Prevalence of oral disease among adults with primary HIV infection*

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Oral Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.43). 10/2008; 14(6):497-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01407.x
Source: PubMed


To explore the type and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among adults with primary HIV infection (PHI) compared with HIV-negative adults at high risk for HIV disease, and in relation to HIV viral load.
We conducted standardized oral examinations to identify specific oral mucosal lesions among adults with PHI, both pre-seroconversion and post- seroconversion-recently infected, compared with HIV-negative adults. We compared the group with oral lesions to those without oral lesions with respect to HIV-RNA load and CD4 + T-cell count.
Among 115 adults (predominantly men), pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most common oral lesion among those with PHI, and was found in 4% of the 23 participants in pre-seroconversion and in 9% of 69 participants with post-seroconversion recent infection, compared with none found among 23 HIV negatives. Among those with PHI, the median viral load was higher and the median CD4 + T-cell count lower among the 15 participants with an oral lesion of any type than among the 77 participants without oral lesions (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively).
This finding suggests that individuals with PHI who have oral lesions may be more likely to transmit HIV because of their higher viral load.

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    • "Matching saliva and plasma samples (2 ml of each) from HIV-infected (UCSF Options Study, Owotade et al., 2008) and HIV-uninfected individuals were subjected to immunoprecipitation using sheep anti-tat (Abcam) and mouse monoclonal anti- gp120 antibodies (ID6) (NH AIDS Reagents). These samples (concentrated by approximately 20 times) were then analyzed by immunoblotting with mouse anti-tat monoclonal (Immunodiagnostics Inc) and mouse anti-gp120 antibodies (ID6) (NIH AIDS Research reagent program). "
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    • "s ) and the acquired response ( an increase in circulating and mucosal IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies ) work together to keep Candida in check in a colonized healthy host ( Fidel , 2006 ) . However , very early infection with HIV has been demon - strated to influence colonization with oral Candida and the development of opportunistic candidiasis ( Owotade et al . , 2008 ) . This is a consequence of defective T helper 1 - type CD4 + T cells and changes in saliva composition and function ( Fidel , 2006 ) ."
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
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    • "As the most common opportunistic infection, the incidence of oral candidiasis has increased rapidly for several decades due to the growing number of compromised hosts, such as patients with organ transplants or HIV infection or those undergoing chemotherapy or misusing antibiotics. In particular, oral candidiasis has much greater prevalence in immunocompromised individuals, such as patients with HIV infection (66%) [1] and Sjögren's syndrome (54.2–80%) [2] [3]. In addition, an important trend that can be detected with the incidence of oral candidiasis is an increase in the number of infections related to the non-albicans Candida species such as Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.
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