Five new consanguineous families with horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis and novel ROBO3 mutations. J Neurol Sci 276(1-2):22-26

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.47). 10/2008; 276(1-2):22-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.08.026
Source: PubMed


Horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ROBO3 gene on chromosome 11. We clinically evaluated seven individuals with HGPPS from five previously unreported consanguineous families. We sequenced ROBO3 in all affected individuals, additional unaffected members of each family, and ethnic controls. All affected individuals had severe horizontal gaze restriction, progressive scoliosis, and lower brainstem hypoplasia on neuroimaging, the hallmarks of this syndrome. One individual experienced head trauma with a right subdural hematoma associated with a right hemiparesis, observations that confirm clinically for the first time that corticospinal tracts in HGPPS are uncrossed. We found five novel homozygous ROBO3 mutations (four missense mutations and one base deletion) distributed throughout the extracellular domain of the gene. The ROBO3 gene does not appear to have an obvious hot spot area for mutations; therefore, we recommend sequencing all exons and exon-intron boundaries in patients with clinical and/or radiologic features of HGPPS.

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    • "Visual fields, pupil function, accommodation, and anterior and posterior segments of the eye are unremarkable. Visual acuity is reported not to be grossly impaired [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) to extend existing knowledge of the phenotype caused by mutations in the Roundabout homolog of Drosophila 3 (ROBO3) gene. Four patients (aged 6 months to 13 years), two of them siblings, with features of horizontal gaze palsy and their parents were examined clinically and by molecular testing of the ROBO3 gene. The three families were unrelated, but parents in each family were consanguineous. We identified three novel homozygous ROBO3 mutations in four patients with typical ophthalmologic signs of HGPPS. We found an exonic insertion/deletion mutation (c.913delAinsTGC; p.Ile305CysfsX13), a 31 bp deletion including the donor splice site of exon 17 and adjacent exonic and intronic sequences (c.2769_2779del11, 2779+1_+20del20), and a missense mutation located next to a splice donor site (c.3319A>C) resulting in skipping of exon 22, as shown by cDNA analysis. We describe three novel mutations in the ROBO3 gene and the detailed clinical phenotype of HGPPS. One patient displayed marked convergence upon attempting smooth pursuits to both sides. In one patient, the typical ophthalmologic phenotype, the neuroradiologic findings, and molecular testing led to the diagnosis even before scoliosis developed. In addition to the typical magnetic resonance imaging brain signs of HGPPS, this patient had marked hypoplasia of the frontal lobes and corpus callosum. In summary, diagnosis of HGPPS may be established by ophthalmologic and molecular investigation early in life, allowing ongoing orthopedic surveillance from an early stage.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Molecular vision
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    ABSTRACT: Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the congenital absence of horizontal gaze, progressive scoliosis, and failure of the corticospinal and somatosensory axon tracts to decussate in the medulla. HGPPS is caused by mutations of the ROBO3 gene, which encodes a protein that shares homology with the roundabout family of transmembrane receptors that are important in axon guidance and neuronal migration. To date, over 15 mutations have been found in consanguineous families of Greek, Italian, Turkish, Pakistani, Saudi Arabian, and Indian descent. To detail clinical, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic findings of ten HGPPS patients from four unrelated Tunisian families. Four unrelated consanguineous Tunisian families with a total of ten patients suffering from horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis. Genetic linkage analysis and direct sequencing of the ROBO3 gene. All patients shared similar clinical gaze movement abnormalities and variable degrees of scoliosis. Four distinct homozygous mutations were identified. This study extends the molecular spectrum of the ROBO3 gene and the geographic origin of patients with ROBO3 gene mutations, and underlines the homogeneity of the motor ocular syndrome whatever type of mutation is encountered.
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