų analizei taikytos skirtingos metodikos. Visuose tyrimuose vertinta, kiek laiko praleidžiama naudojantis socialine žiniasklaida. Išvados. Tyrimų rezultatai labai skirtingi ir išvados prieštarauja viena kitai. Silpnas, bet reikšmingas ryšys tarp socialinės žiniasklaidos ir psichikos sveikatos buvo pastebėtas viename, jokio ryšio – trijuose tyrimuose. Kitų tyrimų išvados atskleidžia konkrečias tendencijas: naudojimasis socialine žiniasklaida prieš miegą ir nakties metu yra reikšmingai susijęs su jaunų suaugusiųjų prastesne miego kokybe, didesniais nerimo, depresijos simptomais, mažesne saviverte; paauglės, patiriančios intensyvesnius depresijos simptomus, vėliau dažniau naudojosi socialine žiniasklaida; didesnio socialinių tinklų svetainių skaičiaus naudotojai praneša apie stipresnius nerimo, depresijos simptomus. Tokius skirtingus rezultatus galėjo lemti tai, kad taikytos ne tik nevienodos kriterijų vertinimo metodikos, bet ir skirtingi duomenų analizavimo metodai. Socialinės žiniasklaidos poveikis psichikos sveikatai greičiausiai yra daugiaveiksnis ir kartais nevienapusis. Socialinė žiniasklaida gali turėti neigiamos įtakos emocinei būsenai (pvz., nuotaikai ar depresijai), tačiau teigiamą įtaką daryti socialumui (pvz., bendrumo jausmui). Taigi, net ir nagrinėjant tą patį tyrimą, teigiami ir neigiami rezultatai gali egzistuoti kartu. Reikšminiai žodžiai: „social media“, „mental health“, „adolescent“. Objective. Examine recent research, their findings, and evaluate how adolescent and young adult mental health are related to social media use. Methods. The search for scientific literature was performed in the electronic databases Pubmed and Researchgate, as well as in the search engine Google Scholar, using the keywords „social media“, „mental health“, „adolescent“. After a consistent review of the articles, 9 publications were selected for analysis according to the criteria: 1) publication in English; 2) free full text article; 3) publication not older than 5 years; 4) the content meets the purpose of the review; 5) sample of subjects >450 subjects. Results. 9 survey-type studies were reviewed, including 4 long-term studies. The samples of the subjects ranged from 457 to 10,904, and the age of the subjects ranged from 10 years up to 32 years. The most commonly used scale was the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC). Almost all studies used different methodologies for data analysis. All studies assessed the amount of time spent using social media. Conclusions. The results of the research are very different and the conclusions contradict one another. A weak but significant association between social media and mental health was observed in one study, with no association in 3. Other studies have concluded on specific trends: use of social media at bedtime and at night is significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, higher symptoms of anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem in young adults; adolescents experiencing more intense depressive symptoms later used social media more frequently; users of a larger number of social networking sites report higher symptoms of anxiety and depression. Such different results may have been due to the use not only of different criteria assessment methodologies, but also of different data analysis methods. The impact of social media on mental health is likely to be multifactorial and sometimes heterogeneous. Social media can have a negative impact on an emotional state (such as mood or depression), but it can have a positive impact on sociality (such as a sense of community). Thus, even when examining the same study, positive and negative results may co-exist. Keywords: social media, mental health, adolescent
... Media multitasking has also been associated with mental health problems. Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood (2013) for instance, reported that media multitasking was positively correlated with depression and social anxiety scores, even after controlling for total time on media and personality traits. High levels of media multitasking have been linked to less sleep, difficulties to fall asleep at night and to keep awake during the day, at school (Calamaro, Mason, & Ratcliffe, 2009;Pea et al., 2012). ...
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The rise in digital media consumption, especially among children, raises the societal question of its impact on cognition, mental health and academic achievement. Here, we review the impact of three different ways of measuring technology use-total hours of media consumed, hours of video game play and number of media used concurrently-in a study surveying 156 eight-to-twelve year-old children. At stake is the question of whether different technology uses may have different effects, which could explain some of the past mixed findings. We collected data over three sessions relating to children's media uses as well as (i) attentional and behavioral control abilities, (ii) psychological distress, psychosocial functioning, and sleep, and (iii) academic achievement and motivation. While attentional control abilities were assessed using both cognitive tests (D2, SART, BLAST) and questionnaires (mind-wandering; Connors), mental health and sleep were all questionnaire-based (K6, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire-SDQ, Sleep Quality/Quantity). Finally, academic performance was based on self-reported grades, with motivational variables being measured through the grit and the growth-mindset questionnaires. We present partial correlation analyses and construct a psychological network to assess the structural associations between different forms of media consumption and the three categories of measures. Our results are in line with those observed with adults: children consume large amounts of media and media multitask substantially. Partial correlation analyses show that media multitasking specifically was mostly correlated with negative mental health, while playing video games was associated with faster responding and better mental health. No significant partial correlations were observed for total hours on media. Psychological network analysis complement these first results by indicating that all three ways of consuming technology are only indirectly related to self-reported grades. Thus, technology uses appear to only indirectly relate to academic performance, while more directly affecting mental health. This work emphasizes the need to differentiate among technology uses when considering their impact on human behavior, It also highlights the importance of characterizing the variety of technology uses that need to be considered, if one is to understand how every day digital consumption impacts human behavior. 3
... Facebook). These associated effects have prompted associated concerns related to concerning presentations of narcissism (Campbell & Twenge, 2015), interpersonal communication (Turkle, 2012;Turkle, 2015), and anxiety (Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2013;. ...
Thesis
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Students are increasingly more distracted and off-task with technology. While contemporary research has clearly argued the pervasive nature and problematic effects of media distracted behavior, research has yet to identify and validate, by way of a real-world experiment, an efficacious and promising practical or pedagogical response. This dissertation study used a quasi-experimental, longitudinal experiment to test regulating smartphone applications that purport to mitigate distracted technology use and heighten the student attention. To test whether or not different regulating applications “work” as purported, this study examined two different regulating applications and their effects on the media distracted behavior, student engagement, behavioral regulation, perceptions of technology dependency, and course performance. The experiment included first-year college students enrolled in a mandated entry- level science course at a medium-sized public STEM and applied science university. Stratified random assignment permitted experimental, contamination, and control treatment group comparisons. Long-term motivation effects (including student-held feelings with self-efficacy, expectancy-value, and achievement goals) were also considered. Last, varying application affordances and design approaches were contrasted by way of feelings related to self- determination. The results of quantitative and qualitative data analyses indicated that applications sporadically and minimally lowered student reported media distracted behavior in and outside of class, but had no effect on engagement, behavioral regulation, or perceived dependency on technology. Unexpectedly, there was a negative effect on Chemistry motivation, as students reported lower expectancy-value, more negative achievement goals, and lower self-efficacy. Last, application use negatively affected student performance in the course as those asked to use regulating applications generally performed poorer as compared to those in the control and contamination groups. Challenging the promising assertions of regulating applications, the results of this dissertation suggest that rather than alleviate the problem, these particular apps may actually exacerbate media distraction’s negative effects by also diminishing engagement, regulation, achievement, and motivation.
... People are more prone to suffering from negative emotions, such as frustration and anxiety, when faced with information overload [19,20]. It can also prevent people from adequately regulating and controlling their moods [21][22][23]. Negative emotional arousal can thus be regarded as a part of SMF. ...
Article
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Social media fatigue (SMF), which refers to social media users’ tendency to withdraw from social media because of feeling overwhelmed, is closely related to individuals’ social life and well-being. Many studies focused on understanding SMF and exploring its enablers and influences. However, few pieces of research administered a standard measurement of SMF. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of SMF, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1599 participants in total. Semi-structured interviews of 30 participants were firstly conducted as a pilot study, and an initial version of the social media fatigue scale (SMFS) with 24 items was generated. Then, both exploratory factor analysis (N = 509) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 552) as well as reliability and validity analysis (N = 508) were conducted and a 15-item SMFS was finally developed. The results demonstrated that: 1) SMF was a multi-dimension concept including a cognitive aspect, an emotional aspect and a behavioral aspect; 2) the three-dimensional structure of the SMFS (cognitive-behavioral-emotional structure) fitted the data well; 3) the McDonald’s Omega coefficients for the SMFS was 0.83, suggesting that the SMFS was reliable; 4) criterion validity was satisfactory as indicated by both the significant correlations between self-rated scores of fatigue and total SMFS scores and the significant regression model of SMF on social media privacy, social media confidence, and negative feeling after comparison. Based on the Limited Capacity Model, the present study expanded SMF from a unidimensional model to a three-dimension model, and developed a 15-item SMFS. The study enriched the existing knowledge of SMF, and coined a reliable and valid tool for measuring it. Besides, concluding the typical characteristics of SMF, the study may provide some inspiration for both researchers and social media managers and operators in mitigating SMF.
... With the development of new communication technologies, multitasking is increasing in the Western world and in the younger generations (Carrier et al., 2009;Wallis, 2006). As such, the study of multitasking has recently gathered attention from different fields: for example, disruptions due to multitasking have been documented while driving (Levy & Pashler, 2008;Nijboer et al., 2016), in education (Junco, 2012;Sana et al., 2013), in the workplace (Buser & Peter, 2012), and in mental health (Becker et al., 2012;Reinecke et al., 2017). While the potential costs of multitasking on task performance have long been known (Pashler, 1994;Salvucci & Taatgen, 2010), whether multitasking also hinders people's awareness of their performance is largely unknown: speaking on the phone while driving decreases our ability to drive, but if it also decreases our ability to realize this very fact, it may have catastrophic consequences. ...
Article
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Multitasking situations, such as using one’s phone while driving, are increasingly common in everyday life. Experimental psychology has long documented the costs of multitasking on task performance; however, little is known of the effects it has on the metacognitive processes that monitor such performance. The present study is a step toward filling this void by combining psychophysical procedures with complex multitasking. We devised a multimodal paradigm in which participants performed a sensorimotor tracking task, a visual discrimination task, and an auditory 2-back working memory task, either separately or concurrently, while also evaluating their task performance every ~15 s. Our main finding is that multitasking decreased participants’ awareness of their performance (metacognitive sensitivity) for all three tasks. Importantly, this result was independent of the multitasking cost on task performance, and could not be attributed to confidence leak, psychological refractory period, or recency effects on self-evaluations. We discuss the implications of this finding for both metacognition and multitasking research.
... With videoconferencing tools, employees communicate at a time slot that is often scheduled. Text-based tools, however, are asynchronous and may lead to the experience that while working on tasks, other tasks accumulate that cannot be addressed simultaneously or swiftly or that key communication (e.g., by email or chat) may be missed (Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2013;Reinecke et al., 2017). This may be especially challenging for younger, less experienced people who may have difficulties in prioritizing tasks (Kushlev & Dunn, 2015;Nurmi, 2011). ...
Article
For most people, telework during the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates the increased use of digital tools. Although working from home can enhance flexibility, it comes with various psychological challenges, all of which can be substantially exacerbated for people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased need to use digital tools can create cognitive overload that may negatively impact work productivity and well-being. The idea of digital detox has received increasing attention in the last few years as a means for recovering from stress caused by the use of digital media. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between the use of digital work tools, the feeling of cognitive overload, digital detox measures, perceived work performance, and well-being. Results from an online survey (N = 403) conducted during the period of strict lockdown measures in Germany in April and May 2020 indicate that the relationship between the use of text-based tools and well-being, but not perceived job performance, is mediated by cognitive overload. These relationships were not found for the use of videoconferencing tools. However, for users of these tools, the number of digital detox measures moderates the relationship between cognitive overload and the perception of work demands.
... The most dominant section of theories regarding multitasking in general, and media multitasking in particular, is what it does to our brain and behaviors. Cognitive impairment as well as through indirect means like social and emotional effects have been provided with a quantity of research (Uncapher & Wagner, 2018;Xu et al., 2016;Becker et al., 2013;Schuur et al., 2015) but many of the presentations around the effects the media multitasking has on our neurological systems are yet in an early stage. The interconnection between digital habits and behavioral neuroscience has grown a lot stronger in recent years. ...
Article
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The attention economy is a concept that defines human attention as a sacred commodity. Matthew Crawford wrote in The New York Times (2015) "Attention is a resource - a person has only so much of it.", this sacred commodity is not just something we choose to partition on various objects but something that is withering away the more negligent we are with how we divide it. We have seen a rapid rise in the prevalence of simultaneous use of multiple media streams due to increasing access to media in the 21st century. Various cognitive changes can be associated with such behavior, such as reduced attention span and adversity in separating important information from distracting stimuli. This Paper examines the impact of media multitasking given the rise of it amongst multiple demographics, to gain a deeper understanding of the cognitive profile of a frequent media multitasker. To address and compile previous research media multitasking behaviors have been characterized by attentional resources, inadequacies in multitasking habits, the role of dopamine in seeking out novelty, and lastly the effects, primarily the cognitive effects but touching the social consequences as well. This research leads to prove a prevalence of cognitive impacts due to frequent media multitasking and argues for prospective social impacts on a collective level. Furthermore, the results strongly suggest that more research regarding social categories and social disparities should be considered to better understand differences in effects on an individual as well as a collective level. Generally the fast pace of digitalization puts our media habits in perpetual motion and growth. You can accordingly reach the conclusion that frequent media multitasking (also referred to as task-switching) behavior has an impact on cognitive capacities, generating psychological as well as sociologically changes to a high frequency of media multitasking and can affect our cognitive capacities, our ability to keep our attention from distracting stimuli being one of them. Though it is likely to assume that reduced attention span and increased distractibility can be applied to today's most current attitude towards media usage. Thus, it becomes more difficult for the human brain to disengage since media multi-tasking is more of an interfering and involuntarily task-switching.
... The negative relationship identified between students' cell phone use and academic performance is moderated by the multi tasks that they carry out in the same time. They for example use their smartphones to text, check social networks, listen to music, surf the web, and play games along with studying in class or do homework while they are at home (Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2013). Therefore, the present study seeks to study the prevalence of nomophobia factors among university undergraduates as well as their prominent behaviors of cyberloafing during class and lecture times. ...
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The main aim of this study was to investigate the levels of nomophobia and cyberloafing among undergraduate students. Participants were 65 undergraduates from the department of English at Najran University. Nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) and the cyberloafing scale were used as main instruments for data collection. The descriptive, inferential and analytical approach was used. Results indicated that undergraduate students had moderate levels of nomophobia and their practice levels of cyberloafing behaviors were somehow high. The most prominent factors that were affecting their nomophobia levels were their inability to keep in touch with their families and friends, anxiety if their families could not contact them once their smartphones are not ready to use, desire to keep checking their smartphones if they could not check them for a while, and battery run out in their smartphones. In accordance with cyberloafing, results showed that posting status updates on social networks, chatting with friends, reading tweets, retweeting the tweets they like, downloading needed applications, and watching videos online were the behaviors that were mostly practiced by the majority of undergraduates.
... [22] Furthermore, several studies reported that a negative relationship identified between cell phone use and academic performance is moderated by multitasking behavior including playing games. [23,24] In the current study, a negative correlation relationship was found significant between GPA and the total PUMP score (r = -0.21, P = 0.003). ...
Article
Context: Smartphones are quickly becoming the most pervasive technological device on the planet. Aims: This study aims to assess smartphone addiction and the factors associated with it among medical students. Settings and design: This study was carried out in Bisha, Saudi Arabia, following a cross-sectional study design. Methods and material: The data collection tool comprised a self-administered questionnaire. The validated Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) scale was used. The PUMP score was calculated by summing up the scores for the individual questions such that higher scores indicate higher levels of addiction. Statistical analysis used: Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to observe the linear relationship between the PUMP scale total score and the quantitative study variables. Results: The mean total PUMP score was 61.55, with a standard deviation of 13.16. The correlation coefficient between daily hours of smartphone usage and total PUMP score was 0.39, with a statistically significant P value (P < 0.0001). The correlation coefficient between smartphone use for games and total PUMP score was 0.19, with a statistically significant P value (P = 0.009). The correlation coefficient between GPA scores and total PUMP scores was -0.21, with a statistically significant P value (P = 0.003). Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of smartphone addiction among medical students in Bisha city. There is a significant positive correlation between daily hours of smartphone usage and total PUMP score. Playing games on smartphones is significantly associated with smartphone addiction. There is a significant negative correlation relation between GPA score and total PUMP score.
... Many scholars have sought to understand the negative impact of media multitasking on cognitive functioning by comparing heavy/high media multitaskers (HMMs, i.e., mean + 1 standard deviation [SD] or upper quartiles) and light/low media multitaskers (LMMs, i.e., mean -1 SD or lower quartiles; e.g., Ophir et al., 2009;Sanbonmatsu et al., 2013). Moreover, in comparison to LMMs, HMMs perform worse on attention, working memory, and task-switching tasks (Baumgartner et al., 2018;Cardoso-Leite et al., 2016;Ophir et al., 2009;Wiradhany & Nieuwenstein, 2017); score higher on psychological factors, such as sensation-seeking and impulsiveness; and report lower on self-esteem (Luo, Yeung, et al., 2020a, 2020b and well-being (e.g., Becker et al., 2013;Sanbonmatsu et al., 2013). Recently, studies have also investigated the remedial interventions (e.g., awareness, restriction, and mindfulness interventions) for media multitaskers, and have mainly targeted improving their executive function performance (see Parry & le Roux, 2019, for a review). ...
Article
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This study examined the association between media multitasking and executive function in Chinese adolescents by comparing heavy/high and light/low media multitaskers, i.e., HMMs and LMMs, with self-reports, behavioral measures and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The participants were 12 HMMs (media multitasking scores above the 75th percentile) and 10 LMMs (media multitasking scores below the 25th percentile) chosen from a sample of 61 adolescents. Each participant completed a self-reported questionnaire on executive function and three executive function cognitive tasks: 2-back, Color Stroop, and Number-letter Determination) while wearing the fNIRS. The results indicated that: (1) the HMMs showed more impairment in executive function than the LMMs based on questionnaire data analysis; (2) there were no significant differences between the HMMs and LMMs in their performance on the cognitive tasks; and (3) the HMMs showed greater prefrontal activation than the LMMs during the 2-back and Color Stroop tasks. These findings implied that media multitasking might be associated with the reduced effectiveness in the brain areas responsible for executive function. These findings provide evidence of the negative relationship between media multitasking and executive function; and indicated the benefits of using multiple assessment methods in studying this topic.
... cognitive fatigue) ar kilti daugiaveikos (angl. multitasking) problemų, o tai trukdo gebėjimui adaptuotai reaguoti į stresorius ir sutrikdo emocijų ir elgesio savireguliaciją [40]. 2018 m. paskelbtoje publikacijoje nagrinėta, kaip 18-22 m. 581 jauno suaugusiojo naudojamų SŽ platformų skaičius daro įtaką psichikos sveikatai. ...
... Due to this perspective, this research regards the television screen as the "first screen" and the additional screen as the "second screen". Psychological studies are interested in multi-screening as multi-tasking and examine the distribution of attention and cognitive capacities (Becker et al., 2013;Brasel & Gips, 2011;Szekely, 2015). In the academic field of communication and media there are but few studies directly addressing the topic (e.g. ...
Chapter
In the last years, the television screen has lost its predominant role in people’s everyday lives. The process of technical convergence has opened new opportunities to use screens of different size and functionality – even at the same time. Parallel use of different screens has become a relevant phenomenon for many users. It is a well-known bias of market-oriented media research to keep on creating „new user types“ in order to put them on the market as new target groups. As a rule, these types are characterised by a specific way to deal with media. In the case of “multiscreeners” or similar labels, all people who, at least occasionally, use more than one screen at the same time are subsumed under this category. From an audience research point of view, we have to take a different perspective: Instead of prematurely creating a specific user type, we have to be aware that multi-screening is primarily a specific way to use audiovisual media that characterises situations, but not individuals. In order to understand what people actually do with today’s convergent media devices, we need to start from the users’ perspective and ask which communicative functions they realise by using particular devices. We conceptualise this subjective definition of an episode of media use as communication mode and apply this concept to multi-screen usage. In qualitative interviews with eight students we asked them to describe up to three typical situations, in which they use more than one screen. The resulting descriptions of 20 situations were analysed by means of deductively and inductively defined categories. Then we developed a typology of situations that we interpret as modes of multi-screening. The findings prove that individuals, depending on the particular social context, perform very different modes of multi-screening.
... While overall media use among U.S adults has increased by 20% over the past decade, the amount of time people spend MM has increased more than 119% over the same period [14]. A recent study conducted by IAB indicated that about 80% of U.S. adults used another device (e.g., smartphone, laptop, tablet) while watching TV, indicating that MM has become the default mode for media consumers. ...
Article
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Despite many studies on the effect of MM on advertising, previous studies on MM considered MM a homogenous phenomenon. Further, whether and how media-related factors predict different modes of MM and how this behavior affects ad processing has been unknown. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effect of program-genre on the occurrence of different modes of media multitasking (MM; utilitarian MM vs. hedonic MM) and (b) how different modes of MM influence the way viewers process ads on the primary screen (i.e., computer screen). A lab-based experiment yielded data for testing the hypotheses. The findings suggest that findings suggest that MM can be classified into two distinct modes: utilitarian MM and hedonic MM. Further, the findings show that participants who watched the sitcom tended to engage in a higher amount of utilitarian MM than those who watched the suspenseful drama; however, both groups engaged in a comparable amount of hedonic MM. The findings also indicate that participants who watched the sitcom demonstrated a lower level of ad memory than those who watched the suspenseful drama. The current study provides meaningful theoretical implications. Further, this study provides useful implications for advertising practitioners and marketers.
... A prospective randomized study of 440 patients with overweight or obesity in Iraq, whose target population was different from our study, revealed that excessive use of smartphones might be a potential factor in the initiation of overweight or obesity [25]. In addition, previous studies have shown that excessive smartphone use can impair physical health (e.g., lead to vision loss and musculoskeletal problems) [54], while prompting mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety) [55], maladjustments at school [56], compromised privacy and cyberbullying [57]. Therefore, we should: (1). ...
Article
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Background The study aimed to investigate the association between content-based problematic smartphone use and obesity in school-age children and adolescents, including variations in the association by educational stage and sex. Methods Two-stage non-probability sampling was used to recruit 8419 participants from nineteen primary schools, five middle schools, and thirteen high schools in Shanghai in December 2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), which was obtained from the school physical examination record, while problematic smartphone use was measured by the Revised Problematic Smartphone Use Classification Scale as the independent variable. Results The rates of obesity varied with educational stages, while problematic smartphone use increased with educational stages. Male students reported higher obesity rates (37.1%vs19.4%, P < 0.001) and greater problematic smartphone use scores (25.65 ± 10.37 vs 22.88 ± 8.94, P < 0.001) than female students. Problematic smartphone use for entertainment (smartphone users addicted to entertainment games, music, videos, novels and other applications) was positively associated to obesity status for primary school [odds ratio (OR), 1.030; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.005–1.057] and high school students (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004–1.059). For female students, problematic smartphone use for entertainment was positively associated with obesity status (OR, 1.046; 95% CI, 1.018–1.075). Conclusions Problematic smartphone use may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents. The association differed based on the educational stage and sex, and the difference possessed dimensional specificity.
... 258-265). The norms of efficiency and productivity have resulted in dehumanization of working life (Meyer et al., 2006, p. 262), linked to impaired mental health at work (Becker et al., 2013) and, for instance, diminished work-life balance (Barber et al., 2019). One fourth of Europeans feel that work affects their health negatively (Eurofound, 2017). ...
Article
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Re-enchantment taps well into the current zeitgeist: The rising focus on emotions and post-material values also in organizational context. Enchantment is deeply tied to socially generated emotions. Our aim is to develop the concept of copassion, referring to the process of responding to the positive emotion of a fellow human being. Concepts are crucial as they shape our understanding of the world. Our core claim is relating to our colleagues’ positive emotions not only enables and maintains but also fosters enchantment at work. In this article, by laying the ground by discussing enchantment and the theoretical framework of intersubjectivity, we will link copassion to the physiological and evolutionary basis of humans, as well as explore its conceptual neighbors. Finally, we will discuss intersubjectivity, and particularly mutual recognition, as well as the inseparability of compassion and copassion in human experience at work, and its implications to the study of enchantment. JEL CLASSIFICATION: M14 Corporate Culture, Diversity, Social Responsibility
... Benefits can include increasing connectedness, belonging, perceived social support, self-esteem, happiness, and life satisfaction [27,[31][32][33][34][35]. Conversely, social media use has been linked to higher depression and anxiety symptoms [36][37][38][39] and limiting social media use can decrease loneliness and depression [40]. In at least one study, data suggest that using social media as a coping strategy to substitute for in-person interaction made people feel less (rather than more) happy [28]. ...
Article
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Background Social distancing presents a significant obstacle for relationships and threatens mental health. Identifying maladaptive, voluntary coping strategies may inform how to maintain interpersonal relationships and mental health during quarantine. Co-ruminating with peers on negative events, moods and fears has adjustment trade-offs of increasing depression and anxiety risk while also enhancing friendship quality. Similarly, social media use is associated with social benefits and risk to mental health. We extend prior research by examining whether co-ruminating on COVID-19, social media use, and social media use focused on COVID-19 during social isolation was associated with heightened depression and anxiety symptoms but also lower loneliness and higher social support during initial lockdown measures in the USA. Methods Adults were recruited through social media (n = 345) to complete self-report surveys on co-rumination, social media use, social distancing, social support from March–May 2020. During this cross-sectional assessment, in addition to completing surveys on current depressive symptoms and state and health anxiety, participants also provided retrospective report of their perceived health anxiety levels six months prior. Results Co-ruminating on COVID-19 with peers and greater time on social media focused on COVID-19 predicted perceived increases in health anxiety and were also associated with higher depressive symptoms and state anxiety, even after controlling for significant demographic predictors. Further, in the context of social distancing, both interaction strategies failed to confer social benefits. Conclusions Results have direct implications for maintaining psychosocial health during social distancing restrictions. Adults may modify how they engage with peers by limiting COVID-19 content on social media and COVID-19 discussion.
... Participants reported interacting on multiple device/platforms per single EMA in roughly 34% of responses, highlighting the complexity of a single moment of adolescent online interaction. The ubiquity and mobility of devices allowing simultaneous use of multiple communication platforms increases the heterogeneity and often contradictory nature of these experiences, with media multitasking potentially exacerbating depression and anxiety (Becker, Alzahabi, and Hopwood 2013). Using multiple channels to communicate varying messages to different people nearly simultaneously may alter the influence of each interaction on mental health. ...
Article
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Concern has been raised over parallel increases in youth depression and online interactive media use over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to determine whether online interactions are associated with users’ affective states. Using ecological momentary assessment, we measured depressed adolescents’ momentary affect during and residual feelings following online interactions with offline friends and family, online friends, and acquaintances/strangers. We found that depressed adolescents use texting services and social networking sites to interact online, most frequently with offline friends and family, followed by online friends. Results of generalized estimating equations showed associations between negative affect and digital interactions with offline friends and family. Participants were less likely to report feeling better after interacting with online friends than after interacting with any other relationship type. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of depressed adolescents’ online interactions and suggest that their affective experience varies depending on the nature of the relationships they have with those with whom they interact.
... In this situation, depression can have many factors, for example, one of the factors involved in women's depression can be men's violence and hostility, which was a result of this research, but more research is needed to determine their cause and effect relationship [20]. These days, growing disappointing news about the spread of the coronavirus and the increase in deaths on television and social media and exposure to this information can also affect the general situation and be one of the causes of depression in women during quarantine [21]. When a disease such as the coronavirus affects the world to this level and scope, the fear of it cannot be ignored. ...
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... Unrealistic expectations revealed by social media can also cause feelings of self-consciousness, low self-esteem and perfectionism seeking, which may appear as anxiety disorders in young individuals (RSPH, 2017). In addition, studies have shown that social media usage is associated with social anxiety symptoms (Aktan, 2018b;Becker, Alzahabi, & Hopwood, 2013;Dobrean & Păsărelu, 2016). ...
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Context The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was developed as a screening instrument but its administration time has limited its clinical usefulness.Objective To determine if the self-administered PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) has validity and utility for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD.Design Criterion standard study undertaken between May 1997 and November 1998.Setting Eight primary care clinics in the United States.Participants Of a total of 3000 adult patients (selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 62 primary care physicians (21 general internal medicine, 41 family practice), 585 patients had an interview with a mental health professional within 48 hours of completing the PHQ.Main Outcome Measures Patient Health Questionnaire diagnoses compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; health care use; and treatment/referral decisions.Results A total of 825 (28%) of the 3000 individuals and 170 (29%) of the 585 had a PHQ diagnosis. There was good agreement between PHQ diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any 1 or more PHQ disorder, κ = 0.65; overall accuracy, 85%; sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 90%), similar to the original PRIME-MD. Patients with PHQ diagnoses had more functional impairment, disability days, and health care use than did patients without PHQ diagnoses (for all group main effects, P<.001). The average time required of the physician to review the PHQ was far less than to administer the original PRIME-MD (<3 minutes for 85% vs 16% of the cases). Although 80% of the physicians reported that routine use of the PHQ would be useful, new management actions were initiated or planned for only 117 (32%) of the 363 patients with 1 or more PHQ diagnoses not previously recognized.Conclusion Our study suggests that the PHQ has diagnostic validity comparable to the original clinician-administered PRIME-MD, and is more efficient to use. Figures in this Article Mental disorders in primary care are common, disabling, costly, and treatable.1- 5 However, they are frequently unrecognized and therefore not treated.2- 6 Although there have been many screening instruments developed,7- 8 PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders)5 was the first instrument designed for use in primary care that actually diagnoses specific disorders using diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition9(DSM-III-R) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition10(DSM-IV). PRIME-MD is a 2-stage system in which the patient first completes a 26-item self-administered questionnaire that screens for 5 of the most common groups of disorders in primary care: depressive, anxiety, alcohol, somatoform, and eating disorders. In the original study,5 the average amount of time spent by the physician to administer the clinician evaluation guide to patients who scored positively on the patient questionnaire was 8.4 minutes. However, this is still a considerable amount of time in the primary care setting, where most visits are 15 minutes or less.11 Therefore, although PRIME-MD has been widely used in clinical research,12- 28 its use in clinical settings has apparently been limited. This article describes the development, validation, and utility of a fully self-administered version of the original PRIME-MD, called the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (henceforth referred to as the PHQ). DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ ABSTRACT | DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ | STUDY PURPOSE | METHODS | RESULTS | COMMENT | REFERENCES The 2 components of the original PRIME-MD, the patient questionnaire and the clinician evaluation guide, were combined into a single, 3-page questionnaire that can be entirely self-administered by the patient (it can also be read to the patient, if necessary). The clinician scans the completed questionnaire, verifies positive responses, and applies diagnostic algorithms that are abbreviated at the bottom of each page. In this study, the data from the questionnaire were entered into a computer program that applied the diagnostic algorithms (written in SPSS 8.0 for Windows [SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill]). The computer program does not include the diagnosis of somatoform disorder, because this diagnosis requires a clinical judgment regarding the adequacy of a biological explanation for physical symptoms that the patient has noted. A fourth page has been added to the PHQ that includes questions about menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth, and recent psychosocial stressors. This report covers only data from the diagnostic portion (first 3 pages) of the PHQ. Users of the PHQ have the choice of using the entire 4-page instrument, just the 3-page diagnostic portion, a 2-page version (Brief PHQ) that covers mood and panic disorders and the nondiagnostic information described above, or only the first page of the 2-page version (covering only mood and panic disorders) (Figure 1). Figure 1. First Page of Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Brief Patient Health QuestionnaireGrahic Jump Location+View Large | Save Figure | Download Slide (.ppt) | View in Article ContextCopyright held by Pfizer Inc, but may be photocopied ad libitum. For office coding, see the end of the article. The original PRIME-MD assessed 18 current mental disorders. By grouping several specific mood, anxiety, and somatoform categories into larger rubrics, the PHQ greatly simplifies the differential diagnosis by assessing only 8 disorders. Like the original PRIME-MD, these disorders are divided into threshold disorders (corresponding to specific DSM-IV diagnoses, such as major depressive disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorder, and bulimia nervosa) and subthreshold disorders (in which the criteria for disorders encompass fewer symptoms than are required for any specific DSM-IV diagnoses: other depressive disorder, probable alcohol abuse or dependence, and somatoform and binge eating disorders). One important modification was made in the response categories for depressive and somatoform symptoms that, in the original PRIME-MD, were dichotomous (yes/no). In the PHQ, response categories are expanded. Patients indicate for each of the 9 depressive symptoms whether, during the previous 2 weeks, the symptom has bothered them "not at all," "several days," "more than half the days," or "nearly every day." This change allows the PHQ to be not only a diagnostic instrument but also to yield a measure of depression severity that can be of aid in initial treatment decisions as well as in monitoring outcomes over time. Patients indicate for each of the 13 physical symptoms whether, during the previous month, they have been "not bothered," "bothered a little," or "bothered a lot" by the symptom. Because physical symptoms are so common in primary care, the original PRIME-MD dichotomous-response categories often led patients to endorse physical symptoms that were not clinically significant. An item was added to the end of the diagnostic portion of the PHQ asking the patient if he or she had checked off any problems on the questionnaire: "How difficult have these problems made it for you to do your work, take care of things at home, or get along with other people?" As with the original PRIME-MD, before making a final diagnosis, the clinician is expected to rule out physical causes of depression, anxiety and physical symptoms, and, in the case of depression, normal bereavement and history of a manic episode. STUDY PURPOSE ABSTRACT | DESCRIPTION OF PRIME-MD PHQ | STUDY PURPOSE | METHODS | RESULTS | COMMENT | REFERENCES Our major purpose was to test the validity and utility of the PHQ in a multisite sample of family practice and general internal medicine patients by answering the following questions: Are diagnoses made by the PHQ as accurate as diagnoses made by the original PRIME-MD, using independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals (MHPs) as the criterion standard?Are the frequencies of mental disorders found by the PHQ comparable to those obtained in other primary care studies?Is the construct validity of the PHQ comparable to the original PRIME-MD in terms of functional impairment and health care use?Is the PHQ as effective as the original PRIME-MD in increasing the recognition of mental disorders in primary care patients?How valuable do primary care physicians find the diagnostic information in the PHQ?How comfortable are patients in answering the questions on the PHQ, and how often do they believe that their answers will be helpful to their physicians in understanding and treating their problems?
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By unpacking different forms of Internet and massively multiplayer online game (MMO) use, the present study adopts a nuanced approach to examine the connections between online activities and psychosocial well-being. It combined self-reported survey data with unobtrusive behavioral data from server logs of a large virtual world, EverQuest II. Over 5,000 players were surveyed about how they use the Internet, their specific activities in the virtual world, and their psychosocial well-being. In-game communication networks were also constructed and analyzed.The results showed support for both time displacement and social augmentation effects for various activities. Whether Internet and MMO use were associated with negative or positive outcomes was largely dependent on the purposes, contexts, and individual characteristics of users. The results suggest that Internet use and game play have significant nuances and should not be considered as monolithic sources of effects.
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Since the mid-1990s, there have been frequent reports of individuals whose use of the computer and internet is problematic. Given the recent expansion and the expected increase in internet availability and usage in the coming years, it is important that healthcare professionals be informed about this behavior and its associated problems. Recently, psychological and psychiatric literature has described individuals that exhibit problematic internet use who often suffer from other psychiatric disorders. In the face of this comorbidity, it is essential to evaluate whether these individuals represent a distinct class of disorder, or a manifestation/coping mechanism related to other underlying diagnosis. In either event, problematic internet use negatively impacts social and emotional functioning. Based on the current limited empirical evidence, problematic internet use may best be classified as an impulse control disorder. It is therefore imperative that problematic internet use be appropriately identified among symptomatic individuals. For these reasons, we propose specific diagnostic criteria that will allow for consistent identification and assist in further study of this behavior.
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The current study sought to understand better the psychological characteristics of socially anxious individuals who seek information on the internet about social anxiety disorder and its treatment. Participants were 434 individuals who responded to an internet-based survey linked to the website of an anxiety specialty clinic. Using established cut-off scores, 92% of the sample met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Internet survey respondents who met these criteria reported greater severity of and impairment due to social anxiety than a treatment-seeking sample of persons with social anxiety disorder. Nevertheless, only about one-third of these internet respondents reported having received psychotherapy, and a similar percentage reported having received pharmacotherapy. Those with the most severe social interaction anxiety and who spent the most time interacting on the internet endorsed positive effects of internet use. However, a significant number of negative effects also were endorsed.
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This paper investigates whether social anxiety and loneliness lead to contrasting beliefs and preferences among cell phone users towards texting and talking on their cell phones. Three hypotheses are examined: (1) that social anxiety and loneliness are differentially associated with generalized preferences either for texting or for talking on the cell phone, (2) that these preferences are linked to contrasting beliefs concerning the social functionality of the short message service (SMS), and (3) that these divergent beliefs mediate the effects of social anxiety and loneliness on cell phone users' generalized preferences for texting or talking. Results from an Internet questionnaire (N=158) showed that, whilst lonely participants preferred making voice calls and rated texting as a less intimate method of contact, anxious participants preferred to text, and rated it a superior medium for expressive and intimate contact. These divergent beliefs accounted for 36% and 16% of the variance in preference for texting and voice calls, respectively, and significantly attenuated the influence of loneliness and social anxiety when they were added to the regression equations for these measures. Results are discussed in terms of the hyperpersonal possibilities of mobile communications technologies.
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An information-processing paradigm was used to examine attentional biases in clinically depressed participants, participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and nonpsychiatric control participants for faces expressing sadness, anger, and happiness. Faces were presented for 1000 ms, at which point depressed participants had directed their attention selectively to depression-relevant (i.e., sad) faces. This attentional bias was specific to the emotion of sadness; the depressed participants did not exhibit attentional biases to the angry or happy faces. This bias was also specific to depression; at 1000 ms, participants with GAD were not attending selectively to sad, happy, or anxiety-relevant (i.e., angry) faces. Implications of these findings for both the cognitive and the interpersonal functioning of depressed individuals are discussed and directions for future research are advanced.
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