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Identifying ecological sustainability assessment factors for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on private rangeland in Namibia

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Abstract

Trophy hunting and ecotourism are important forms of sustainable utilisation in the human-impacted, working landscapes outside of formal parks and reserves. Research on the sustainability of such tourism operations, however, has focused on the financial viability of tourism operators, rather than environmental effects. This paper examines the sustainability strength of wildlife utilisation on private rangelands in Namibia in terms of ecological impact. Using grounded theory, 43 members of commercial conservancies were surveyed to identify themes in the practice and perception of sustainable utilisation. While basic tourism was infrequent, trophy hunting was a common source of revenue from wildlife. Three emergent themes from the data included differences in tourist versus hunting operations; attitudes and perceptions of the administration of conservation efforts; and the co-management of livestock and wildlife, especially farm economics and game-proof fencing. Overall, increases in the proportion of income derived from game (above 20% of farm revenue) were associated with concurrent reductions in domestic livestock, but did not increase the use of game-proof fences. Other factors delineating “weak” and “strong” sustainability on commercial Namibian rangelands are discussed. , 43, , , , , , , , 20%,

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... • As a product of leisure and recreative [4], namely hunting tourism, due to the increase in experience in practicing this information in recent decades; • as the use and conservation of natural spaces to keep the animal population controlled and ordered the number of specimens to support the natural balance, intersected with wildlife regulation [5], the commodification of wildlife experiences [6], and wildlife management for sustainable hunting [7]; • as an economic activity by setting up an income supplement in hunting areas, a market hunting being created as a new tourism economy [5] especially in rural areas [8], jobcreating activity [1,9], and sometimes with the purpose of reducing poverty [10]; • as cultural heritage [9,[11][12][13] and traditional activity [14]. Trophy hunting and hunting tourism have socioeconomic and ecological benefits [15][16][17][18] at the local and regional levels [9,19]. Moreover, as a primeval human activity, hunting has an increasing effect on the conservation of nature and positive economic effects through hunting tourism [20]. ...
... Trophy hunting and hunting tourism have socioeconomic and ecological benefits [15][16][17][18] at the local and regional levels [9,19]. Moreover, as a primeval human activity, hunting has an increasing effect on the conservation of nature and positive economic effects through hunting tourism [20]. ...
... Other European countries, such as Ukraine [2], Spain [3,44], Serbia [37,45,46], Croatia [20,42,[47][48][49], Sweden [6,9,50], Norway [4,12,51], Czech Republic [40,41], and Finland [38,52]; • African countries such as Namibia [17,21,23,26,[28][29][30]33,53,54], Ghana [55], Botswana [32,56,57], Zimbabwe [15,58], Senegal [28], and Ethiopia [16,59]; • other countries, such as Pakistan [19], Canada [5]. ...
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The hunting has a major importance from many perspectives: as a product of leisure and recrea-tive, as tool for conservation and wildlife management, as main economic activity in rural area or as cultural heritage and traditional activity for countries from entire world, especially for Europe and Africa. Therefore, this research fills a gap in the literature and offer a cross-cultural opinion and perceptions of the 198 hunters from Romania and Spain. The aim of the paper is to analyze the perceptions and opinions of hunters regarding the hunting tourism through an online self -administrated questionnaire by a convenience sampling using hunters associations from these countries. Among the values that identify hunting as an activity, hunters highlight the human values (friendship, company, ethics), ecological values (love of nature associated with hunting as a tool to understand and enjoy the natural environment), and social values (resources generated, hobby, effort). The respondents can self-criticize some components and aspects of hunting groups. Hunters believe that the future of this sector is moving towards a commercial hunt, as-sociated with purchasing power to ensure results. Regardless of the nationality of the hunters, their values related to this sector are similar.
... Rangeland landscapes are working landscapes, in which the "wild and the willed" [52] are reconciled and land is managed for both production and conservation [53]. Concepts of working and multifunctional landscapes have been applied throughout Southern Africa [29,51,54]. ...
... This is much more difficult in a landscape mosaic such as that found in the Zambian countryside, where commercial game farmers are usually isolated within a matrix of different land uses [29]. Certainly, contiguity is no guarantee of successful collective management, but other things equal, isolated farmers often have less access to benefits such as resource heterogeneity to safeguard wildlife productivity [39], shared cost of management activities like game counting, and the exchange of hunting clients among neighbors less invested in marketing and guesthouse operations [29,54]. Different fence laws and customs from country to country must also be considered in terms of ownership structure and population ecology [54]. ...
... Certainly, contiguity is no guarantee of successful collective management, but other things equal, isolated farmers often have less access to benefits such as resource heterogeneity to safeguard wildlife productivity [39], shared cost of management activities like game counting, and the exchange of hunting clients among neighbors less invested in marketing and guesthouse operations [29,54]. Different fence laws and customs from country to country must also be considered in terms of ownership structure and population ecology [54]. ...
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Residents of Southern Africa depend on rangeland for food, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Sustainable management of rangeland ecosystems requires attention to interactive effects of fire and grazing in a changing climate. It is essential to compare rangeland responses to fire and grazing across space and through time to understand the effects of rangeland management practices on biodiversity and ecosystem services in an era of global climate change. We propose a paradigm of ecologically-analogous rangeland management within the context of multifunctional landscapes to guide design and application of ecosystem-based rangeland research in Southern Africa. We synthesize range science from the North American Great Plains and Southern African savannas into a proposal for fire and grazing research on rangeland in Southern Africa. We discuss how management for the fire-grazing interaction might advance multiple goals including agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and resilience to increased variability under global change. Finally, we discuss several ecological and social issues important to the effective development of sustainable rangeland practices especially within the context of global climate change. The associated literature review serves as a comprehensive bibliography for sustainable rangeland management and development across the savanna biomes of Southern Africa.
... Over the years many books and articles related to tourism impacts research, sustainable tourism development and residents' perceptions of both were published, for example in the last 15 years: Andereck and Nyaupane (2011) [10], Aref (2010) [11], Assenova and Vodenska (2012) [8], Brida et al. (2011) [12], Chen and Chen (2010) [13], Choi and Murray (2010) [14], Diedrich and Garcia-Buades (2009) [15], Kim et al. (2013) [16], Nunkoo and Gursoy (2012) [17], Vareiro et al. (2013) [18], Vargas-Sanchez et al. (2011) [19], Yu et al. (2011) [20], McGranahan (2011) [21], Dibra (2015) [22], Rodríguez and Espino (2016) [23], Cvelbar and Dwyer (2013) [24], Muresan et al. (2019) [25], Ulus and Hatipoglu (2016) [26], Tsung and Fen-HauhJan (2019) [27], Cruz Ruiz et al. (2019) [28], Cruz Ruiz et al. (2020) [29], Mathew and Sreejesh (2017) [30], Cevirgen et al. (2012) [31], Cottrell et al. (2007) [32], Rasoolimanesh and Jaafar (2017) [33], Zamani-Farahani (2016) [34], Cucculelli and Goffi (2016) [35], Long and Kayat (2011) [36], Fong and Lo (2015) Thematically all those publications can be differentiated in the following themes: residents' perceptions, tourism sustainability, tourism impacts and sustainability factors. The main areas of investigation are outlined as follows: ...
... • Another specific research topic is the role various factors play for residents' perceptions and destination tourism sustainability. There are some publications researching sustainability assessment factors [21], factors influencing businesses to adopt sustainable tourism practices [22], factors in achieving the sustainability of a tourism destination [23], etc. The importance of economic, environmental and social factors to sustainable operations [24] is also revealed. ...
... • All researchers tried to use various techniques for their investigations and did their best to achieve reliable and significant results. All research on residents' perceptions is based on questionnaire surveys but as a major critique to all studied publications it has to be pointed out that the number of respondents in most of them is quite low (in the researched publications they vary from 43 [21] to 1230 [28]) - [13,14,16,18,27,29,[30][31][32][33][34]. Despite the low respondent numbers authors go to certain lengths applying sophisticated quantitative techniques and methodology while the same results can be very easily obtained by using much simpler methods such as average values, correlation coefficients and even the descriptive method [28]. ...
Article
The issue of sustainable tourism development is discussed in numerous academic publications and official documents. Nevertheless practical implications of this concept are very rare in tourist destinations in Bulgaria. Sustainable tourism development can be shortly described as a development where the resulting economic and social changes lead to a decrease in the need for environmental protection. Quite a few publications try to identify the factors for destinations’ sustainable tourism development. The present research is an attempt to view sustainability as a result of various impacts tourism exerts on the destinations. It can be accepted that positive tourism impacts enhance sustainable tourism development while negative ones can be blamed for the unsustainability of tourist destinations. In their turn tourism impacts are subject to numerous regional and local factors making their monitoring and evaluation extremely difficult but nevertheless indispensable. The present study focuses on three main factors for tourism impacts in destinations in Bulgaria. The three factors investigated are: level of tourism development, stage of tourism development life cycle and prevailing tourism type. But how do we measure tourism impacts and how do me compare them? The impacts in those destinations are evaluated by the local population. This is a way in which all impacts can be compared since they are measured by one and the same indicator – the values they receive from the local population. 5 000 questionnaires are distributed and 4 397 are processed. One of the most interesting findings shows that the least sustainability can be expected in highly seasonal destinations no matter of the level or the stage of their tourism development It was found out that all three investigated factors are of great importance for the differentiation of local residents’ attitude towards tourism, for their perception of tourism impacts and for overall tourism sustainability in general.
... Unfortunately, few studies investigated ecological initiatives within the hotel industry (Stabler & Goodall, 1997;Bohdanowicz, 2003;Robinot & Giannelloni, 2010). Assessing the environmental impact of tourism operations requires a comprehensive understanding of how sustainable utilization affects the ecology, such as the abundance, distribution and demography of wildlife populations; increased mortality and decreased produc tivity of organisms in visited ecosystems; as well as soil, water and vegetation degra dation from increased human visitation (Reynolds & Braithwaite, 2001;McGranahan, 2011). The perceptions of tourism operators are important for under standing the interaction between tourism development and environment, especially for systems in which research on the ecological impacts of sustainable utilization is lacking (Rodger & Moore, 2004;Rodger et al., 2007;McGranahan, 2011). ...
... Assessing the environmental impact of tourism operations requires a comprehensive understanding of how sustainable utilization affects the ecology, such as the abundance, distribution and demography of wildlife populations; increased mortality and decreased produc tivity of organisms in visited ecosystems; as well as soil, water and vegetation degra dation from increased human visitation (Reynolds & Braithwaite, 2001;McGranahan, 2011). The perceptions of tourism operators are important for under standing the interaction between tourism development and environment, especially for systems in which research on the ecological impacts of sustainable utilization is lacking (Rodger & Moore, 2004;Rodger et al., 2007;McGranahan, 2011). ...
Article
Going green is more than a mere fad in the hotel industry, green hotel is becoming the mainstream. Based on the relative literature review, this study tries to develop a general conceptual framework of the green hotel rating system, it consists of 3 main parts including environmental protection, natural conservation and building infrastructure and comprises a total of 20 attributes. The paper proposes a general conceptual framework featuring its complex, multiple, relativistic and dynamic nature as a more comprehensive framework of green hotel rating system to provide authorities and hoteliers a guideline for identifying and implementing practical and measurable criteria to assess green hotels.
... Establishing a hunting reserve requires substantial sunk costs, including investment in a large land area and a high number of game species. Ecological and economic incompatibilities result in such a reserve being unable to concurrently generate substantial income from ecotourism, which is likely reinforced by social incompatibilities in the form of negative perceptions of many ecotourists towards hunting (McGranahan, 2011). Transitioning from a hunting reserve to a big game stay reserve would require additional property investments of $ 4.1 million (on average), creating a significant barrier to entry into this more profitable business model. ...
... Furthermore, owners of hunting reserves may be unwilling to adopt guided big game ecotourism due to personal preferences and lifestyle choices [e.g. (McGranahan, 2011)]. Given the potential for these constraints to impede adaptation, it is important for us to consider the likely long-term persistence of mismatched PLCAs. ...
... The realities of tourism sustainability are not only embedded in current practice but the industry's willingness (or otherwise) to contribute to environmental improvement (Becken, 2008;Scott and Becken, 2010). McGranahan's (2011) view is that the scientific literature is weak in two areas. First and foremost, ecology-related research seems to be inextricably intertwined with an economic rather than a conservative dynamic. ...
Article
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Purpose – The debate linking tourism with global warming is very polemical: neither camp engaged in the debate sees the other side. Sustainable tourism is seen by some as a panacea to mitigate the negative impact of tourism on global warming, and by many others as a ploy planted by post‐industrial society to divert attention from the core issues. A few see it as just an accidental relationship. This paper aims to be a reflective essay on the current state of polemics relating to tourism and global warming. Design/methodology/approach – A critical review of relevant literature coupled with original reflections of the authors forms the basis of argument employed in this paper. In certain ways, this paper is a meta‐analysis of the existing literature. Findings – In a conservative sense, the authors do not “find” anything, if finding means a definitive answer to a question. At the same time, it can be said that the objective is achieved since the analysis leads to the opening up of fresh streams of thought and balanced perspectives on politically charged issues. Originality/value – The authors do not try to market yet another version of the “original”. The value of what is discussed in this paper lies in bringing together seemingly disparate and diverse perspectives on global warming and sustainable tourism. This is useful for everyone, especially for those tasked with building consensus as well as those interested in seeing the political nature of such consensus.
... The targets are large, majestic alpha males in their prime, a counterevolutionary tactic that exacerbates populations (Caro, Young, Cauldwell, & Brown, 2009;IUCN, 2016;Koshkarev, 2002;Lewis & Alpert, 1997;Shukurov, 2013); many trophy animals are threatened and dwindling. Studies show that hunting leads to steep population declines (Bashqawi, 2014;Deere, 2011;Dowsley, 2009;Gressier, 2014;Harris & Pletscher, 2002;Heffelfinger, Geist, & Wishart, 2013;Heinen et al., 2001;Knezevic, 2009;Koshkarev, 2002;Leader-Williams et al., 2005;Lindsey, Balme et al., 2013;Mahoney & Jackson, 2013;Marchand et al., 2014;Maroney, 2005;McGranahan, 2011;Naevdal, Olaussen, & Skonhoft, 2012;Singh & Milner-Gulland, 2011). Trophy hunting also sets a bad precedent: often only rich foreigners can hunt in places like Central Asia and Africa, making trophy hunting appear reminiscent of colonialism; it is motivated by conspicuous consumption and dominance, reducing beauty to possession (League against Cruel Sports, 2004). ...
Article
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As traditional international trophy hunting destinations are becoming less accessible due to hunting restrictions and regulations, new destinations are entering the scene, such as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, located in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan has grown to be one of the top destinations for international trophy hunting of argali Ovis ammon and ibex Capra sibirica, both of which are in danger of extinction. Empirically, the article draws on a case study from the largest region in Kyrgyzstan, At-Bashy, and 395 questionnaires with local inhabitants from 5 villages, and 1 interview with an international trophy hunting tour operator. In this article, the impacts of trophy hunting as a tourism practice in a rural context is discussed in terms of its sustainability and through the opinions of the local inhabitants. In sum, the negative impacts of trophy hunting in At-Bashy seem to overrule the positive ones, and in its current form it is not sustainable. The local inhabitants report about a decrease in argali and ibex during the last years; they receive basically no economic benefits from hunting tourism; and not surprisingly, 70% of the population rejects the further development of the industry in its current shape.
... The realities of tourism sustainability are not only embedded in current practice but the industry's willingness (or otherwise) to contribute to environmental improvement (Becken, 2008;Scott and Becken, 2010). McGranahan's (2011) view is that the scientific literature is weak in two areas. First and foremost, ecology-related research seems to be inextricably intertwined with an economic rather than a conservative dynamic. ...
... Other private reserve models include those that support captive breeding, hunting, adventure experiences or education programmes as a means to generate tourism revenue. Private reserves such as these are most popular and numerous in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Kenya, as well as in Australia where their benefits are widely reported (Buckley, 2009a;Child, Musengezi, Parent, & Child, 2012;Figgis, Humann, & Looker, 2005;McGranahan, 2011;Sims-Castley, Kerley, Geach, & Langholz, 2005;Spenceley, 2008). ...
Article
Ecotourism in private reserves combines the establishment of protected areas with an incentive mechanism to conserve biodiversity. Brazil's private reserve system is well-established but little is known about its links to tourism. This study puts the global private protected area into context and quantifies the extent to which ecotourism has been adopted as a sustainable land-use practice on private reserves in Brazil. Our findings demonstrate that small reserves do contribute to conservation and are used for ecotourism. The belief that large reserves are necessary for ecotourism and conservation is challenged. Only 4% (n = 45) of the 1182 reserves are engaged in ecotourism, mainly those within the Atlantic Forest biome and these are generally small in size (<50 ha). Reserves provide modest to basic accommodation as well as education and economic opportunities that include adjacent communities. Hiking and bird watching are the most popular activities but many reserves are threatened by poaching and invasive species. The low adoption of ecotourism appears due to a combination of factors, including lack of landowner interest, constraints imposed by regulations, logistics and anthropogenic threats. Nonetheless, there is potential to expand ecotourism within private reserves as 143 further private reserves are located near those already engaged in ecotourism.
... 70% between 1972 and 1992 [51]. With a market incentive to manage wildlife populations alongside domestic livestock, these commercial rangelands became multifunctional landscapes that produce diverse agricultural output (meat and fiber from multiple domestic and wild species), create new markets (foreign trophy hunters and ecotourists), and conserve native biodiversity [52,53]. ...
Article
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Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconciliation of food production and biodiversity conservation, including relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity and stability; insect pest and pollinator management; integrated crop and livestock systems; countryside biogeography and heterogeneity-based rangeland management. Ecological principles are integrated across three spatial scales: fields, farms, and landscapes.
... Rangeland fragmentation that results in many small land units precludes sufficient patch size or number for long-term conservation and land management objectives. Conservancies and landowner associations can help coordinate heterogeneity-based management at broad spatial scales (Toombs et al. 2010;McGranahan 2011). 2. Professionals and the general public have largely learned to promote uniformity in disturbance processes and minimize the occurrence of both undistributed and severely disturbed areas. ...
Chapter
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Rangeland management, like most disciplines of natural resource management, has been characterized by human efforts to reduce variability and increase predictability in natural systems (steady-state management often applied through a command-and-control paradigm). Examples of applications of traditional command and control in natural resource management include wildfire suppression, fences to control large ungulate movements, predator elimination programs, and watershed engineering for flood control and irrigation. Recently, a robust theoretical foundation has been developed that focuses on our understanding of the importance of variability in nature. This understanding is built upon the concept of heterogeneity, which originated from influential calls to consider spatial and temporal scaling in ecological research. Understanding rangeland ecosystems from a resilience perspective where we recognize that these systems are highly variable in space and time cannot be achieved without a focus on heterogeneity across multiple scales. We highlight the broad importance of heterogeneity to rangelands and focus more specifically on (1) animal populations and production, (2) fire behavior and management, and (3) biodiversity and ecosystem function. Rangelands are complex, dynamic, and depend on the variability that humans often attempt to control to ensure long-term productivity and ecosystem health. We present an ecological perspective that targets variation in rangeland properties—including multiple ecosystem services—as an alternative to the myopic focus on maximizing agricultural output, which may expose managers to greater risk. Globally, rangeland science indicates that heterogeneity and diversity increase stability in ecosystem properties from fine to broad spatial scales and through time.
... Each focus group was facilitated by one of the study authors and lasted 2 h. We adapted a grounded theory approach (Strauss and Corbin, 1990) used elsewhere to assess landowner perceptions in face-to-face interviews (McGranahan, 2011). In the focus groups, we allowed participants to self-identify their primary concerns, attitudes, and experiences with energy development in their counties and communities with six open-ended prompts meant more to incite discussion than elicit specific answers. ...
Article
Ecosystems worldwide have been subject to new or intensified energy development facilitated by technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, activity that has generated concern for air, water, biotic, and social resources. Application of these technologies in the development of the Bakken oil patch has made it one of the most productive petroleum plays in North America, causing unprecedented landscape industrialization of otherwise rural, agricultural counties in western North Dakota. The region is isolated, and development impacts have not been well-studied. To identify concerns of citizens of the Bakken and determine how research and policy might support them, we conducted a two-part study: First, we held focus groups with resource management and community leaders in three major oil-producing counties. Second, we used an outline of the major concerns expressed by focus group members as a survey for landowners and farm/ranch operators. We found little relationship between survey respondents' reported categorization of energy impacts and actual land area impacted, suggesting factors such as attitude towards development, degree of compensation, and level of disturbance are relevant. Landowners agreed with focus groups on the nature of relationships between energy companies and locals and development impacts on infrastructure and communities; those reporting greater impacts tended to agree more strongly. But many specific problems described in focus groups were not widely reported in the survey, suggesting energy-community relationships can be improved through state-level public policy and respect from energy companies for locals and their way of life. Consideration of these concerns in future energy policy—both in the Bakken and worldwide—could reduce social tension, lessen environmental impact, and increase overall social, economic, and environmental efficiency in energy development.
... At this juncture, it is also necessary to note that there are numerous examples of ecotourism development prompted by NGOs using private land in other geographical regions. For instance, several studies have alluded to the modus operandi for such endeavour triggered by the lure of economic development, job creation and poverty alleviation (inter alia McGranahan, 2011;Pegas & Castley, 2014;Snyman, 2012). Moreover, these studies are largely confined to geographical regions that are well associated with ecotourism developments, such as Latin America and the African sub-continent (Lindsey, Alexander, Mills, Romanach, & Woodroffe, 2007;Ojeda, 2012). ...
Article
The popularity of adopting ecotourism initiatives has led to a mushrooming of eco-precincts around the world. Arguably, ecotourism fulfils an ideological paradigm because of its inherent benefits to both natural and human environments. However, whilst theory has guided the justification for ecotourism and development of its principles, very little exists to steer how ecotourism should be contextually embedded. This research seeks to explain the notion of manufactured ecotourism from the perspective of Singapore. In a land-scarce country, ecotourism is hardly conceivable in an environment where occupying physical space is expected to bring high economic returns on infrastructural investment. However, from a comparative case-study approach, three specific exemplars of ecotourism developments have shown that the manufacturing of ecotourism has shifted the narrative of land use in Singapore and continues to transform the tourism landscape in the country. The outcomes of the research steer the directions of planning and stakeholder partnership for new destinations embarking on their ecotourism journey to ‘Envision Eden’.
... At this juncture, it is also necessary to note that there are numerous examples of ecotourism development prompted by NGOs using private land in other geographical regions. For instance, several studies have alluded to the modus operandi for such endeavour triggered by the lure of economic development, job creation and poverty alleviation (inter alia McGranahan, 2011;Pegas & Castley, 2014;Snyman, 2012). Moreover, these studies are largely confined to geographical regions that are well associated with ecotourism developments, such as Latin America and the African sub-continent (Lindsey, Alexander, Mills, Romanach, & Woodroffe, 2007;Ojeda, 2012). ...
Article
The popularity of adopting ecotourism initiatives has led to a mushrooming of eco-precincts around the world. Arguably, ecotourism fulfils an ideological paradigm because of its inherent benefits to both natural and human environments. However, whilst theory has guided the justification for ecotourism and development of its principles, very little exists to steer how ecotourism should be unpacked across considerably varying dimensions of ecotourism across the globe. This research seeks to explain the notion of manufactured ecotourism from the perspective of Singapore. In a land-scarce country, ecotourism could hardly be conceivable in an environment where occupying physical space is expected to bring high economic returns on infrastructural investment. However, from a comparative case study approach, three specific exemplars of ecotourism developments have shown that the manufacturing of ecotourism has shifted the narrative of land use in Singapore and continues to transform the tourism landscape in the country. The outcomes of the research steer the directions of planning and stakeholder partnership for new destinations embarking on their ecotourism journey to ‘Envision Eden’.
... Of these types of tourism, the one most widely in disagreement with ecotourism is trophy-hunting for the purpose of conservation (Baker, 1997;Gunn, 2001;McGranahan, 2011). In China, as well as in other parts of Southeast Asia and throughout the global South, trophy-hunting has been suggested as a way to actively control local wildlife populations and fund agencies that seek to conserve biodiversity (Baker, 1997;Harris, 1995;Lindsey, 2008;Shackleton, 2001). ...
Chapter
Noting the significant impact that tourism has on ecosystems and their local communities, ecotourism has emerged as an alternative that seeks to find a “win-win” strategy for all parties involved. With growing tourism throughout Asia and active development of many ecosystems, ecotourism has the promise to mend the social and economic gap while also ensuring a positive ecological impact over time. This chapter seeks to understand how sustainability and conservation fit into the core values of the ecotourism industry, as well as, how the industry plans for the short-term and long-term effects of their actions. Two important relationships are then explored in-depth because of their significance to the current and future state of ecotourism in Asia. Working with mass media, a strong brand may be created, thus increasing tourism to a destination site and ensuring that it is sustained over time. And through key partnerships, like those of local communities, ecotourism may have the potential to mutually benefit the people and the places tourists come to visit.
... 2017). Healthy grasslands prevent soil erosion and reduce flooding (Pimentel et al., 1994;Pierson et al., 2002;Karimzadegan et al., 2007), provide wildlife habitat (Bork et al., 2002;Mahdavi, 2012), and are can be scenic and useful for tourism (Karimzadegan et al., 2007;McGranahan, 2011;Bedelian, 2012). Rangeland is a major land use type. ...
Article
Increased use and increasing demands pose serious threats to rangelands. In this study, we document a pronounced downward trend in rangeland quality in the Alborz Mountains in Firozkuh Country, Iran using analysis of three machine‐learning models (MLMs). A total of 1,147 transects were established to evaluate the rangeland quality trends from field data collected over a seven‐year period. Twelve independent conditional factors were analyzed for their relationships to range quality through three MLMs – random forest (RF), classification and regression tree (CART), and support vector machine (SVM). Based on assessments of the trained and validated models, RF, with a ROC‐AUC=0.96, was determined to be the most robust. The results show that about 20% of the rangeland in the study area is in a critically degraded condition. Distances from roads and livestock density are the two factors most strongly linked to degradation. These results, in combination with field observations, indicate that the rangelands of the study area face two major challenges (overgrazing and early grazing) that require new strategies to mitigate and prevent damages. This study may provide important guidance for evaluating rangeland conditions in other regions of the world. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Article
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Over the 20th century, wildlife-based tourism has experienced significant growth, with increasing emphasis placed on ecotourism as one of the most beneficial forms of sustainable tourism. A widely accepted argument is that ecotourism is a non-consumptive practice far better received than those consumptive forms, such as sport or trophy hunting tourism. This paper discusses aspects of perception, consumption and conservation of wildlife in relation to the North–South divide and the controversial issue of sport and trophy hunting tourism. By presenting results of research conducted in Namibia and Botswana, this paper presents a provocative argument that ecotourism embraces forms of consumptive tourism, which can prove to be beneficial to the economy, the environment and local communities.
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264 (0)61 249 015 Fax: + 264 (0)61 240 339 email: contact@dea.met.gov.na http://www.dea.met.gov.na This series of Research Discussion Papers is intended to present preliminary, new or topical information and ideas for discussion and debate. The contents are not necessarily the final views or firm positions of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Comments and feedback will be welcomed. Edited by Directorate of Environmental Affairs Cover illustration by Helga Hoveka Work on this paper has been supported through funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), through the World Wildlife Fund (US) LIFE Programme, under terms of Agreement no. 623-02510A-00-3135-00, the Overseas Development Institute, with funding from the British Department of International Development (DFID), The Swedish Government (Sida) and by the Namibian Government.
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Summary • The success of large-scale cattle ranching in African savanna vegetation has often been limited by problems of bush encroachment and disease (in particular trypanosomiasis spread by tsetse flies). Mkwaja Ranch, occupying an area of 462 km2 on the coast of Tanzania, is a recent example of a large ranching enterprise that failed within the savanna environment. It was closed in 2000 after 48 years of operation. In this paper we describe the main vegetation types of the area (excluding closed forest vegetation) and relate their patterns of distribution to the former use of the ranch for cattle. • The study area comprised the former ranch and parts of the adjacent Saadani Game Reserve, which had not been grazed by cattle for many years and had never been used for large-scale ranching. Following field surveys, 15 distinct types of grassland and bush vegetation were defined and a vegetation map was created using a Landsat TM satellite image. A multispectral classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm gave good results and enabled all 15 vegetation types to be distinguished on the map. • Two main spatial trends were detected in the vegetation. One was a large-scale decrease in the cover of bushland from the most intensively used parts of the ranch through more extensively used areas to the game reserve; this trend was attributed to differences in management history as well as to climatic and topographic factors. A second trend was a radial vegetation pattern associated with the enclosures where cattle were herded at night. High amounts of three bushland types [dominated by (i) Acacia zanzibarica, (ii) Dichrostachys cinerea, Acacia nilotica or Acacia mellifera and (iii) Terminalia spinosa] occurred in a zone between 300 and 2500 m from the paddocks, with a peak in bush density at about 900 m (mean value for 18 paddocks). In contrast, bushland dominated by Hyphaene compressa was scarce close to the paddocks and became more abundant with distance. There was also a radial trend in the grassland communities: close to the paddocks there was short grass vegetation containing many ruderals and invasive weedy species, while the tall grassland types with species such as Hyperthelia dissoluta and Cymbopogon caesius occurred further away in the areas less affected by cattle. • Synthesis and applications. The intensive modern livestock ranching as practised on Mkwaja Ranch proved to be unsustainable both economically and ecologically. In the end, the biggest problem faced by the ranch managers was not controlling disease, as had originally been feared, but preventing the spread of bush on pasture land. The results of our study demonstrate just how severe the problem of bush encroachment was, especially in areas close to paddocks. An important lesson for management is that grazing patterns need to be taken into consideration when determining the sustainable stocking rate for an area. To reduce the risk of bush encroachment in grazing systems with focal points such as paddocks or watering points, stocking rates need to be lower than in systems with a more uniform grazing distribution.
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Conservation biologists have used surrogate species as a shortcut to monitor or solve conservation problems. Indicator species have been used to assess the magnitude of anthropogenic disturbance, to monitor population trends in other species, and to locate areas of high regional biodiversity. Umbrella species have been used to delineate the type of habitat or size of area for protection, and flagship species have been employed to attract public attention. Unfortunately, there has been considerable confusion over these terms, and several have been applied loosely and interchangeably. We attempt to provide some clarification and guidelines for the application of these different terms. For each type of surrogate, we briefly describe the way it has been used in conservation biology and then examine the criteria that managers and researchers use in selecting appropriate surrogate species. By juxtaposing these concepts, it becomes clear that both the goals and selection criteria of different surrogate classes differ substantially, indicating that they should not be conflated. This can be facilitated by first outlining the goals of a conservation study, explicitly stating the criteria involved in selecting a surrogate species, identifying a species according to these criteria, and then performing a pilot study to check whether the choice of species was appropriate before addressing the conservation problem itself. Surrogate species need to be used with greater care if they are to remain useful in conservation biology.
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Does ecotourism contribute towards conservation of threatened species and habitats or is it just a marketing ploy of the tourism industry? Using 251 case studies on ecotourism from the literature, I looked at the distribution of case studies over continents, habitats and flagship species types and what factors influenced whether an ecotourism regime was perceived as ecologically sustainable by authors. Over 50% of ecotourism case studies were reported from Africa and Central America. The overall distribution of ecotourism case studies did not reflect vertebrate endemism, nor overall tourism distribution in terms of tourist numbers and receipts. There were significant differences between continents and habitats with regard to the proportion of sustainable case studies: ecotourism is perceived to be less sustainable in South America and Asia, and in island and mountain habitats. The type of flagship species also influenced whether ecotourism was classified as sustainable or not: ecotourism with no flagship species was rarely classified as sustainable while charismatic bird and mammal species were associated with a higher probability of sustainability. In a multivariate analysis, flagship species type and local community involvement were important predictors of sustainability in ecotourism. Detailed a priori planning, local involvement and control measures were perceived by authors of case studies to increase the success of ecotourism in conservation. They also perceived that ecotourism can only be an effective conservation tool under certain conditions. If these are met, the evidence indicates that ecotourism can make a contribution to conservation.
Chapter
This chapter assesses the range of forms of wildlife utilization that lie between these two endpoints of domestication and sustainable harvesting. While it is clear that specialized use/domestication is not a force for conservation, it is equally apparent that its polar opposite is a positive force for diversity conservation. Even if in theory utilization can confer benefits for conservation, does it do so in practice? In the course of our analysis in this chapter, we attempt to sort out the differences between theory and practice. The last question that we pursue is whether there is any profitability to be had from the forms of wildlife utilization that should convey conservation benefits. If not, then there is little reason to be supporting a strategy based upon utilization. -from Authors
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Zambia is steadily reversing the precipitous decline of its wildlife, especially rhinos and elephants, through a program of community involvement and increased enforcement of anti-poaching laws. Once probably poachers themselves, villagers are now custodians of the environment because the program translates into cash, jobs, and improvements to villages. -Author
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Data derived from several sources were used to determine basic economic values for the trophy hunting industry in Namibia for the hunting season in 2000. Some 3640 trophy hunters spent 15 450 hunter-days, taking 13 310 game animals. Trophy hunting generated at least N$134 million (US$19.6 million) in direct expenditures, or gross output. Gross value added directly attributable to the industry was conservatively estimated at some N$63 million (US$9.2 million). Trophy hunting constitutes at least 14% of the total tourism sector and is a significant component of the Namibian economy. Some 24% of the income earned in the trophy hunting industry accrues to poor segments of society in the form of wages and rentals/royalties. About 21% of income generated is captured by the government, through fees and taxes. Trophy hunting is an important contributor to development. More research on the economics of the industry is needed.
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Discusses the above.-from Wildlife Review
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We assessed options for conserving the large- and medium-sized mammals indigenous to the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, using systematic conservation planning, the first such attempt for an entire ecoregion. The potential distributions and abundances of the 41 extant species for the entire region prior to anthropogenic transformation of habitats were estimated. This was particularly useful as it obviated any reliance on records of occurrence for conservation planning. Areas that had not been transformed through agriculture or other developments were considered available for conservation. The fragments of untransformed habitat were identified as being large enough to support communities at least 25 individuals of the smallest herbivore species. Smaller fragments were not considered suitable for mammal conservation. Transformation and fragmentation had significant impacts on potential populations, and this was asymmetrical across species, being higher for lowland than montane species. The existing reserve system was estimated to effectively conserve only half the mammal species, using the criteria applied here. Two conservation goals were compared; first, either conserving only CFR endemics and threatened species; and second, conserving all the mammals (with some exceptions for marginally occurring species). Options for protected area systems were assessed using C-Plan, a decision support system designed for systematic conservation planning. The irreplaceability of the planning units varied only slightly under the two goals, and the more inclusive goal was used to develop a proposed reserve network in which targets for all the species were achieved. The CFR endemics and threatened species effectively function as umbrella species for the remaining mammals. This study demonstrates that the incorporation into systematic conservation plans of conservation targets adequate for the persistence of populations comprising communities across entire ecoregions is feasible.
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Most ecosystems are now sufficiently altered in structure and function to qualify as novel systems, and this recognition should be the starting point for ecosystem management efforts. Under the emerging biogeochemical configurations, management activities are experiments, blurring the line between basic and applied research. Responses to specific management manipulations are context specific, influenced by the current status or structure of the system, and this necessitates reference areas for management or restoration activities. Attempts to return systems to within their historical range of biotic and abiotic characteristics and processes may not be possible, and management activities directed at removing undesirable features of novel ecosystems may perpetuate or create such ecosystems. Management actions should attempt to maintain genetic and species diversity and encourage the biogeochemical characteristics that favor desirable species. Few resources currently exist to support the addition of proactive measures and rigorous experimental designs to current management activities. The necessary changes will not occur without strong input from stakeholders and policy makers, so rapid information transfer and proactive research-management activities by the scientific community are needed.
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Very little is known about the characteristics of overnight ecolodge patrons. This study reports on the results of a questionnaire that was completed by 1,180 individuals who had stayed at least one night in either of two well-known ecolodges in Lamington National Park, Australia. A cluster analysis on 37 items pertaining to ecotourism behavior revealed three distinct groups. “Harder” ecotourists reflect a high level of environmental commitment and affinities with wilderness-type experiences, while “softer” ecotourists are much less committed on either dimension. “Structured” ecotourists, by comparison, reveal a strong pattern of commitment but a level of desire for interpretation, escorted tours, and services/facilities that is usually more associated with mass tourism. The marketing implications of these findings are considered.
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Developing an ecotourism enterprise is a complex and difficult undertaking for an entrepreneur. In addition to a thorough understanding of market principles and business fundamentals, the entrepreneur must build strong, lasting and equitable partnerships with local communities, protect the environment, and operate in sometimes adverse national and local conditions. In evaluating the potential sustainability of an ecotourism project the entrepreneur must understand the critical success factors for the project. This paper provides a methodology of evaluation for the three major categories of critical success factors: (1) environmental (environmental quality, site boundaries, water and opportunity costs), (2) community (community partnerships, community definition, community dialogue, and poverty and social inclusion) and (3) economic (national political environment, adequate legal systems and security, infrastructure and government policy). By investigating and rating these success factors and understanding their affect on the potential of an ecotourism project, the entrepreneur can effectively compare the potential of different projects. This article attempts to create a framework for understanding the ecotourism success factors taking the example of southern African countries.
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Preserving wildlife in a pristine state on a large scale is no longer feasible in view of continued human population increases, economic development, habitat fragmentation and degradation, the introduction of nonnative species, and commercialisation of wildlife products. The wise use of the planet's remaining wildlife resources will depend on management practices which recognise that indigenous people are integral parts of ecosystems. Community-based conservation, which attempts to devolve responsibility for the sustainable use of wildlife resources to the local level, can include consumptive activities, such as trophy hunting, as well as nonconsumptive forms of tourism. The trophy hunting management systems of six countries of eastern and southern Africa are profiled and critiqued, demonstrating a number of essential conditions for obtaining optimal wildlife conservation and community benefits.
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Can the global and local interests of conservation, development and tourism work together? In this article I examine four protected areas in Africa and India were these interests have been pursued with various degrees of success. A critical application of the concept of global commodity chains helps to clarify how eco-tourism works, and what are its main driving forces. Friction between local practices and global conservation norms has been frequent. In the study, governance structures, local ownership and institutions for solving disputes and for joint management have been present in the more successful cases.
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Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a dominant paradigm of sustainable tourism development, one which appears to chart a responsible course, balancing the requirements of tourism development with the protection of the environment. However, this paper argues that the predominant paradigm is too tourism‐centric, parochial and, therefore, inherently flawed, and that it effectively condones planning, management and policy approaches which fail to operationalise sustainable tourism in a manner consistent with the general aims and requirements of sustainable development. In particular, it is suggested that the tourism‐centric paradigm encourages inappropriate and inconsistent consideration of the scope and geographical scale of tourism's resource base, whilst also failing to adequately account for the intersectoral context of tourism development In order to re‐engage sustainable tourism development with its parental concerns (those of sustainable development generally), an alternative, extra‐parochial paradigm is proposed, whereby the remit of sustainable tourism development is re‐conceptualised primarily in terms of tourism's contribution to sustainable development.
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Abstract  The literature notes that natural disasters, including wildfires, that damage human settlements often have the short-term effect of “bringing people together.” Less recognized is the fact that such events can also generate social conflict at the local level. This study examines the specific sources of such social conflict during and after community wildfire events. Examining qualitative data generated from six case studies of wildfires in the American West, we suggest that integrating the theories of Weber, Giddens, and Habermas with community interaction theory provides a context for understanding such conflict. Rationalized forms of interaction and problem solving imposed by extra-local organizations during and after wildfire events are often resisted by local actors who are also inhibited from acting due to local capacity limitations. Thus, conflict occurs when social relations are disembedded by non-local entities, and there is a perceived loss of local agency.
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Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Establishing formal protected areas is one means of conserving habitat, but socio-economic and political constraints limit the amount of land in such status. Addressing conservation issues on lands outside of formal protected areas is also necessary. In this paper we develop a spatially explicit model for analyzing the consequences of alternative land-use patterns on the per-sistence of various species and on market-oriented economic returns. The biological model uses habitat preferences, habitat area requirements, and dispersal ability for each species to predict the probability of persistence of that species given a land-use pattern. The eco-nomic model uses characteristics of the land unit and location to predict the value of commodity production given a land-use pattern. We use the combined biological and eco-nomic model to search for efficient land-use patterns in which the conservation outcome cannot be improved without lowering the value of commodity production. We illustrate our methods with an example that includes three alternative land uses, managed forestry, agriculture, and biological reserve (protected area), for a modeled landscape whose physical, biological, and economic characteristics are based on conditions found in the Willamette Basin in Oregon (USA). We find that a large fraction of conservation objectives can be achieved at little cost to the economic bottom line with thoughtful land-use planning. The degree of conflict between conservation and economic returns appears much less using our joint biological and economic modeling approach than using a reserve-site selection ap-proach, which assumes that species survive only inside of reserves and economic activity occurs only outside of reserves.
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Does ecotourism contribute towards conservation of threatened species and habitats or is it just a marketing ploy of the tourism industry? Using 251 case studies on ecotourism from the literature, I looked at the distribution of case studies over continents, habitats and flagship species types and what factors influenced whether an ecotourism regime was perceived as ecologically sustainable by authors. Over 50% of ecotourism case studies were reported from Africa and Central America. The overall distribution of ecotourism case studies did not reflect vertebrate endemism, nor overall tourism dis-tribution in terms of tourist numbers and receipts. There were significant differences between continents and habitats with regard to the proportion of sustainable case studies: ecotourism is perceived to be less sustainable in South America and Asia, and in island and mountain habitats. The type of flagship species also influenced whether ecotourism was classified as sustainable or not: ecotourism with no flagship species was rarely classified as sustainable while charismatic bird and mammal species were associated with a higher probability of sustainability. In a multivariate analysis, flagship species type and local community involvement were important predictors of sustainability in ecotourism. Detailed a priori planning, local involvement and control measures were perceived by authors of case studies to increase the success of ecotourism in conservation. They also perceived that ecotourism can only be an effective conservation tool under certain conditions. If these are met, the evidence indicates that ecotourism can make a contribution to conservation.
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Namibia has the largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the world, 90% of which are found outside protected areas on commercial farms. We conducted a baseline survey of Namibian farmers between 1991 and 1993, with a yearly follow-up thereafter until 1999, to quantify the perceptions of farmers toward cheetahs. Specifically, we sought to identify factors that cause cheetahs to be perceived as pests and management practices that mitigate this perception. The baseline survey revealed that farmers who regarded cheetahs as problems removed an average of 29 cheetahs annually, whereas those who did not consider them problematic removed a mean of 14 annually. These figures dropped significantly to 3.5 and 2.0 cheetahs per year after the introduction of educational materials. The perception that cheetahs are pests was significantly associated with game farms, and the presence of “play trees” on farms emerged as a significant corollary of both negative perceptions and removals of cheetahs. Between 1991 and 1999, the mean annual number of cheetah removals significantly decreased from 19 to 2.1. Late in the study, cheetah killing was more closely correlated with perceived problems than in the early years of the study. These findings suggest that although cheetahs are still perceived as a problem, farmers' tolerance toward cheetahs has increased. Management strategies and economic incentives that promote cheetah conservation, such as the formation of conservancies, development of ecotourism, and marketing of “predator-friendly” meat, are essential for conserving cheetahs outside protected areas.
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This article examines narratives about nature conservation in Costa Rica, specifically those related to wildlife and biodiversity, and their evolution with the growth of tourism and bioprospecting industries. It outlines a traditional conservation narrative and two streams of an emerging counter-narrative, and discusses problems and prospects for each in contemporary Costa Rica. The use of narrative and counter-narrative follows Roe (1991, 1995), Fairhead and Leach (1995), and Leach and Mearns (1996). The article focuses particularly on the ways in which the narratives are increasingly drawing on, informing, and sometimes conflicting with one another; it is based on the author’s research undertaken in various protected areas in Costa Rica since 1994 and on research published by others.
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There is a lack of consensus among conservationists as to whether trophy hunting represents a legitimate conservation tool in Africa. Hunting advocates stress that trophy hunting can create incentives for conservation where ecotourism is not possible. We assessed the hunting preferences of hunting clients who have hunted or plan to hunt in Africa (n=150), and the perception among African hunting operators (n=127) of client preferences at two US hunting conventions to determine whether this assertion is justified. Clients are most interested in hunting in well-known East and southern African hunting destinations, but some trophy species attract hunters to remote and unstable countries that might not otherwise derive revenues from hunting. Clients are willing to hunt in areas lacking high densities of wildlife or attractive scenery, and where people and livestock occur, stressing the potential for trophy hunting to generate revenues where ecotourism may not be viable. Hunting clients are more averse to hunting under conditions whereby conservation objectives are compromised than operators realize, suggesting that client preferences could potentially drive positive change in the hunting industry, to the benefit of conservation. However, the preferences and attitudes of some clients likely form the basis of some of the problems currently associated with the hunting industry in Africa, stressing the need for an effective regulatory framework.
Article
Labeling ecotourism as ‘non-consumptive’ and contrasting it with direct uses of wildlife through activities such as hunting is common practice among organizations and academics primarily concerned with conservation. We interrogate this binary opposition by questioning the assumptions underlying it, namely that ‘the direct consumption of wildlife’ (i) does not occur in ecotourism; (ii) is incompatible with ecotourism; (iii) is the primary concern; and (iv) is inferior to ecotourism as both a conservation and development strategy. Based on a review of the relevant theoretical and case-study based literature, as well as our own research, we argue that categorizing ecotourism as ‘non-consumptive’ is not only inaccurate, but also has consequences for both environments and people. We suggest ways in which ecotourism can be re-conceptualized in order to better achieve its goals of conserving both nature and culture, and of contributing to both conservation and development.
Article
The private game industry has grown across Africa since the mid-20th century. While considerable research has documented wildlife production on commercial land in many eastern and southern African countries, few studies have focused specifically on the integration of livestock and game production in Namibia and Zambia. This paper reports a survey of 43 commercial conservancy members in Namibia and 23 game farmers in Zambia conducted between September 2004 and June 2005. The survey was based on inductive sampling theory and queried farmers on how they have integrated wildlife production into their management practices. Farmers in each country reported considerable integration of wildlife conservation and agricultural production. Namibian farmers reported substantial problems with bush encroachment, whereas none of their Zambian counterparts raised similar complaints. This paper describes the state of rangeland management on commercial farms in Namibia and Zambia and identifies important areas where further research can contribute to the enhancement of this conservation-production system. KeywordsGame farming-Game ranching-Wildlife production-Sustainable grazing-Veld management-Veld ecology-Bush encroachment-Namibia-Zambia
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This paper surveys different economic aspects of biodiversity conservation in Namibia's wildlife sector. One of the main causes of biodiversity loss has been the conversion of wildlife habitat to other land uses, notably livestock and crops. However, wildlife utilization strategies potentially yield significantly higher economic rates of return compared to these traditional land uses. Historically, the move towards land use patterns more favourable to wildlife has been hampered by a number of policy and institutional constraints. Since Namibia's independence, many of these constraints have now been removed or are in the process of reform. These moves are already encouraging investment in wildlife utilization, most notably in wildlife tourism and related activities. Some forms of wildlife utilization, particularly ecotourism and photographic safaris, will certainly complement the national and international commitment to biodiversity conservation. Consumptive uses may be economically attractive in some areas and will discourage further habitat conversion. However, uses which involve specialized management for the production of a few species may alter the species composition and functioning of ecosystems, causing conflict between the aims of wildlife utilization and biodiversity conservation. Less tangible components of biodiversity may remain under threat even under a well-designed wildlife utilization policy.
Article
The paper discusses the sustainability of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in the context of Costa Rican ecotourism. While the history of the Preserve is somewhat unique, the analysis of visitation, financial, ecological and economic factors provides a convincing case that tourism at the Preserve is sustainable. The experience of the Preserve is also put in the context of Costa Rican ecotourism, particularly to the national parks. The paper concludes that the Preserve has played a very important role in the development of Costa Rica as an ecotourism destination. Nonetheless, the failure of experience at the Preserve to inform recent changes in national park pricing policy reveal that Costa Rica has yet to fully capitalize on the experience gained and lessons learned at the Preserve.