ArticlePDF Available

Red Light, Purple Light: Findings From a Randomized Trial Using Circle Time Games to Improve Behavioral Self-Regulation in Preschool

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Research Findings: The present study examined the efficacy of a self-regulation intervention with 65 preschool children. Using circle time games, the study examined whether participating in a treatment group significantly improved behavioral self-regulation and early academic outcomes. Half of the children were randomly assigned to participate in 16 playgroups during the winter of the school year. Behavioral aspects of self-regulation and early achievement were assessed in the fall and spring. Although there was no treatment effect in the overall sample, post hoc analyses revealed that participation in the treatment group was significantly related to self-regulation gains in children who started the year with low levels of these skills. Children in the treatment group also demonstrated significant letter-word identification gains compared to children in the control group. Practice or Policy: The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the intervention in terms of improving preschoolers’ behavioral self-regulation for children low in these skills and improving letter-word identification. Although preliminary, these results have the potential to inform preschool curricula that emphasize behavioral self-regulation as a means of facilitating school readiness.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Red Light, Purple Light: Findings From
a Randomized Trial Using Circle Time
Games to Improve Behavioral
Self-Regulation in Preschool
Shauna L. Tominey and Megan M. McClelland
Department of Human Development and Family Sciences,
Oregon State University
Research Findings: The present study examined the efficacy of a self-regulation
intervention with 65 preschool children. Using circle time games, the study
examined whether participating in a treatment group significantly improved
behavioral self-regulation and early academic outcomes. Half of the children
were randomly assigned to participate in 16 playgroups during the winter of
the school year. Behavioral aspects of self-regulation and early achievement
were assessed in the fall and spring. Although there was no treatment effect
in the overall sample, post hoc analyses revealed that participation in the treat-
ment group was significantly related to self-regulation gains in children who
started the year with low levels of these skills. Children in the treatment group
also demonstrated significant letter-word identification gains compared to
children in the control group. Practice or Policy: The findings from this study
provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the intervention in terms of
improving preschoolers’ behavioral self-regulation for children low in these
skills and improving letter-word identification. Although preliminary, these
results have the potential to inform preschool curricula that emphasize behav-
ioral self-regulation as a means of facilitating school readiness.
Every year, many young children transition from preschool to a more struc-
tured and academically focused kindergarten environment. Although most
children navigate this transition successfully, it can be problematic for those
Correspondence regarding this article should be addressed to Shauna L. Tominey, PhD.,
Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, Oregon State University, 322 Milam
Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331. E-mail: tomineys@onid.orst.edu
EARLY EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 22(3), 489–519
Copyright # 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1040-9289 print=1556-6935 online
DOI: 10.1080/10409289.2011.574258
489
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
who have not developed the self-regulation critical for success in a classroom
setting. In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on account-
ability for children’s academic achievement in the U.S. public education sys-
tem, in part because of legislation such as No Child Left Behind. As a result,
pressure is being placed on teachers at all grade levels to adopt a stronger aca-
demic focus to ensure that children reach required benchmarks on mandated
standardized tests (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). Recent research
has documented the fact that children are entering kindergarten and elemen-
tary school with varying levels of self-regulation and that these skills are
key predictors of children’s success in early academic achievement (Blair,
2002; Cooper & Farran, 1988; Eisenberg, Smith, Sadovsky, & Spinrad,
2004; McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Valiente, Lemery-
Chalfant, & Castro, 2007). In particular, children who have difficulty with
the behavioral aspects of self-regulation may not have the skills necessary
to benefit from classroom learning environments (Howse, Lange, Farran, &
Boyles, 2003; McClelland, Morrison, & Holmes, 2000). Academic skills
learned in early elementary school tend to be cumulative, so children who lack
behavioral self-regulation in early childhood may be at risk for poor academic
achievement throughout formal schooling (Entwisle & Alexander, 1993). Stu-
dies suggest that self-regulation emerges by preschool as an important predic-
tor of academic outcomes, making preschool an ideal time to introduce
interventions aimed at improving the behavioral aspects of self-regulation
(Blair & Razza, 2007; McClelland, Cameron, Connor, et al., 2007).
It is clear that behavioral self-regulation is necessary for academic suc-
cess, but there is relatively little research on how to improve these skills prior
to kindergarten entry. Studies have shown that preschool children can
improve behavioral self-regulation in individual laboratory training sessions
and on computer-based tasks (Dowsett & Livesey, 2000; Rueda, Rothbart,
McCandliss, Saccomanno, & Pos ner, 2005), but few studies have focused on
similar interventions using games that are designed for classroom implemen-
tation. It is crucial for researchers to develop interventions promoting behav-
ioral self-regulation in preschool that can be easily implemented by teachers
to ensure that children enter kindergarten with the skills they need to be
academically successful. The present study examined the efficacy of an inter-
vention using circle time games designed to strengthen children’s behavioral
self-regulation over the prekindergarten year.
DEFINING BEHAVIORAL SELF-REG ULATION
The focus of this study is on the behavioral aspects of self-regulation (i.e.,
attention, working memory, and inhibitory control), skills that are essential
490
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
for planning and executing goal-directed activities (Blair, 2002). Attention is
defined as the ability to switch focus from one object or task to another as
well as the ability to ignore distractions (Rothbart & Posner, 2005; Rueda,
Posner, & Rothbart, 2004). Working memory refers to a child’s ability to
hold information in memory long enough to complete a task (Adams,
Bourke, & Willis, 1999). Working memory is an essential component of fol-
lowing through with instruction s, especially when completing a multistep
task. Inhibitory control is the ability to stop a dominant response (e.g.,
shouting an answer to a question) in order to demonstrate a less automatic
but more adaptive behavior (e.g., raising a hand and waiting to be called on;
McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, et al., 2007; Rennie, Bull, & Diamond,
2004). The literature supports the notion that the integration of attention,
working memory, and inhibitory control is important for success in class-
room sett ings (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004; McClelland, Cameron, Connor,
et al., 2007; McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, et al., 2007). The games tested
in this study were intended to help children practice integrating these behav-
ioral aspects of self-regulation.
THE IMPORTANCE OF BEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION FOR
SCHOOL SUCCESS
Research suggests that children’s behavioral self-regulation predicts aca-
demic outcomes in presch ool (Blair & Razza, 2007; McClelland, Cameron,
Connor, et al., 2007) and elementary school (Liew, McTigue, Barrois, &
Hughes, 2008; McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006; McClelland et al.,
2000; Valiente et al., 2007) as well as high school graduation and college com-
pletion (McClelland, Piccinin, Acock, & Stallings, 2011; Vitaro, Brendgen,
Larose, & Tremblay, 2005). Spe cifically, studies have sho wn that attention
predicts academic achievement, including math and literacy, in preschool
and elementary school (Blair & Razza, 2007; Howse, Lange, et al., 2003).
Working memory (Gathercole & Picke ring, 2000) and inhibitory control
skills (Blair & Razza, 2007) have also been found to predict these same aca-
demic outcomes in early elemen tary school students. Although some studies
have found that these specific components of behavioral self-regulation (e.g.,
attention) predict children’s abilities to succeed in a classroom setting
(Alexander, Entwisle, & Dauber, 1993; Ladd, 2003), many studies (including
the present study) have focused on measures of behavioral self-regulation
that integrate attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. For
example, in one study, kindergarten behavioral self-regulation (as measured
by a composite score of teacher ratings on a que stionnaire including impul-
sivity, planning abilities, and attention) predicted children’s academic
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
491
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
achievement over the kindergarten year (Howse, Calkins, Anastopoulos,
Keane, & Shelton, 2003). Another study found that kindergarten learning-
related skills (specifically work-related skills, which include aspects of
self-regulation such as paying attention to instructions and complying with
teacher requests) predicted children’s literacy and math skills between kin-
dergarten and sixth grade and grow th in literacy and math from kindergarten
to second grade (McClelland et al., 2006, 2000). Moreover, children with
poor behavioral self-regulation skills exhibited lower performance than their
higher rated pe ers on reading and math between kindergarten and sixth
grade, even after child IQ and parent education level were controlled
(McClelland et al., 2006). Taken together, the results from these studies sug-
gest that the integration of the behavioral aspects of self-regulation predicts
academic success throughout schooling and that children who have difficul-
ties with these skills may be especially at risk for low academic achievement.
BEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION IN THE PRESCHOOL YEARS
The preschool years are an important time for the development of behav-
ioral self-regulation for several reasons. First, for many children, preschool
is the first classroom environment in which they are asked to demo nstrate
behavioral self-regulation (Phillips, McCartney, & Sussman, 2006). Prior
to school entry, these skills emerge in the context of the family environment.
Throughout early childhood, behavioral self-regulation moves from an
external process to an internal proc ess (Kopp, 1991) as children learn to
regulate behaviors (e.g., sucking on a thumb to self-soot he or turning away
from an unwanted stimuli) that were previously regulated by caregivers
(e.g., soothing through rocking and patting). Within a school context, chil-
dren are continually asked to demonstrate regula tion of their own behaviors
by paying attention, remembering and following through with instructions,
and acting appropriately, even when their impulse is to do otherwise.
Second, it is during preschool that a number of developmental changes
occur, including brain maturation in the prefrontal cortex, an area asso-
ciated with the development of the behavioral aspect s of self-regulation
(Blair, 2002). Changes in behavioral self-regulation abilities accompany this
brain maturation. Children begin to increase the length of time that they are
able to pay attention, and their ability to plan and allocate attention to goals
improves (Landry, Smith, Swank, & Miller-Loncar, 2000; Wellman,
Somerville, & Haake, 1979). Working memory becomes more accurate,
and children become more consistent at exhibi ting inhibitory control skills
in appropria te contexts. Studies have shown that each of these skills can
be improved with practice (Ford, McDougall, & Evans, 2009; Landry
492
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
et al., 2000; St. Clair-Thompson, Stevens, Hunt, & Bolder, 2010). Finding
developmentally appropriate and engaging ways to help children practice
behavioral self -regulation (e.g., through games in a circle time setting) is
critical to helping children who have difficulty with these skills.
Third, research shows that self-regulation in preschool predicts academic
achievement in both preschool (Blair & Razza, 2007; McClelland, Cameron,
Connor, et al., 2007) and kindergarten (Howse, Lange, et al., 2003). For
instance, one study found that preschool children who had difficulty
with behavioral self-regulation scored lower on a measure of cognitive
achievement than peers with high levels of these skills (Bronson, Tivnan, &
Seppanen, 1995). Another study found that behavioral self-regulation, as
measured by a direct task, significantly predicted emergent literacy, vocabu-
lary, and math skills over the prekindergarten year. Moreover, gains in pre-
school behavioral self-regulation significantly predicted gains in these
academic measures over the prekindergarten year (McClelland, Cameron,
Connor, et al., 2007). Taken together, these studies provide evidence
that behavioral self-regulation emerges by preschool as an important
predictor of academic success, making preschool an ideal time to introduce
interventions aimed at improving these skills prior to kindergarten entry.
Although not all children receive formalized care prior to kindergarten,
an estimated 83.2% of children attend early care and education programs
before entering kindergarten (Denton Flanagan & McPhee, 2009). Interven-
tions in these settings would reach the majority of children at an important
period of behavioral self-regulation development. Furthermore, promoting
behavioral self-regulation in preschool may help many children develop
the skills needed for the transition to school and for continued success
throughout formal schooling.
CHILDREN AT RISK FOR POOR BEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION
Numerous studies are showing that children from disadvantaged back-
grounds, and especially those experiencing multiple risk factors, perform
worse than their more advantaged peers on a variety of language, achieve-
ment, and school readiness indicators (Dearing, Berry, & Zaslow, 2006). In
particular, research has documen ted the fact that children from low-income
families are less able than their peers to regulate their attention in
goal-directed tasks and are especially at risk for entering kindergarten with
poor behavioral self-regulation (Evans & Rosenbaum, 2008; Howse, Lange,
et al., 2003). In one study, children with an accumulation of risk factors
(e.g., children who had low levels of parent education and who were the
most economically disadvantaged) were at the highest risk for entering
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
493
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
preschool with low levels of behavioral self-regulation, and these low levels
persisted through preschool and into kindergarten (Wanless, McClelland,
Tominey, & Acock, 2011). These studies provide evidence that children
from disadvantaged backgrou nds are especially at risk for entering kinder-
garten without the behavioral self-regulation needed for academic success.
Moreover, studies suggest that behavioral self-regulation may serve as a
mediating factor between risk and academic achievement. In one study,
kindergarten behavioral self-regulation skills (i.e., attention and inhibitory
control) mediated the negative effect between risk factors (e.g., high levels
of maternal depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage) and chil-
dren’s first-grade achievement in reading, math, and vocabulary (Sektnan,
McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2010). Thus, children from disadvantaged
backgrounds are an especially important population to target for behavioral
self-regulation interventions prior to kindergarten entry. The present study
included children from economically diverse backgrounds, and high varia-
bility in children’s behavior al self-regulation abilities was expected.
MEASURING BEHAVIORAL SELF-REGULATION AND THE
HEAD–TOES–KNEES–SHOULDERS TASK (HTKS)
Recent research has focused on a relatively new direct measure of beh avioral
self-regulation, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (HTKS), which mea-
sures the integration of children’s attention, working memory, and inhibi-
tory control (McClelland, Ponitz, Messersmith, & Tominey, 2010; Ponitz,
McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009). The HTKS is a short and rela-
tively simple game that asks children to pa y attention, remember up to four
rules, and do the opposite (e.g., touch your head when told to touch your
toes). Studies supporting the construct validity of the HTKS have found sig-
nificant relations between children’s scores on the HTKS and both parent-
and teacher-rated inhibitory control and attention (McClelland, Cameron,
Connor, et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2009).
Research has also supported the predictive validity of the task. Specifi-
cally, children’s scores on the HTKS have significantly predicted children’s
emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills in preschool and kindergar-
ten (Mat thews, Ponitz, & Morrison, 2009; McClelland, Cameron, Connor,
et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2009). Moreover, one recent study found that
children’s HTKS scores in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted
spring literacy, vocabulary, and math skills at the end of the school year
and gains children made in math learning skills from fall to spring (Ponitz
et al., 2009). Although research has shown that the HTKS is a reliable
and valid measure of children’s behavioral self-regulation, relatively little
494
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
research has focused on helping children improve these specific behavioral
aspects of self-regulation (i.e., the integration of attention, working memory
and inhibitory control). The present study examined the efficacy of a set of
circle time games that helped children practice these aspects of behavioral
self-regulation (as measured by the HTKS).
INTERVENTION RESEARCH
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the development of school
readiness interventions. Interventions targeting specific aspects of self-
regulation have focused primarily on individualized training sessions in lab-
oratory settings (Dowsett & Livesey, 2000; Rueda et al., 2005); however,
these techniques do not translate easily to a classroom context. In addition,
many of the interventions that have been impl emented in classroom settings
have examined broad constructs of socioemotional skills often in combi-
nation with academic intervention, rather than focusing specifically on
behavioral self-regulation (Raver, 2002). These interventions often require
extensive teacher training and materials for implementation. One exampl e
is the Tools of the Mind program, which focuses on social, emotional,
and behavioral self-regulation skills in addition to a curricular emphasis
on literacy an d math in preschool. Children participating in Tools class-
rooms have shown significant improvement on computer-based executive
function tasks (Diamond, Barnett, Thomas, & Munro, 2007) and on a
teacher-reported problem behavior scale (Barnett et al., 2008). Another
example, the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strat egies (PATHS) inter-
vention, targets cooperation, emotional awareness and communication,
self-regulation, self-esteem, and problem solving in preschool children. Chil-
dren participating in the PATHS treatment group were rated more socially
competent by parents and teachers than were children in the control group
(Domitrovich, Cortes, & Greenberg, 2007). Finally, the Kids in Transition
to School program examined the impact of playgroups that focused on a
wide range of socioemotional, self-regulation, and early literacy skills on
foster children and found that children participating in the treatment group
exhibited significantly higher levels of social competence and self-regulatory
skills than children in the control group (Pears, Fisher, & Bronz, 2007).
Although each of these interventions included self-regulation as part of
broader interventions, none focused specifically on improving behavioral
self-regulation as a means of improving academic outcomes . Unlike these
previous studies, the intervention presented in this article focused on helping
children practice specific behavioral aspects of self-regulation (the inte-
gration of attention, working memory, and inhibi tory control) that have
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
495
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
been shown to predict academic outcomes . In addition, the present study
used circle time games that were variations on popular children’s games.
The games required minimal training for implementation and few materials
(e.g., construction paper, children’s music CDs, classroom musical instru-
ments), all of which are commonly found in preschool classrooms.
THE PRESENT STUDY
This study investigated whether an intervention using circle time games
improved behavioral self-regulation in an economically diverse sample of
preschool children. In addition, we examined whether treatment group par-
ticipation predicted academic gains over the prekindergarten year. The
study had two research questions. The first research question was as follows:
Does participation in an intervent ion lead to greater gains in behavioral
self-regulation in a sample of prekindergartners? Based on research docu-
menting the effectiveness of broader interventions (Diamond et al., 2007;
Domitrovich et al., 2007; Pears et al., 2007), we exp ected that children
who were randomly assigned to the treatment gro up would show signifi-
cantly greater gains in behavioral self-regulation over the prekindergarten
year than children in the control group. The second research question
was: Does intervention treatment group participation relate to academic out-
comes over the prekindergarten year? We hypothesized that participation
in the intervention treatment group would predict not only gains in behav-
ioral self-regulation but also gains in academic outcomes. This hypothesis
was based on research suggesting that improvements in self-regulation abili-
ties may result in improvements in early achievement (Barnett et al., 2008;
Diamond et al., 2007).
METHOD
Participants
Participants were 65 children (out of an initial group of 74 children; see
‘‘Attrition’’) within two child development centers in Oregon. Children were
selected based on kindergarten eligibility the following year. Approximately
half of the children in the study were from low-income families as measured
by enrollment in Head Start (n ¼ 28). The average age at the beginning of
the study was 54.6 months (range ¼ 44–60 months). Of the children, 39 were
female and 26 were male. Mothers of children enrolled in Head Start had an
average education level of 12.2 years (SD ¼ 2.6) with a range of 6–16 years.
496
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
Mothers of children who were not enrolled in the Head Start program had
an average education level of 17 years (SD ¼ 2.7) with a range of 12–21
years. Three of the children had Spanish as a first language and were admi-
nistered the tests in Spanish by a native Spanish speaker. Spanish-speaking
research assistants translated English instructions into Spanish for children
who had Spanish as a first language.
The majority of children in the study (n ¼ 53 out of 65) attended preschool
in a university child development center and laboratory school. Placement in
the center was available to children paying tuition and was also available at
no cost to children enrolled in the Head Start program. Approximately half
of the children in each classroom paid tuition, and half received care at no
cost because of enrollment in Head Start . A small number of children parti-
cipating in the study (n ¼ 12) were atte nding a program at a second child
development center. Across both sites, children were divided among nine
classrooms. Information on classroom activities was obtained from class-
room teachers. All of the classrooms emphasized play during children’s
free-choice time, but most of the teacher-facilitated activities were academi-
cally focused (e.g., learning letters). Although teachers were familiar with tra-
ditional versions of the games used in the intervention, they reported that
similar games were rarely implemented in any of the classrooms.
Attrition
Initially, 74 children were recruited for participation in the study. Data were
obtained from all 74 children at Time 1 (fall). At Time 2 (spring), data were
obtained from only 65 children. The total attrition was nine children: four
children moved over the course of the school year, one child left school early
for a family vacation, three children declined to participate in the posttest,
and one child was withdrawn from the study because of newly diagnosed
developmental delays. The children who left the study did not significantly
differ from the children who completed the study on age or gender
(ps > .05). A higher percentage of children who left the study were enrolled
in Head Start (67%) as compared to the overall sample (43%), although this
difference was not statistically significant (p > .05). All analyses were conduc-
ted using data from the 65 children who participated in all phases of the study.
Measures
Parent Demographic Questionnaire
In the fall of the prekindergarten year, parents completed a background
questionnaire in their native language (English or Spanish) containing
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
497
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
questions regarding child age, child gender, whether the child was enrolled
in Head Start, and parent education level.
HTKS
In the fall and the spring, the HTKS was used to assess children’s behavioral
self-regulation (Ponitz et al., 2009). In the HTKS, children play a game where
they are asked to touch their head or toes (or knees=shoulders in the alternate
version). They are then asked to do the opposite of what the experimenter
says. The game requires children to remember up to four rules, pay attention,
and demonstrate inhibitory control. The possible score for each item is 0, 1, or
2: 0 denotes an incorrect response, 1 is a self-correct (child makes a motion
toward the incorrect response but then stops and gives the correct response),
and 2 points is a correct response without movement toward the incorrect
response. There are 20 test items, and scores range from 0 to 40, with higher
scores indicating higher levels of behavioral self-regulation. Recent research
has shown that the HTKS is a reliable and valid measure of children’s behav-
ioral self-regulation in diverse populations and cross-culturally (McClelland,
Cameron, Connor, et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2008, 2009; Wanless,
McClelland, Acock, et al., in press). In the present study, interrater reliability
on the HTKS was calculated at kappa ¼ 92. Teacher-rated behavioral
self-regulation in the fall was correlated with children’s fall HTKS scores
(r ¼ .20, p ¼ .09), and teacher-rated behavioral self-regulation in the spring
was correlated with children’s spring HTKS scores (r ¼ .24, p ¼ .06).
Academic Outcomes
In the fall and spring , children’s academic outcomes were assessed using
three subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery–III
Tests of Achievement (WJ-III).
Letter-Word Identification. Children’s letter skills and developing
word-coding skills in English or Spanish were assessed using raw scores
from the Letter-Word Identification subtest of the WJ-III (Woodcock &
Mather, 2000) or the Baterı
´
a III Woodcock–Mun˜oz (Mun˜oz-Sandoval,
Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2005). Previous research has shown high
reliability for preschool-age childr en on both the English and Spanish
versions of the task (Schrank et al., 2005; Woodcock & Mather, 2000).
Picture Vocabulary. Children’s expressive vocabulary skills in English
or Spanish were measured using the Picture Vocabulary subtest of the
WJ-III or the Baterı
´
a III Woodcock–Mun˜oz (Mun˜oz-Sandoval et al.,
2005). Previous research has shown reliability for both versions of the task
498
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
with preschool-age children at .81 and .89, respectively (Schrank et al., 2005;
Woodcock & Mather, 2000).
Applied Problems. Children’s mathematical operations needed to solve
practical prob lems, including counting objects, reading numbers, and basic
addition and subtraction picture problems, were measured using the
Applied Pr oblems subtest of the WJ-III or the Baterı
´
a III Woodcock–
Mun˜oz (Mun˜oz-Sandoval et al., 2005). In previous research, both the
English and Spanish version s of the task demonstrated reliability for
preschool-age children at .94 and .93, respectively (Schrank et al., 2005;
Woodcock & Mather, 2000).
Procedure
In the fall of the prekindergarten year (September), an invitation to partici-
pate in the study was mailed to parents of all 4-year-olds at the participating
preschools. Consent forms were collected from 74 families. The study was
divided into three phases: pretest (November–December), intervention
(January–March), and posttest (April–May).
Pretest
During this phase, children’s behavioral self-regulation and academic out-
comes were assessed over 4 weeks. Children received two of the assessments
on each of two different days to prevent fatigue, and the order of assess-
ments was randomized. Parents completed questionnaires at this time.
Intervention
During the intervention phase, half of the children in each classroom were
randomly assigned to participate in the intervention treatment group.
Random assignment at the individual level within classrooms was chosen
because of the high variability in class sizes and diversity in child character-
istics across class rooms. In addition, the intraclass correlation on the HTKS
in the fall was .06 (see Results), showing that limited variance in scores was
due to classroom membership an d supporting our decision to randomize at
the individual level. Children at bot h sites were frequently taken out of the
classroom to participate in individual and small-group activities, so they
were accustomed to leaving the classroom and seeing others leave the class-
room throughout the school day. Although there were initial concerns
regarding potential contamination effects within classrooms, teachers
reported that there was no evidence of children sharing intervention activi-
ties with other children in the classroom who were assigned to the control
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
499
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
group. In addition, research has found that when contamination effects
occur because of changes in children’s behavior, children assigned to the
control group are more likely to act like children in the treatment group,
making detection of intervention effects more difficult. These types of con-
tamination effects, however, are often found to be small or negligible
(Rhoads, 2009; Torgerson, 2001).
Children in the treatment group participated in a total of 16 playgroups
over 8 weeks. The playgroup sessions were held tw ice weekly, and each ses-
sion was approximately 30 min. Previous research ha s found significant
improvement in children’s self-regulation and social competence in interven-
tions of similar durations (Pears et al., 2007). Each playgroup session had five
to eight children and two assistant teachers. The playgroups were held on the
same days and times each week as part of the regular preschool day and were
scheduled at times chosen by the classroom teachers. The same researcher
(Shauna Tominey) led all of the playgroups to ensu re fidelity. The playgroup
leader developed the games and had previously worked as an early childhood
education teacher (Tominey & McClelland, 2008). Playgroup attendance
was recorded for each child. Children in the intervention group attended
an average of 11.3 sessions (range ¼ 5–16). The most common reason for a
child to miss a session was an absence due to illness or vacation. Occasion-
ally, a child would decline to participate on a given day because of involve-
ment in other classroom activities. Other reasons for missing sessions
included arriving late for school and lacking transportation (to school).
Posttest
During this phase, behavioral self-regulation and academic assessments
were readministered to all children. Research assistants were blind to inter-
vention participation; those who assisted with the intervention phase of the
study did not test children from classrooms in which they had previously
assisted to prevent researcher bias.
Playgroup Session Format
Playgroup sessions were designed to resemble classroom circle times. At the
beginning of each session, children sat on mats in a circle and participated in
a greeting song that was intended to help children transition to the
playgroup setting. Following the greeting song, the playgroup leader intro-
duced and led children in the playgroup activity. At the end of each
playgroup session, children sat on mats in a circle and sang a goodbye song
before returning to their classrooms. Six activities were presented over the
16 sessions (omitted for blind review). As the playgroup sessions progressed,
500
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
additional instructions were added, making the games increasingly compli-
cated. Each game was repeated at subsequent sessions to ensure that chil-
dren had multiple opportunities to practice and learn both the basic and
increasingly complicated versions of the games. Children were also given
the opportunity to lead games when appropriate (e.g., select and hold up
colors for Red Light, Purple Light).
Playgroup Games
In each game, attention and working memory were essential for children
to remember and follow through with continually changing multistep
instructions. Children practiced inhibitory control by starting and stopping
to different cues (oral and visual), performing specific behaviors in response
to cues, and performing opposite behaviors. The games used in the
present study had been previously piloted in prekindergarten classrooms
(Tominey & McClelland, 2008). Teachers reported that these games were
easy to implement in a circle time setting with large groups of children with
varying developmental levels and self-regulation abilities.
Red Light, Purple Light
Like in the popular children’s game Red Light, Green Light, a teacher acted
as a stoplight by standing at the opposite end of the room from the children
and holding up different-colored construction paper circles to represent stop
and go. Children responded to specific color cues (e.g., purple is stop and
orange is go) and then opposite cues (e.g., purple is go and orange is stop)
as well as to diff erent shapes representing stop and go (e.g., any color circle
is g o and any color square is stop).
The Freeze Game
Children danced when music played and froze when the teacher stopped the
music. Children danced slowly to slow songs and quickly to fast songs, alter-
nating between different slow and fast songs. Children were then asked to
respond to opposite cues: dancing quickly to slow songs and slowly to fast
songs.
Color-Matching Freeze
In this game, which was related to The Freeze Game, children danced
when music played and froze when the music stopped; however, children
were asked to perform an additional step before freezing. Teachers taped
different-colored pieces of construction paper to mats placed on the ground.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
501
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
When the music stopped, the teacher held up a specific color and children
were instructed to find and stand on a mat of that color.
Sleeping, Sleeping, All the Children Are Sleeping
Children pretended to sleep when the teacher sang, ‘‘Sleeping, sleeping, all
the children are sleeping.’’ While children pretended to sleep, the circle lea-
der gave an additional instruction for children to wake up and act out an
animal (e.g., ‘‘And when they woke up ...they were monkeys!’’). Additional
rules were added to make the game more complicated.
Conducting an Orchestra
The teacher used a dowel rod as a conducting baton to lead children in
playing musical instruments (e.g., jingle bells or maracas). When the
conductor wave d the baton, children played their instruments. When
the conductor put the baton down, children stopped. The conductor then
instructed children to play their instruments quickly when the baton moved
quickly and slowly when the baton moved slowly. Children were also asked
to respond to opposite cues. When the conductor waved the baton, children
stopped playing their instruments, and when the conductor set the baton
down, children played their instruments.
Drum Beats
Children responded to different drum cues with body movements. Teachers
chose acti ons for children to perform while sitting (e.g., clapping or stomp-
ing) and while moving around the room (e.g., walking or dancing). For
example, children were instructed to walk quickly to fast drumming, walk
slowly to slow drumming, and freeze when the drumming stopped. Teachers
also asked children to respond to opposite cues (walking slowly to fast drum
beats and quickly to slow drum beats) and associated different actions with
specific drum cues (e.g., hopping to fast drum beats and crawling to slow
drum beats).
RESULTS
Descriptive Statistics
Prior to answering our research questions, we analyzed descri ptive statistics
and bivariate correlations for the entire sample (N ¼ 65; see Table 1). As
expected, there was high variability in initial behavioral self-regulation
scores. At Time 1, the average HTKS score was 11 points ( SD ¼ 12,
502
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
TABLE 1
Bivariate Correlations for Children in the Overall Sample (N ¼ 65)
Variable 1 2 345678910111213
1. Child age (months)
2. Child gender
a
.31
3. Head Start status
b
.09 .18
4. Maternal education
c
.09 .31
.65

5. Fall HTKS .01 .17 .37

.33
6. Spring HTKS .05 .02 .52

.22 .50

7. HTKS difference .04 .16 .16 .12 .46

.52

8. Applied Problems difference .20 .03 .02 .04 .19 .08 .08
9. Letter-Word Identification difference .03 .12 .28
.45

.29
.32

.03 .11
10. Vocabulary difference .06 .02 .15 .14 .12 .00 .14 .03 .06
11. Intervention group
d
.11 .05 .07 .12 .07 .14 .05 .01 .28
.04
12. Number of sessions .09 .06 .08 .04 .05 .18 .10 .03 .28
.01 .94

13. School absences .07 .01 .17 .13 .10 .24
y
.12 .13 .05 .01 .07 .08
Note. HTKS ¼ Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders task.
a
Child gender: 0 ¼ female, 1 ¼ male.
b
Head Start status: 0 ¼ not enrolled in Head Start, 1 ¼ enrolled in Head Start.
c
For correlations including maternal education, n ¼ 55.
d
Intervention group: 0 ¼ control, 1 ¼ treatment.
y
p < .1.
p < .05.

p < .01.

p < .001.
503
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
range ¼ 0–37 points), with skewness of .75 and kurtosis of 2.17. Although
the skewness and kurtosis were not indicative of a nonnormal distribution
(Kline, 2005), a high number of children scored 0 points on the task at
the beginning of the year, indicating likely floor effects. In a previous study
examining the HTKS, approximately 30% of children at 48 months had a
score of 0 on the task, wi th this number decreasing to 15% at 54 months
(Ponitz et al., 2008). In the present study, 38.5% of children scored at floor
level at Time 1 (n ¼ 25), and 12.31% of children scored at floor level at Time
2(n ¼ 8). The average HTKS score at Time 2 was 22.3 points (SD ¼ 13,
range ¼ 0–38). The possibility of ceiling effects on the task was examined
but was considered unlikely because no child in the study scored the
maximum number of points on the measure at either time point. On aver-
age, children gained 11 points on the HTKS over the prekindergarten year
(SD ¼ 13, range ¼10 to 35). Table 2 summarizes the remaining descriptive
statistics for the children in the study.
TABLE 2
Means (SD) for Children in the Treatment and Control Groups (N ¼ 65)
Overall Sample (N ¼ 65)
Variable Control (n ¼ 37) Treatment (n ¼ 28) Total (N ¼ 65)
Child age (months) 54.9 (3.9) 54.1 (3.2) 54.6 (3.6)
Child gender
a
0.38 0.43 0.4
Head Start status
b
0.46 0.4 0.43
Maternal education
c
15.1 (3.8) 15.9 (3.1) 15.4 (3.5)
School absences 5.5 (4.3) 6.2 (5.6) 5.8 (4.9)
Fall HTKS 10.2 (12.4) 12 (12.1) 11 (12)
Spring HTKS 20.7 (13.5) 24.4 (12.6) 22.3 (13)
Difference in HTKS 10.4 (12.5) 11.7 (13.8) 10.97 (13)
Fall Letter-Word Identification 7.7 (4.3) 8.6 (5.1) 8.1 (4.6)
Spring Letter-Word Identification 9.8 (5.6)
12.7 (7.3)
11.1 (6.5)
Difference in Letter-Word Identification 2.1 (2.5)
4.1 (4.3)
2.9 (3.5)
Fall Applied Problems 12.2 (4.2) 13.4 (4.9) 12.7 (4.5)
Spring Applied Problems 14.9 (3.7) 16.2 (4.6) 15.5 (4.1)
Difference in Applied Problems 2.76 (2.5) 2.79 (1.7) 2.77 (2.2)
Fall Vocabulary 15.4 (3.2) 16.4 (3.5) 15.8 (3.3)
Spring Vocabulary 16.7 (2.9) 17.5 (3.6) 17.8 (3.2)
Difference in Vocabulary 1.32 (2.4) 1.14 (2.8) 1.25 (2.6)
Note. HTKS ¼ Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders task.
a
Child gender: 0 ¼ female, 1 ¼ male.
b
Head Start status: 0 ¼ not enrolled in Head Start, 1 ¼ enrolled in Head Start.
c
For descriptive statistics including maternal education, n ¼ 55.
p < .05.
504 TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
Research Question 1: Does Participation in an Intervention Lead
to Greater Gai ns in Behavioral Self-Regulation in a Sample
of Prekindergartners?
To ensure that there were no initial differences between the treatment and
control groups at Time 1, we used t tests to examine initial differences
between children in the two groups on the following variables: maternal
education, child age, school absences, academic achievement scores
(letter-word identification, picture vocabulary, and applied problems), and
fall HTKS scores. In addition, tests of proportion wer e used to examine dif-
ferences between the pr oportion of children enrolled in Head Start in each
group and the proportion of gender in each group. No statistically signifi-
cant differences were found between the treatment and control group in
the overall sample on any of these variables in the fall (see Table 2).
Multiple regression analysis was then used to answer the first research
question. The regression analysis examined predicted gains in behavioral
self-regulation scores (spring HTKS score minus fall HTKS score) for chil-
dren based on group assignment (treatment or control). In addition to treat-
ment group, we controlled for the following variables: Head Start status
(enrolled in Head Start=not enrolled in Head Start), child age (in months),
child gender, and initial HTKS score. We then added an interaction term
between initial HTKS score and group assignment to test whether inter-
vention effects varied based on children’s initial behavioral self-regulation
scores. Previous studies of children’s self-regulation have found significantly
different intervention effects based on children’s initial levels of
self-regulation (Bierman, Nix, Greenberg, Blair, & Domitrovich, 2008;
Connor et al., 2010). Maternal education level was not included as a control
variable because of the high correlation between mate rnal education and
Head Start status (r ¼ .66). Although children were nested in nine class-
rooms, the intraclass correlation for the difference in HTKS scores was
0.06, so mult ilevel mod eling was not used in the analyses.
The results of the regression analysis were significant, F(5, 59) ¼ 6.58,
p < .01, r
2
¼ .36. Treatment group participation, however, was not a signifi-
cant predictor of HTKS gains, t(59) ¼ 0.49, p > .05. Although not signifi-
cant, the regression coefficient for intervention group was in the expected
direction, showing small gains in behavioral self-regulation for children par-
ticipating in the playgroups (intervention: B ¼ 1.34, b ¼ .06). Of the control
variables, Head Start enrollment was the strongest predictor for HTKS
gains, t(59) ¼3.49, p < .01, contributing .21 to the explained variance (r
2
).
The second strong est predictor was initial HTKS score, t(59) ¼5.17,
p < .001. Having a higher HTKS score at the beginning of the year predicted
smaller gains over the course of the year (b ¼.59), contributing .13 to the
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
505
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
explained variance. The interaction between initial HTKS score and group
assignment was not significant, t(58) ¼0.94, p > .05.
Although the interaction was not significant, the high number of children
scoring 0 on the task (floor effect) likely contributed to our inability to
detect an interaction if one did exist (Lewis-Beck, Bryman, & Liao, 2004).
In addition, previous studies have found significant intervention effects
for children with poor behavioral self-regulation when no effects were found
in the overall sample (Bierman et al., 2008; Connor et al., 2010), so we
wanted to investigate this possibility further in our sample. Thus, we con-
ducted post hoc analyses to test for a treatment effect in a subsample of chil-
dren with low initial HTKS scores (n ¼ 31). We selected the 50th percentile
(children with HTKS scores less than 6 points) as a cutoff point to maximize
our sample size. It was also above this cutoff that negative gain scores
appeared on the HTKS, which indicated the possibility of regression to
the mean effects and may have contributed to lower overall gain scores
experienced by children scoring above the 50th percentile.
The average age of children in the low subgroup was 54.6 months
(SD ¼ 4). Within this group there were 17 girls and 14 boys. Of the children
with low HTKS scores, 19 were in the control group and 12 were in the
treatment group. There was little variability in HTKS scores within the
low subsample at Time 1 (M ¼ 0.5, SD ¼ 1.3, range ¼ 0–5). At Time 2,
however, there was substantial variability in HTKS scores. Specifically,
the average HTKS score at Time 2 was 16.9 points (SD ¼ 13.6, range ¼ 0–
35), with skewness of .04 and kurtosis of 1.4, indicating a normal distri-
bution (Kline, 2005). Over the course of the year, children with low initial
behavioral self-regulation gained an average of 16.3 points (SD ¼ 13.3,
range ¼ 0–35). In contrast, children scoring above the 50th percentile on
the HTKS in the fall gained an average of 6.1 points (SD ¼ 10.8,
range ¼10 to 25).
Results of a regression model examining intervention participation as a
predictor of HTKS gains for the low subgroup were statistically significant,
F(4, 26) ¼ 5.26, p < .01, r
2
¼ .45 (see Table 3). In addition to intervention
group assignment, we controlled for Head Start enrollment status, child
gender, and age. The results suggest ed that for children with low initial
HTKS scores, treatment group participation significantly predicted HTKS
gains over the prekindergarten year, t(26) ¼ 2.23, p < .05, b ¼ .34, account-
ing for 11% of the explained variance in HTKS gains. Within this subgroup,
children in the treatment group were predicted to gain 9.2 more points over
the year on the HTKS than children in the control group, which was a
difference of approximately 1 SD. Of the control variables, Head Start sta-
tus was the only statistica lly significant variable, t (26) ¼3.90, p < .01,
b ¼.58, and accounted for 33% of the explained variance.
506
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
We conducted an additional post hoc analysis examining whether the
number of intervention sessions attended significantly predicted behavioral
self-regulation gains in the overall sample of childr en and for the subgroup
of children with low initial HTKS scores. Results of the multiple regression
predicting gains in HTKS scores (controlling for Head Start status, child
age, gender, and initial HTKS score) for the overall sample (N ¼ 65) indi-
cated that the model was statistically significant, F(5, 59) ¼ 6.71, p < .01,
r
2
¼ .36, althoug h the number of intervention sessions attended did not sig-
nificantly predict HTKS gains. We then ran the same analysis (excluding
initial HTKS score as a control) for children with low initial HTKS scores
(n ¼ 31; see Table 3). This model was statistically significant, F(4, 26) ¼ 5.75,
p < .01, r
2
¼ .47, and indicated that the number of playgroup sessions
attended significantly predicted HTKS gains for children with low initial
HTKS scores, t(26) ¼ 2.50, p < .05, b ¼ .37 (accounting for 13% of the
explained variance). Specifically, for each additional intervention session
attended, children were expected to gain nearly 1 additional point (0.84
points) on the HTKS over the year. If children attended the average number
of intervention sessions (11.3 sessions), they were expected to gain an
additional 9.5 points on the task. Head Start status was the only significant
control variable in the model, t(26) ¼3.73, p < .01, b ¼.54, accounting
for 33% of the explained variance. Thus, although overall intervention
effects were not detected, post hoc analyses indicated significant effects of
TABLE 3
Multiple Regression Results Examining Intervention Group and Number of Intervention
Sessions to Predict Change in HTKS Score Over the Prekindergarten Year in the
Subgroup of Children With Low Initial HTKS Scores (n ¼ 31)
Analysis 1 (Intervention Group) Analysis 2 (Dosage)
Variable B SE B b BSEBb
Child age (months) 0.82 0.59 .25 0.73 0.56 .22
Child gender
a
–7.58 4.73 .29 –7.14 4.56 .27
Head Start status
b
–15.14 3.88 .58

–14.26 3.83 .54

Treatment group
c
9.21 4.13 .34
Number of sessions 0.84 0.33 .37
R
2
.45 .47
F 5.26

5.75

Note. HTKS ¼ Head–Toes–Knees–Shoulders task.
a
Child gender: 0 ¼ female, 1 ¼ male.
b
Head Start status: 0 ¼ not enrolled in Head Start, 1 ¼ enrolled in Head Start.
c
Treatment group: 0 ¼ control, 1 ¼ treatment.
p < .05.

p < .01.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
507
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
the intervention for children beginning the year with low HTKS scores.
In addition, the number of intervention sessions attended also significantly
predicted behavioral self-regulation gains over the school year for children
in the low subgroup.
Research Question 2: Does Intervention Treatment Group Participation
Relate to Academic Outcomes Over the Prekindergarten Year?
Prior to testing the second research question, we used multiple regression
analyses to determine whether children’s behavioral self-regulation in the
fall predicted fall letter-word identification, applied problems, and vocabu-
lary outcomes. Fall behavioral self-regulation significantly predicted fall
academic achievement when child age, gender, and Head Start status were
controlled: letter-word identification, t(60) ¼ 2.09, p < .05, b ¼ .23; applied
problems, t(60) ¼ 2.54, p < .05, b ¼ .29; and vocabulary, t(60) ¼ 4.67,
p < .001, b ¼ .53. Specifically, for each additional standard de viation chil-
dren scored on the HTKS, they were predicted to score an additional 1.1
points in letter-word identification, 1.3 points in applied problems, and
1.8 points in picture vocabulary in the fall. Head Start status was also a sig-
nificant predictor of fall scores on letter-word identification, t(60) ¼4.36,
p < .001; and applied problems, t(60) ¼3.05, p < .01; but not vocabulary.
Children enrolled in Head Start were predicted to score 3.2 fewer points
in applied problems and 4.5 fewer points in letter-word identification than
children from more advantaged families.
Multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether inter-
vention treatment group participat ion predicted gains in academic outcomes
(one each for applied problems, letter- word identifi cation, and picture
vocabulary). Gains in all academic outcomes were calculated by subtracting
children’s scores in the fall from their spring scores on the same measure (see
Table 2). Child age (in months), gender, and Head Start status (enrolled in
Head Start=not enrolled in Head Start) were control variables in all three
analyses.
Letter-word identification. The regression model predicting gains in
letter-word identification scores was statistically significant, F(4, 64) ¼ 2.81,
p < .05, r
2
¼ .15 (see Table 4). Intervention group assignment significantly
predicted gains in children’s letter-word identification scores over the pre-
kindergarten year, t(60) ¼ 2.32, p < .05, and contributed .07 to the explained
variance in letter-word identification gains. Children who participated in the
treatment group were predicted to gain 2 more points (a difference of 0.57
SD) on the letter-word identification assessment than children in the control
group. Head Start en rollment also significantly predicted change in
508
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
letter-word identification score, t(60) ¼2.02, p < .05, and contributed an
equivalent amount (.07) to the explained variance. Specifical ly, children
not enrolled in Head Start wer e predicted to gain 1.72 more points (a differ-
ence of 0.5 SD) in letter-word identification over the year than children
enrolled in Head Start.
Neither the regression model for applied problems nor the model for pic-
ture vocabulary was statistically significant. Thus, we found no significant
relation between intervention assignment and change over the prekindergar-
ten year in scores for applied problems, t(60) ¼0.20, p > .05; or vocabu-
lary, t(60) ¼0.45, p > .05.
DISCUSSION
The present study focused on a set of circle time games aimed at improving
behavioral self-regulation skills that predict children’s academic achieve-
ment (McClelland, Cameron, Connor, et al., 200 7; Ponitz et al., 2009).
The games resembled popular children’s games and requ ired few materials,
making them easy for teachers to implement in a classroom circle time set-
ting. Our primary research questions examin ed intervention efficacy using a
direct measure of behavioral self-regulation and tested the effect of treat-
ment group participation on academic outcomes over the prekindergarten
year. Although significant intervention effects were not found for the overall
TABLE 4
Multiple Regression Results Examining Intervention Group and Number
of Intervention Sessions to Predict Change in Letter-Word Identification
Scores Over the Prekindergarten Year in the Overall Sample (N ¼ 65)
Analysis (Intervention Group)
Variable B SE B b
Child age (months) 0.05 .12 .06
Child gender
a
–0.76 .90 .11
Head Start status
b
–1.72 .85 .24
Treatment group
c
1.97 .85 .28
Number of sessions
R
2
.16
F 2.81
a
Child gender: 0 ¼ female, 1 ¼ male.
b
Head Start status: 0 ¼ not enrolled in Head Start, 1 ¼ enrolled in Head
Start.
c
Treatment group: 0 ¼ control, 1 ¼ treatment.
p < .05.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
509
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
sample, post hoc analyses indicated significant gains in behavioral self-
regulation for children who entered the study with low behavioral
self-regulation and who participated in the treatment group. In addition,
the number of inter vention session s attended significantly predicted beha-
vioral self-regulation gains over the school year for children with low initial
scores. In the overall sample, intervention participation was also signifi-
cantly related to gains in children’s letter-word identification scores.
Treatment Group Participation and Gains in Behavioral Self-Regulation
Contrary to our expectations, there were no significant diff erences in beha-
vioral self-regulation gains between the treatment and control groups in the
overall sample. The absence of a signifi cant treatment effect in the overall
sample may have been because there was little variability in behavioral
self-regulation gains for children beginning the year with scores above the
50th percentile. Children beginning the year with high scores on the HTKS
likely ended the year with high scores (the task ceilings at 40 points) and
thus had little variability in gain scores with which we could detect an effect.
Post hoc analyses indicated that participation in the treatment group sig-
nificantly predicted gains in behavioral self-regulation for children begin-
ning the year with low levels of these skills (below the 50th percentile in
the fall). Children who began the year with low scores had the opportunity
for more growth and variability in gain scores, and this may have enabled us
to better detect an intervention effect in this subgroup that was not detected
in the overall sample. For children in the low group, higher rates of
attendance in the playgroup sessions also significantly predicted gains in
behavioral self-regulation. Intervention studies including behavioral self-
regulation have reported intervention attendance (Pears et al., 2007) without
examining the impact of dosage on intervention effectiveness. Other studies
of early childhood interventions focusing on behavioral outcomes have
shown greater short- and long-term benefits from higher levels of par-
ticipation (Hill, Brooks-Gunn, & Waldfogel, 2003; Reynolds, Temple,
Robertson, & Mann, 2001). The significant treatment and dosage effects
found within the low subsample add to the finding in the existing literature
that behavioral self-regulation can be improved through intervention for
children who have difficulties with these skills (Bierman et al., 2008; Connor
et al., 2010; Diamond et al., 2007).
The Importance of Family Income for Behavioral Self-Regulation Gains
In the overall sample and in the subsample of children with low behavioral
self-regulation, family income was the strongest predictor of behavioral
510
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
self-regulation level and gains over the prekindergarten year. Children from
low-income families began and ended the year with lower behavioral self-
regulation and gained fewer points on a measure of behavioral self-
regulation than their peers. These results support previous findings that
family income is an important predictor of children’s self-regulation (Evans
& Rosenbaum, 2008; Howse, Lange, et al., 2003; Sektnan et al., 2010;
Wanless, McClelland, Tominey, et al., 2011). In the present study, family
income was significantly correlated with maternal education level (r ¼ .66),
indicating that income may not have been the only factor contributing to
low behavioral self-regulation scores for children in the study. Research
has shown that children and families who are economically disadvantaged
are likely to experience an accumulation of risk factors that affect child
outcomes (Dearing et al., 2006). These potential risk factors include fewer
family resources (e.g., economic and academic), less parent–child quality
time, higher rates of authoritarian parenting and punitive discipline, and
higher rates of chronic illness than in more advantaged families (Dearing
et al., 2006; Lareau, 2003). Research also suggests that behavioral
self-regulation mediates the effect of risk factors on academic outcomes
(Dearing, McCartney, & Taylor, 2009; Se ktnan et al., 2010), highlighting
the impor tance of targeting children from low-income backgrounds for inter-
vention, as they may be especially at risk for exhibiting poor behavioral
self-regulation at school entry (Wanless, McClelland, Acock, et al., in press).
In the present study, children who exhibited the greatest self-regulation gains
(i.e., children in the treatment group from more advantaged families) may
have had the most opportunity to explicitly practice paying attention,
remembering instructions, and demonstrating inhibitory control through
participating in the intervention and having exposure to resources and family
processes that promoted strong self-regulation at home (Dearing et al., 2006;
Lareau, 2003).
Behavioral Self-Regulation, Treatment Group Participation, and
Academic Outcomes Over the Prekinder garten Year
In the overall sample, prior to the intervention, children’s fall behavioral
self-regulation predicted fall academic achievement in applied problems,
letter-word identification, and picture vocabulary. Specifically, higher levels
of behavioral self-regulation predicted higher scores on each of these aca-
demic outcomes. These findings add to the growing body of research show-
ing that behavioral self-regulation is an important component of academic
success as early as preschool (Matthews et al., 2009; McClelland et al.,
2007; Ponitz et al., 2009). In addition, family income significantly predicted
fall academic achievement. Children from low-income families began the
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
511
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
year with lower applied problems and letter-word identification levels than
their more advantaged peers. Previous research has also documented socio-
economic status as an important predictor of early achievement (Sektnan
et al., 2010; Wanless et al., in press).
Although treatment group assignment did not predict behavioral
self-regulation gains in the overall sample, participation in the intervention
treatment group significantly predicted gains in letter-word identification
scores. The intent of the intervention games was to help students practice
the integration of attention, working memor y, and inhibitory control, skills
that have been found to predict academic outcomes in preschool and kinder-
garten, including letter-word identification (McClelland et al., 2007; Ponitz
et al., 2009). The significant gains in behavioral self-regulation made by chil-
dren in the low sub group provide preliminary evidence that the circle time
games did indeed relate to impr oved behavioral self-regulation skills for
some children, and perhaps improvement in these skills (though not detected
in the overall sample) led to an increased ability to benefit from letter-word
identification activities in the classroom. It is important to note that children
in the treatment group did not receive additional direct instruction in
letter-word identification, as none of the playgroup games involved letters,
words, or emergent literacy activities of any kind.
It is possible that the significant effect of intervention participation on
letter-word identification scores and not the other academic measures was
due to the explicit focus on emergent literacy instruction (and specifically
letter recognition) in the prekindergarten classrooms. Previous research has
demonstrated that children are exposed to more literacy-rich instruction prior
to kindergarten compared to instruction in other academic subjects (Connor,
Morrison, & Slominski, 2006; Miller, Kelly, & Zhou, 2005; National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research
Network, 2002). In support of this, teachers in the present study reported
that letter recognition was often the focus of classroom learning activities,
whereas vocabulary and applied problems were rarely explicitly taught.
Although vocabulary and emergent literacy are closely relat ed, children
in this study experienced very small gains over the year in picture vocabulary
scores in comparison to the gains experienced in letter-word identification.
Children did make apparent gains in applied problems scores, which raises
questions about the lack of a relation between these gains and intervention
participation. One possible explanation is that gains in applied problem
scores were in large part due to maturation, not classroom instruction,
which would explain the gains experienced by children in both the treatment
and control groups. Previous research has found evidence supporting this
lack of an instructional effect on the development of math skills in preschool
(Christian, Bachman, & Morrison, 2001). Another possible explanation is
512
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
that gains in applied problems, whether due to classroom=home learning
experiences or maturation, were not aided by participating in the inter-
vention treatment group. Research (including the present study) has found
significant relations between behavioral self-regulation and preschool chil-
dren’s applied problems=math abilities (Matthew s et al., 2009; McClelland,
Cameron, Connor, et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2009); however, additional
research is needed to investigate the relation between intervention-related
gains and gains in math abilities.
Nature and Implementation of Intervent ion Games
Our implementation strategy resulted in a number of pos itive and ne gative
consequences, some of which we anticipated and others we did not. As we
had intended, the use of music and movement in the intervention games
was highly effective at encouraging engagement. The majority of children
actively participated in all of the playgroup games, although a few children
chose to watch on occasion. In order to involve all children in the activities,
especially those who appeared to be withdrawn=shy or easily distracted, we
incorporated opportunities for children to lead each activity. For example,
each child had a turn choosing which colors represented stop and go an d
acting as the stoplight in the game Red Light, Purple Light. By leading
activities, children could watch the responses of other children to their rules
and cues and thus practice behavioral self-regulation skills by modeling the
correct behaviors and monitoring other children’s behaviors. We made sure
that every child had an opportunity to lead the activity in every session, and
no child ever declined the opportunity to lead an activity.
The decision to remove children from the classroom to participate in the
playgroup sessions had both positive and negative consequences. We were
concerned about adding to the workload of classroom teachers, and remov-
ing children lessened the burd en on teachers. This approach also allowed us
to control fidelity of implementation. Removing children from classrooms,
however, also led to issues we did not anticipate. For example, playgroup
sessions were held at times that were chosen by the classroom teachers.
The result was that children in some classrooms missed part of free-play
time to participate, whereas others missed outdoor play. Occasionally, chil-
dren would decline to participate in a playgroup session because they did
not want to miss one of these activities. In these instances, the response of
the classroom teacher significantly impacted whether the child attended
the playgroup session. Classroom teachers who encouraged children to go
and reassured them that the activity would be available when they retur ned
facilitated participation, whereas classroom teachers who remained unin-
volved in these exchanges did not.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
513
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Although the present study supports the preliminary efficacy of a behavioral
self-regulation intervention in preschool for children with low initial behav-
ioral self-regulation scores, there are a number of limitations. The primary
limitation is the small sample size. Because the study had a final sample size
of 65 children, the power to detect a significant effect was limited, although
significant effects were still found. Most notably, children with low levels of
self-regulation in the fall (below the 50th percentile) benefited from partici-
pation in the intervention. The small sample size, however, also limited the
ability to perform statistical analyses on subgroups within the treatment and
control groups, such as by family income.
Another limitation of the study was that only one measure was used to
assess change in behavioral self-regulation over the prekindergarten year.
The circle time games were designed to help children practice the skills mea-
sured by the HTKS and were selected for use because of face validity and
ease of implementation. Although the findings from this study provide pre-
liminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the games in relation
to the HTKS, it is critical that future studies of the games incorporate
additional measures of behavioral self-regulation to better establish con-
struct validity. Ideally, a combination of direct measures, teacher reports,
and classroom observations would be needed to provide a complete picture
of how participating in these playgroup games relates to measures of behav-
ioral self-regulation as well as classroom behavior and academic outcomes.
In future studies of these games, it may also be beneficial to videotape
playgroup sessions in order to observe and code children’s responses to
the games and watch for specific behaviors (e.g., length of attention) and
change in those behaviors.
Moreover, the scope of this intervention was limited to playgroup ses-
sions that included child involvement. It is clear from the results that family
income significantly predicted children’s behavioral self-regulation and aca-
demic scores across the year. The significant effect of family income on child
outcomes highlights the need for interventions that extend beyond the ch ild
level to include family c haracteristics. Numerous family factors and pro-
cesses (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early
Child Care Research Network, 2003), including parenting (Calkins, 2004)
and the home learning environment (McClelland & Wanless, 2006), have
demonstrated significant relations with the development of children’s
self-regulation. Future interventions should include parent and family
involvement to maximize gains in self-regulation for all children.
Future studies should also better establish intervention feasibility by
implementing the study games in classrooms, led by classroom teachers.
514
TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
In the present study, the same researcher (who had previously been a class-
room teacher) administered the games in small groups outside of the class-
room. Although this helped ensure consistency across sessions, future
studies should examine fidelity as a variable because ideally classroom tea-
chers will be leading the sessions, which will likely result in varying levels of
fidelity and impact intervention effectiveness. Finally, participants should be
followed longitudinally with more time points to examine the potential
long-term effects of the intervention on children’s behavioral self-regulation
and academic achievement.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
The results of the present study support the efficacy of a prekindergarten
behavioral self-regulation intervention for children with low behavioral
self-regulation skills. The results indicate that a set of circle time games
was effective in helping children with low initial behavioral self-regulation
improve scores on a direct measure of attention, working memory, and
inhibitory control, skills that have been found to pr edict academic out-
comes. In addition, participat ion in the treatment group significantly pre-
dicted gains in letter-word identification scores over the prekindergarten
year in the overall sampl e of children. The games used in the study were
implemented in playgroup settings with common classroom materials a nd
could be implemented by teachers in small and large groups of children
within classrooms. The intervention presented in this study represents a
unique opportunity to improve behavioral self-regulation with limited train-
ing and without expensive materials, which increases its potential for use on
a larger scale.
The present study has the potential to inform preschool curricula that
emphasize behavioral self-regulation as a means of facilitating school readi-
ness. The development of interventions that can be translated to classroom
settings and easily implemented by teachers is critical to ensure that all chil-
dren enter school with the behavioral self-regulation skills they need to be
ready to learn.
REFERENCES
Adams, A. M., Bourke, L., & Willis, C. (1999). Working memory and spoken language
comprehension in young children. International Journal of Psychology, 34, 364–373.
Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Dauber, S. L. (1993). First-grade classroom behavior:
Its short- and long-term consequences for school performance. Child Development, 64,
801–814.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
515
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., Yarosz, D. J., Thomas, J., Hornbeck, A., Stechuk, R., & Burns, S.
(2008). Educational effects of the Tools of the Mind curriculum: A randomized trial. Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 299–313.
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory,
and applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Blair, C., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2008). Executive
functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the
Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 821–843.
Blair, C. (2002). School readiness. American Psychologist, 57, 111–127.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief
understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development,
78, 647–663.
Bronson, M. B., Tivnan, T., & Seppanen, P. S. (1995). Relations between teacher and classroom
activity variables and the classroom behaviors of prekindergarten children in Chapter 1
funded programs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 253–282.
Calkins, S. D. (2004). Early attachment processes and the development of emotional
self-regulation. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation:
Research, theory, and applications (pp. 324–339). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Christian, K., Bachman, H. J., & Morrison, F. J. (2001). Schooling and cognitive development.
In R. J. Sternberg & R. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), Environmental effects on cognitive abilities
(pp. 287–335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Slominski, L. (2006). Preschool instruction and children’s
emergent literacy growth. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 665–689.
Connor, C. M., Ponitz, C. C., Phillips, B. M., Travis, Q. M., Glasney, S., & Morrison, F. J.
(2010). First graders’ literacy and self-regulation gains: The effect of individualizing stu-
dent instruction. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 433–455.
Cooper, D. H., & Farran, D. C. (1988). Behavioral risk factors in kindergarten. Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 3, 1–19.
Dearing, E., Berry, D., & Zaslow, M. (2006). Poverty during early childhood. In K. McCartney
& D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 399–423).
Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2009). Does higher quality early child care pro-
mote low-income children’s math and reading achievement in middle childhood? Child
Development, 80, 1329–1349.
Denton Flanagan, K., & McPhee, C. (2009). The children born in 2001 at kindergarten entry:
First findings from the kindergarten data collections of the Early Childhood Longitudinal
Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) (NCES Publication No. 2010-005). Washington, DC:
National Center for Education Statistics.
Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007, November 30). Preschool pro-
gram improves cognitive control. Science, 318, 1387–1388.
Domitrovich, C. E., Cortes, R. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Improving young children’s
social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool ‘‘PATHS’’ curricu-
lum. Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67–91.
Dowsett, S. M., & Livesey, D. J. (2000). The development of inhibitory control in pre-
school children: Effects of ‘‘executive skills’’ training. Developmental Psychobiology,
36, 161–174.
Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful control: Relations
with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In R. F. Baumeister
& K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications
(pp. 259–282). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
516 TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
Entwisle, D. R., & Alexander, K. L. (1993). Entry into school: The beginning school transition
and educational stratification in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 19,
401–423.
Evans, G. W., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Self-regulation and the income-achievement gap. Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 504–514.
Ford, R. M., McDougall, S. J. P., & Evans, D. (2009). Parent-delivered compensatory edu-
cation for children at risk of educational failure: Improving the academic and self-
regulatory skills of a Sure Start preschool sample. British Journal of Psychology, 100,
773–797.
Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Assessment of working memory in six- and
seven-year-old children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 377–390.
Hill, J. L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2003). Sustained effects of high participation in an
early intervention for low-birth-weight premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 39,
730–744.
Howse, R. B., Calkins, S. D., Anastopoulos, A. D., Keane, S. P., & Shelton, T. L. (2003). Regu-
latory contributors to children’s kindergarten achievement. Early Education & Develop-
ment, 14, 101–119.
Howse, R. B., Lange, G., Farran, D. C., & Boyles, C. D. (2003). Motivation and self-regulation
as predictors of achievement in economically disadvantaged young children. Journal of
Experimental Education, 71(2), 151–174.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY:
Guilford Press.
Kopp, C. B. (1991). Young children’s progression to self-regulation. In M. Bullock (Ed.), The
development of intentional action: Vol. 22. Cognitive, motivational, and interactive processes,
(pp. 38–54). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
Ladd, G. W. (2003). Probing the adaptive significance of children’s behavior and relationships
in the school context: A child by environment perspective. Advances in Child Development
and Behavior, 31, 43–104.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Miller-Loncar, C. L. (2000). Early maternal and
child influences on children’s later independent cognitive and social functioning. Child
Development, 71, 358–375.
Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race and family life. Los Angeles: University of
California Press.
Lewis-Beck, M. S., Bryman, A., & Liao, F. T. (2004). The Sage encyclopedia of social science
research methods (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Liew, J., McTigue, E., Barrois, L., & Hughes, J. (2008). Adaptive and effortful control and aca-
demic self-efficacy beliefs on achievement: A longitudinal study of 1st through 3rd graders.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 515–526.
Matthews, J. M., Ponitz, C. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). Early gender differences in self-
regulation and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 689–704.
McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten
learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 471–490.
McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison,
F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary,
and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43, 947–959.
McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Wanless, S. B., & Murray, A. (2007). Executive function,
behavioral self-regulation, and social-emotional competence: Links to school readiness.
In O. N. Saracho & B. Spodek (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on social learning in early
childhood education (pp. 83–107). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
517
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
McClelland, M. M., Morrison, F. J., & Holmes, D. L. (2000). Children at risk for early
academic problems: The role of learning-related social skills. Early Childhood Research
Quarterly, 15, 307–329.
McClelland, M. M., Piccinin, A., Acock, A. C., & Stallings, M. C. (2011). Relations between
preschool attention and sociability and later achievement outcomes. Manuscript in review.
McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: The
integration of cognition and emotion. In W. Overton (Vol. Ed.) & R. Lerner (Series Ed.),
Handbook of life-span human development: Vol. 1. Cognition, biology and methods (pp. 509–
553). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
McClelland, M. M., & Wanless, S. B. (2006, July). Child and parenting influences on early read-
ing and mathematics skills. Paper presented at the 19th biennial meeting of the Inter-
national Society for the Study of Behavioural Development, Melbourne, Australia.
Miller, K. F., Kelly, M., & Zhou, X. (2005). Learning mathematics in China and the United
States: Cross-cultural insights into the nature and course of preschool mathematical devel-
opment. In J. I. D. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 163–177).
New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Mun˜oz-Sandoval, A. F., Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2005). The Baterı
´
a
III Woodcock-Mun˜ oz: Pruebas de aprovechamiento [Baterı
´
a Woodcock-Mun˜oz: Achieve-
ment tests]. Itasca, IL: Riverside.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Net-
work. (2002). The relation of global first-grade classroom environment to structural class-
room features and teacher and student behaviors. The Elementary School Journal, 102,
367–387.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Net-
work. (2003). Do children’s attention processes mediate the link between family predictors
and school readiness? Developmental Psychology, 39, 581–593.
Pears, K. C., Fisher, P. A., & Bronz, K. D. (2007). An intervention to facilitate school readiness
in foster children: Preliminary results from the Kids in Transition to School pilot study.
Social Psychology Review, 36, 665–673.
Phillips, D., McCartney, K., & Sussman, A. (2006). Child care and early development. In
K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development
(pp. 471–489). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Jewkes, A. M., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., & Morrison,
F. J. (2008). Touch your toes! Developing a direct measure of behavioral regulation in
early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 141–158.
Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured
observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes.
Developmental Psychology, 45, 605–619.
Raver, C. C. (2002). Emotions matter: Making the case for the role of young children’s
emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report, 16, 3–18.
Rennie, D. A. C., Bull, R., & Diamond, A. (2004). Executive functioning in preschoolers:
Reducing the inhibitory demands of the dimensional change card sort task. Developmental
Neuropsychology, 26, 423–443.
Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Robertson, D. L., & Mann, E. A. (2001). Long-term effects of
an early childhood intervention on educational achievement and juvenile arrest: A 15-year
follow-up of low-income children in public schools. Journal of the American Medical
Association, 285, 2339–2346.
Rhoads, C. (2009, November). The implications of ‘‘contamination’’ for experimental design in
education. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Education Effectiveness,
Washington, DC.
518 TOMINEY AND MCCLELLAND
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2005). Genes and experience in the development of executive
attention and effortful control. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 109,
101–108.
Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2004). Attentional control and self-regulation.
In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory,
and applications (pp. 283–300). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., Saccomanno, L., & Posner, M. I. (2005).
Training, maturation, and genetic influences on the development of executive attention.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102, 14931–14936.
Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., Ruef, M. L., Alvarado, C. G., Mun˜oz-Sandoval, A. F., &
Woodcock, R. W. (2005). Overview and technical supplement (Bateria III Woodcock-
Mun˜oz Assessment Service Bulletin No. 1). Itasca, IL: Riverside.
Sektnan, M., McClelland, M. M., Acock, A., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). Relations between early
family risk, children’s behavioral regulation, and academic achievement. Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 25, 464–479.
St. Clair-Thompson, H., Stevens, R., Hunt, A., & Bolder, E. (2010). Improving children’s work-
ing memory and classroom performance. Educational Psychology, 30(2), 203–219.
Tominey, S., & McClelland, M. M. (2008, April). ‘‘And when they woke up ... they were mon-
keys!’’ Using classroom games to promote preschoolers’ self-regulation and school readi-
ness. Poster presented at the Conference on Human Development, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Torgerson, D. J. (2001). Contamination in trials: Is cluster randomisation the answer? British
Medical Journal, 322, 355–357.
U.S. Department of Education. (2009). No Child Left Behind. Retrieved from http://www.ed.
gov/nclb/landing.jhtml
Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., & Castro, K. S. (2007). Children’s effortful control and
academic competence. Mediation through school liking. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly,
53(1), 1–25.
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Larose, S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2005). Kindergarten disruptive
behaviors, protective factors, and educational achievement by early adulthood. Journal
of Educational Psychology, 97, 617–629.
Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Ponitz, C. C., Son, S.-H., Lan, X., ... Li, S.
(in press). Measuring behavioral regulation in four cultures. Psychological Assessment.
Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S., & Acock, A. (2011). The influence of demo-
graphic risk factors on children’s behavioral regulation in prekindergarten and kindergar-
ten. Early Education and Development, 22, 462–490.
Wellman, H. M., Somerville, S. C., & Haake, R. J. (1979). Development of search procedures in
real-life spatial environments. Developmental Psychology, 15, 530–542.
Woodcock, R. W., & Mather, N. (2000). Woodcock–Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-III.
Itasca, IL: Riverside.
A RANDOMIZED TRIAL USING CIRCLE TIME GAMES
519
Downloaded By: [Oregon State University] At: 00:03 3 June 2011
... In other words, there are both internal and external processes involved in the development of self-regulation (Eisenberg, 2017). The literature has shown that the development and use of self-regulation can be affected by variables such as gender, age and class level, and family characteristics (Montry et al., 2016;Tominey & McClelland, 2011). According to Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1990), gender can affect students' self-regulation behaviors. ...
... The family environment in which the child grows up and the development opportunities offered by the family is effective in the development of self-regulation skills. In cases with low socio-economic status (Montroy et al., 2016;Tominey & McClelland, 2011) and low level of parental education (Sektnan et al., 2010;Tominey & McClelland, 2011), the parentchild relationship is adversely affected (Mintz et al., 2011). This negative aspect also negatively affects the child's self-regulation development (Baydar et al., 2012). ...
... The family environment in which the child grows up and the development opportunities offered by the family is effective in the development of self-regulation skills. In cases with low socio-economic status (Montroy et al., 2016;Tominey & McClelland, 2011) and low level of parental education (Sektnan et al., 2010;Tominey & McClelland, 2011), the parentchild relationship is adversely affected (Mintz et al., 2011). This negative aspect also negatively affects the child's self-regulation development (Baydar et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
A deep understanding of the relationship between self-regulation and role models can enrich the theoretical models that affect the acquisition of self-regulation skills. This study aims to determine the moderating role demographic variables (i.e., gender, grade, and parent’s education levels) have on the relationship between middle school students’ perceptions of role modeling and their self-regulation. The study uses the explanatory correlation model, a correlational quantitative research design. The sample consists of 1,100 students studying in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades of secondary schools during the 2018–2019 academic year. The data have been analyzed using regression analysis in the package program SPSS 25 with the Process Macro plugin. The study has concluded the variables of gender and parents’ education levels have a moderating effect on the relationship between secondary school students’ perceptions toward role modeling and their self-regulation levels; grade level had no moderating effect. This study indicated that the father’s education level had a more moderator effect on this relationship. These results are valuable in terms of revealing that the education level of the mother and father, which is considered the only variable in the studies, should be examined as two separate variables. The relationship between role modeling perceptions and self-regulation can be examined from a broader perspective by considering sociocultural, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic variables.
... A common theme across the majority of early SEL interventions is that they are child-centered, which is thought to promote active child engagement with intervention content (Massouleh et al., 2012). For example, the Red Light, Purple Light intervention (Tominey and McClelland, 2011;Schmitt et al., 2015;) centers children's experiences and active engagement by using fun and ageappropriate music and movement activities designed to promote behavioral self-regulation. During this intervention, children are given agency in interacting with the games as they choose and are also offered opportunities for autonomy in leading games. ...
... Despite the fact that many SEL interventions take a child-centered approach, evidence of the efficacy of these interventions is mixed Nesbitt and Farran, 2021). Although some interventions like Red Light, Purple Light (Tominey and McClelland, 2011;Schmitt et al., 2015) and PATHS (Domitrovich et al., 2007) have shown positive effects on their target outcomes in preschoolers, other programs have shown mixed or null effects. For example, in a recent study Nesbitt and Farran (2021) found no positive impacts of the Tools of the Mind curriculum for supporting SEL in early childhood. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social-emotional competencies are important for school-readiness and can be supported through social-emotional learning (SEL) interventions in the preschool years. However, past research has demonstrated mixed efficacy of early SEL interventions across varied samples, highlighting a need to unpack the black box of which early interventions work, under what conditions, and for whom. In the present article we discuss the critical implementation component of active child engagement in an intervention as a potential point of disconnect between the intervention as designed and as implemented. Children who are physically present but unengaged during an intervention may lead to decreased average impacts of an intervention. Furthermore, measuring young children’s active engagement with an intervention may help to guide iterative intervention development. We propose a four-step protocol for capturing the multi-dimensional and varied construct of active child engagement in a SEL intervention. To illustrate the utility of the protocol, we apply it to data from a pilot study of a researcher-implemented, semi-structured block play intervention focused on supporting the development of SEL and math skills in preschoolers. We then present future directions for the integration of active participant engagement into the measurement of implementation of SEL interventions for young children.
... The games increase in complexity over time and focus on improving attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. Several studies have trialled this intervention and found that it leads to more improvements in the targeted skills (i.e., attention, working memory, and inhibitory control) and academic achievement when compared control conditions involving the early education curriculum as usual [14][15][16] . Keown et al. 17 conduced a randomized controlled trial of RLPL with similar results to those of the studies mentioned prior; but this study also measured changes in more general self-regulatory abilities within the classroom to indicate generalisability of skills. ...
... Numerous early childhood curriculum, play-based programmes exist, most focusing primarlity on executive functioning, a key factor in self-regualation but not all encompassing. All of these programmes been led to improved cognitive function [14][15][16][17][18][19]22 but none have led to robust findings of behavior change [17][18][19] . There are many possible reasons for this, one being the narrow focus on executive functions, another being the lack of purposeful genralisation of skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
Poor self-regulation has been associated with an array of adverse outcomes including difficulties with school transition, educational attainment, and social functioning in childhood, and employment, mental health, physical health, relationships, and criminal activity in adulthood. Enhancing Neurobehavioural Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercises (ENGAGE) is a play-based intervention fostering the development of self-regulation in pre-schoolers and has led to improvements within the home setting. The aim for this study was to ascertain whether ENGAGE can be implemented within an Early Childhood Education (ECE) group setting and whether this leads to improved self-regulation. This trial has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR); trial number ACTRN12622000364774; trial web address: https://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12622000364774.aspx . 668 children aged 3–5 years and their teachers, across 28 ECEs participated. Children’s self-regulation skills were assessed via scores on the Hyperactivity, Aggression, and Attention Problems subscales of BASC-2. Results indicted no significant changes in self-regulation skills across a 10-week waitlist period. Following 10 weeks of the ENGAGE programme, significant improvements in self-regulation were reported, and these were maintained at 2- and 6-month follow-up. These findings indicate that ENGAGE translates well into the ECE setting and has the potential to have population-based impacts which could lead to more positive societal outcomes.
... Gibson et al., 2011;Kidokoro et al., 2014;Klingberg et al., 2005;Løhaugen et al., 2011;Lundqvist et al., 2010;Melby-Lervåg et al., 2016), the improvements do not seem to transfer to untrained domains (Blair & Razza, 2007;Diamond, 2012;Diamond & Lee, 2011;Diamond & Ling, 2016), nor to untrained EF skills , nor to everyday life contexts if the intervention is not included in these scenarios (Blair, 2017). The efficacy of EF treatments through physical activities (Best & Miller, 2010;Ng et al., 2017;Tomporowski et al., 2008) and non-computerized games (Tominey & McClelland, 2011) has also been demonstrated. The effectiveness of these interventions could depend on the activation of strategies and cognitive skills related to EFs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Executive Functions are a set of interrelated, top-down processes essential for adaptive goal-directed behaviour, frequently impaired across different neurodevelopmental disorders with variable degrees of severity. Many executive-function-training studies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders have focused on near effects, investigating post-treatment improvements on directly trained processes, while enhancements of skills not directly trained, defined as far effects, are less considered, albeit these could be extremely relevant for reducing the negative impact of a disorder’s core symptomatology. This systematic review and metanalysis aims to investigate the far effect outcomes after EF training in children with different types of neurodevelopmental disorders. 17 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, while 15 studies were selected in the metanalysis. An overall statistically significant effect size was found in the majority of far effect outcome measures considered in the studies. In particular, trainings on executive functions determine significant far effects on daily life functioning (0.46, 95% CI: [0.05–0.87]) and clinical symptoms (0.33, 95% CI: [0.15–0.51]). Despite a high variability of the results, intensity, frequency and the laboratory/life contexts dimension seem to be the most influential variables in determining far effects. This systematic review and metanalysis highlights the need to measure far effects of executive function training in neurodevelopmental disorders, selecting treatments not only on directly targeted processes, but also according to far impacts on the functional weakness of the disorder.
... The findings of this study, which suggest that child's executive function deficits are a risk factor in the association of negative parenting with child's literacy and mathematics achievement in early school age, may have some practical implications for child's home and school environment. Since executive function skills can be promoted (Diamond, 2012), children may benefit from interventions aimed at nurturing the development of child's self-regulatory abilities (i.e., circle time games, Tominey & McClelland, 2011). Executive function training programmes, as well as parent training (e.g., Conger et al., 2012), could foster growth in child's academic achievement in middle childhood and adolescence. ...
Article
This study aims to explore the role of a child’s executive function deficits in the association of positive and negative parenting styles and practices with school success at early school age. A sample consisted of 174 parents who completed the Parenting Style Questionnaire, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, and the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed complete mediation of authoritarian parenting style, parental hostility/aggression and indifference/neglect on child’s low literacy and mathematics achievement by child’s executive function deficits. In contrast, the mediating role of child’s executive function deficits in the relationship between authoritative parenting style and parental warmth/affection and school success was not confirmed. The results of the study indicate that executive function deficits act as a risk factor in literacy and mathematics achievement of early school-age children whose parents express high levels of negative parenting style and practices. The study suggests that appropriate interventions would have to be focused on parent training and programmes for improving child’s executive functions.
... One specific curriculum, "Tools of the Mind, " is effective in improving preschoolers' and kindergartners' EF through strategies such as formulating play and learning plans that help children self-monitor and evaluate their performance and encourage reflection on how they can modify these plans (Diamond et al., 2007). Other activities specifically designed to increase EF have also been shown effective, such as computer games that focus on children's working memory (Diamond and Lee, 2011), games that involve paying attention to changing rules (Tominey and McClelland, 2011), and card-switching games that involve reflection training on the rules of the game (Center on the Developing Child, 2011). A play-based intervention for preschoolers where children had to help story characters overcome progressively harder challenges was found to be an accessible and effective group-based intervention for increasing all three EF dimensions (Traverso et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of nature-based practices on preschoolers’ executive function (EF). The Minnesota Executive Function Scale was administered to 147 children within one school district at the beginning and end of the preschool year. Results suggest incorporating nature-based practices into preschool was effective, as children in preschool classrooms where nature-based practices were used had significantly higher levels of EF at the end of the school year than children in programs where nature-based practices were more minimally used. Preschools that used a blended approach (some incorporation of nature-based practices) were significantly more effective than preschools that had lesser incorporation of nature-based practices. Results also point to the effectiveness of a blended approach for supporting EF in lower SES children. This study contributes to the literature regarding effective practices for supporting EF development and adds to the growing body of research surrounding the impact of nature play on child development and school readiness.
Article
This study investigates preschool teachers' experiences and perceptions of a professional development (PD) program on children's self-regulation. This PD opportunity was planned around two aims: to increase preschool teachers' awareness of children's self-regulation skills and support participants' understanding and skills to implement the Red Light, Purple Light (RLPL) Self-Regulation Intervention Program in their classrooms. The phenomenological research design is used to examine participant teachers' experiences in the PD program. The participants consist of 23 volunteered public preschool teachers. Data sources were semi-structured interviews and reflective writings. According to the results of the content analysis, the participating teachers thought that the PD program positively affected their personal and professional development. Participating in the PD program broadened their understanding of the conceptual basis of self-regulation in children. In addition, the participants expressed their perceptions about embedding ways of fostering self-regulation in the National Preschool Education Program practices and the structural features of the RLPL Self-Regulation Intervention Program.
Article
The benefits of active music participation and training for cognitive development has been evidenced in multiple studies, with this link leveraged in music therapy approaches with clinical populations. Although music, rhythm, and movement activities are widely integrated into children's play and early education, few studies have systematically translated music therapy-based approaches to a non-clinical population to support early cognitive development. This study reports the follow-up effects of the RAMSR program delivered by preschool teachers in low socioeconomic communities. This randomized control trial involved 213 children across eight preschools in disadvantaged communities in Queensland, Australia. The intervention group received 16 to 20 sessions of RAMSR over eight weeks, while the control group undertook usual preschool programs. Primary outcome measures included executive function (child assessment of shifting, working memory, and inhibition) and self-regulation (teacher report), with secondary outcomes of school readiness and visual motor integration. Data was collected pre and post intervention, and again six months later once children had transitioned into school. Results demonstrated significant intervention effects across the three time points for school readiness (p = .038, ηp 2 = .09), self-regulation (p <.001, ηp 2 = .08) and inhibition (p = .002 ηp 2 = .23). Additionally, the feasibility of building capacity in teachers without any music background to successfully deliver the program was evidenced. These findings are important given that children from low socioeconomic backgrounds are both more likely to need support for cognitive development yet have inequitable access to quality music and movement programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Parents support their children’s language and cognitive development through everyday, informal learning opportunities. We discuss how parents can capitalize on current research and theories of children’s development to cultivate the foundational skills needed to succeed in the twenty-first century. We first examine how children learn; specifically, how being active, engaged, meaningful, socially interactive, and joyful leads to optimal learning. We then discuss the 6 Cs (collaboration, communication, content, critical thinking, creativity, and confidence), or what children learn, and how parents can play a central role in supporting their children’ development of these skills.
Article
Using cognitive methods to fractionate functionally distinct aspects of short-term memory, a test battery was designed to tap the A. D. Baddeley and G. Hitch (1974) model of working memory. The battery was administered to 87 children aged 6 and 7 years; other standardized attainment measures were obtained for a subgroup of the children concurrently and 1 year later. Correlations between subtest scores indicated high construct validity for the central executive and phonological loop measures, although not for the visuospatial measures. Central executive scores shared unique associations with performance on the vocabulary, literacy, and arithmetic tests, whereas phonological loop scores shared specific associations with vocabulary knowledge only. The substantial internal and external validity of the test battery establishes its suitability for guiding detailed theoretical analyses of working memory function.
Article
We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive correlations existed between children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence. Consistent with predictions, and while controlling for the effects of parents' education and family income, school liking mediated the relation between effortful control and academic competence. Implications include a focus on proximal processes such as enhancing school liking and encouraging social relationships when designing interventions to promote academic competence.
Chapter
The present chapter examines self-regulation across the life span with a focus on integrating cognition and emotion. First, we situate self-regulation in a theoretical context and describe the conceptual foundations that have informed its study across multiple sources of influence, settings, and over time. We then discuss how self-regulation has been defined and operationalized in diverse fields over the life span including developmental, personality, cognitive, and educational perspectives. Next, we review measurement issues including the what, where, and how to assessing self-regulation from a multidimentional perspective. Finally, we discuss the development of self-regulation over the life span and conclude the chapter with common themes, implications, and future directions for research and intervention.