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Applied Research Using Alpha/Theta Training for Enhancing Creativity and Well-Being

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Abstract

Introduction. Previous research has supported anecdotal reports of a possible correlation between the state of hypnagogia and the enhancement of creative ability (Green, 1972; Green, Green, & Walters, 1970, 1974; Parks, 1996; Stembridge, 1972; Whisenant & Murphy, 1977). Some psychologists (e.g., Maslow, 1963; Rogers, 1978) have suggested that there is also a correlation between creative ability and enhanced well-being.Methods. This study utilized an 8-week repeated-measures experimental design to investigate the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback on the willful use of hypnagogia for increasing creativity and well-being. The sample size of 62 (30 experimental subjects and 32 controls) was comprised of both sexes with a mean age of 45. The EEG parameters of hypnagogia were broadly defined as the presence and pre-dominance of alpha and theta brain wave activity. Creativity was defined by the three most readily agreed upon divergent thinking abilities: (a) fluency (the ability to generate numerous ideas), (b) flexibility (the ability to see a given problem from multiple perspectives), and (c) originality (the ability to come up with new and unique ideas).Results. Hypnagogia was analyzed through multiple univariate analyses of variance. The EEG data showed that both experimental and control participants were able to achieve light to deep hypnagogic states in every training session. T-tests results on fluency and originality scores from the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking and the Christensen-Guilford Associational Fluency Test showed no significant changes in pre- and post-tests for either group. However, flexibility in thinking, as measured by the Alternate Uses Test was significantly increased (p < .001) for all participants. Well-being, as measured by the Friedman Well-Being Scale, also significantly increased for all participants (p = .002).Discussion. The data suggest that willful use of hynagogia may indeed increase creativity and well-being. Participants reported increased personal creativity, stress reduction, heightened self-awareness, emotional equanimity, and improved work performance.

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... Well, there are associations between components of specific frequencies of the EEG and the different aspects of the cogni-tive and affective processing. In relation to the executive function as a process of interest, Boynton (2001) and Angelakis, Stathopoulou, Frymiare, Green, Business Location & Kounios (2007) show that the predominance of one of the neurophysiological patterns, the alpha band, it is associated with increased cognitive effectiveness, including executive function (mental flexibility, fluidity, inhibition) and the attention. Another associated pattern is the beta band, in particular beta 1 or SMR (12-15Hz) and beta 2 (15-21Hz), which has proven to be predominant in the anterior cingulate cortex, temporal cortex and sensorimotor cortex during tasks that require executive functions (Bockova, Chladek, Jurak, Halamek, & Rektor, 2007). ...
... In relation to the effects on executive function, the results obtained support the effectiveness of the training in neurofeedback to enhance specific cognitive abilities from the first session. Significant changes in performance in the task of the Iowa Gambling Task compared with the control group and the group LH, support the evidence from previous studies (Boynton, 2001;Doppelmayr, Klimesch, Stadler Polhuber, & Heine, 2002;Klimesch, Doppelmayr, Russegger, Pachinger, & Schwaiger, 1998;Vernon, Egner, Cooper, Compton, Neilands, Sheri, & Gruzelier, 2004) to enhance some of the elements of executive function like decision-making and delaying gratification, aspects that would include supramodal functions as flexibility, fluidity and inhibitory control (Bockova et al., 2007;Boynton, 2001;Lubar, 1991). Hanslmayer, Sauseng, Doppelmayr, Schabus and Klimesch (2005) observed in a sample of 18 healthy students the effectiveness of the training in a single session on the optimization of the cognitive performance in a mental rotation task. ...
... In relation to the effects on executive function, the results obtained support the effectiveness of the training in neurofeedback to enhance specific cognitive abilities from the first session. Significant changes in performance in the task of the Iowa Gambling Task compared with the control group and the group LH, support the evidence from previous studies (Boynton, 2001;Doppelmayr, Klimesch, Stadler Polhuber, & Heine, 2002;Klimesch, Doppelmayr, Russegger, Pachinger, & Schwaiger, 1998;Vernon, Egner, Cooper, Compton, Neilands, Sheri, & Gruzelier, 2004) to enhance some of the elements of executive function like decision-making and delaying gratification, aspects that would include supramodal functions as flexibility, fluidity and inhibitory control (Bockova et al., 2007;Boynton, 2001;Lubar, 1991). Hanslmayer, Sauseng, Doppelmayr, Schabus and Klimesch (2005) observed in a sample of 18 healthy students the effectiveness of the training in a single session on the optimization of the cognitive performance in a mental rotation task. ...
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Abstract: The training in neurofeedback (NF) consists of teaching individuals to modify, adjust and enhance their brain activity pattern. The aim of our research was to evaluate the effect of training on cognitive processes, specifically executive function, and mood in a non-clinical sample. A sample of 30 female college students were assigned to three groups: RH: right hemisphere (n = 10), LH: left hemisphere (n = 10) and control (n = 10). The dominance pattern of beta and the inhibition of the theta pattern were trained in a single session. Measures of executive function (Iowa Gambling Test) and questionnaires of mood were taken pre and post training. We found that NF training produced significant positive changes in executive performance in the RH group. In the EEG a tendency to improve beta rhythm after the training emerged too. Additionally, significant correlations were found between executive performance and negative mood in relation to theta frequency band. We conclude that the protocol seems effective to enhance some aspects of executive function as well as to decrease theta power improves the negative mood.
... Alpha/theta neurofeedback training represents a modification of a traditional neurofeedback training paradigm, whereby the individual attempts to increase his or her level of theta activity over that of alpha. Research has utilised this approach in an attempt to enhance creativity and well-being (Boynton, 2001). For instance, Boynton (2001) had two groups of participants complete an 8-week training regime. ...
... Research has utilised this approach in an attempt to enhance creativity and well-being (Boynton, 2001). For instance, Boynton (2001) had two groups of participants complete an 8-week training regime. One of the groups received neurofeedback training to enhance theta (4-8 Hz) over alpha (8-12 Hz) (alpha/theta training) and the other acted as a non-contingent control group. ...
... Both pre-and post training groups completed measures of creativity, examining aspects of cognitive fluency, flexibility and originality, as well as a measure of behavioural well-being. Boynton (2001) found no change in the EEG of those completing the neurofeedback training and no pre-versus post training differences in creativity or well-being between the two groups. ...
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There have been many claims regarding the possibilities of performance enhancement training. The aim of such training is for an individual to complete a specific function or task with fewer errors and greater efficiency, resulting in a more positive outcome. The present review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies to enhance performance in a particular area. Previous research has documented associations between specific cortical states and optimum levels of performance in a range of tasks. This information provides a plausible rationale for the use of neurofeedback to train individuals to enhance their performance. An examination of the literature revealed that neurofeedback training has been utilised to enhance performance from three main areas; sport, cognitive and artistic performance. The review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies within each of these three areas. Some suggestive findings have been reported with regard to the use of neurofeedback training to enhance performance. However, due to a range of methodological limitations and a general failure to elicit unambiguous changes in baseline EEG activity, a clear association between neurofeedback training and enhanced performance has yet to be established. Throughout, the review highlights a number of recommendations to aid and stimulate future research.
... In addition to alpha NFT, the alpha/theta ratio training protocol has also been developed. Boynton (2001) trained subjects to enhance theta over alpha to determine whether the training enhanced creativity and well-being. Although Boynton (2001) observed no effect of alpha/theta ratio NFT on well-being or creativity, she defended that the absence of effects was because of the confounding variables in the training program. ...
... Boynton (2001) trained subjects to enhance theta over alpha to determine whether the training enhanced creativity and well-being. Although Boynton (2001) observed no effect of alpha/theta ratio NFT on well-being or creativity, she defended that the absence of effects was because of the confounding variables in the training program. Nevertheless, subsequent studies by Egner and Gruzelier (2003) had successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of alpha/theta ratio NFT on music performance. ...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the frontal-midline theta (fmθ) activity uptraining protocol on attention and working memory performance of older and younger participants. Thirty-two participants were recruited. Participants within each age group were randomly assigned to either the neurofeedback training (fmθ uptraining) group or the sham-neurofeedback training group. There was a significant improvement in orienting scores in the older neurofeedback training group. In addition, there was a significant improvement in conflict scores in both the older and young neurofeedback training groups. However, alerting scores failed to increase. In addition, the fmθ training was found to improve working memory function in the older participants. The results further showed that fmθ training can modulate resting EEG for both neurofeedback groups. Our study demonstrated that fmθ uptraining improved attention and working memory performance and theta activity in the resting state for normal aging adults. In addition, younger participants also benefited from the present protocol in terms of improving their executive function. The current findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback training in cognitive function, and suggest that the fmθ uptraining protocol is an effective intervention program for cognitive aging.
... Since the early pioneering research of Kamiya (1969), various forms of meditation related research, whether breath-based or not, have consistently indicated an association between alpha activity and the subjective phenomenology of relaxation (Edwards, 2012a), as well as improvements in depression (Choi, Chi, Chung, Kim, Ahn, & Kim, 2009), cognitive performance (Hanslmayr, Sauseng, Doppelmayr, Schabus, & Klimesch, 2005), post-traumatic stress disorder (Penniston, Marrinam, Deming & Kulkosky,1993), alcoholism (Saxby & Penniston, 1995), creativity and well-being (Boynton, 2001), and sport performance (Cherapkina, 2011). The focus of the present research is on investigating the effects of a breath-based, Self-identification Meditation intervention on the physiologic variables of pulse, muscle tension/relaxation and breath rate as well as the electroencephalographic variables of delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma activity respectively. ...
... This was accompanied by increasing neurophysiologic trends towards the middle ranges of the electro-encephalographic spectrum, i.e., increased theta, alpha and beta activity, with corresponding de-creasing trends observed in the lower and higher frequency bands, i.e., decreased delta and gamma activity respectively. Similar findings of an association between alpha activity, experiences of relaxation, improvements in psychological variables, as well as therapeutic effects, have been reported in other studies (Boynton, 2001;Choi et al., 2009;Edwards, 2012a;Hanslmayr et al., 2005;Penniston et al. 1993;Saxby & Penniston, 1995). Taken collectively these findings generally indicate that the brief twenty minute meditation intervention was associated with a form of relaxed, pleasant, and alert state of waking consciousness, which had beneficial, personal, spiritual and psychotherapeutic value. ...
Article
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This study investigated the influence of a brief, twenty minute, breath based, Self-identification meditation intervention on meditation experiences, identity, mindfulness and spirituality perceptions, and correlative neurophysiologic functioning in a small convenience sample of 10 South African adults (7 women and 3 men, with a mean age of 55 and an age range of 33 to 77 years). Main findings were qualitatively meaningful improvements in experiences and identity perceptions. This was associated with significant quantitative increases in mindfulness, spirituality, muscle relaxation and EEG alpha activity. Integrated findings indicated the beneficial, personal, spiritual and psychotherapeutic value of the Self-identification meditation intervention.
... Since the early pioneering research of Kamiya (1969), various forms of meditation related research, whether breath-based or not, have consistently indicated an association between alpha activity and the subjective phenomenology of relaxation (Edwards, 2012a), as well as improvements in depression (Choi, Chi, Chung, Kim, Ahn, & Kim, 2009), cognitive performance (Hanslmayr, Sauseng, Doppelmayr, Schabus, & Klimesch, 2005), post-traumatic stress disorder (Penniston, Marrinam, Deming & Kulkosky,1993), alcoholism (Saxby & Penniston, 1995), creativity and well-being (Boynton, 2001), and sport performance (Cherapkina, 2011). The focus of the present research is on investigating the effects of a breath-based, Self-identification Meditation intervention on the physiologic variables of pulse, muscle tension/relaxation and breath rate as well as the electroencephalographic variables of delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma activity respectively. ...
... This was accompanied by increasing neurophysiologic trends towards the middle ranges of the electro-encephalographic spectrum, i.e., increased theta, alpha and beta activity, with corresponding de-creasing trends observed in the lower and higher frequency bands, i.e., decreased delta and gamma activity respectively. Similar findings of an association between alpha activity, experiences of relaxation, improvements in psychological variables, as well as therapeutic effects, have been reported in other studies (Boynton, 2001;Choi et al., 2009;Edwards, 2012a;Hanslmayr et al., 2005;Penniston et al. 1993;Saxby & Penniston, 1995). Taken collectively these findings generally indicate that the brief twenty minute meditation intervention was associated with a form of relaxed, pleasant, and alert state of waking consciousness, which had beneficial, personal, spiritual and psychotherapeutic value. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence of a brief, twenty minute, breath based, Self-identification meditation intervention on meditation experiences, identity, mindfulness and spirituality perceptions, and correlative neurophysiologic functioning in a small convenience sample of 10 South African adults (7 women and 3 men, with a mean age of 55 and an age range of 33 to 77 years). Main findings were qualitatively meaningful improvements in experiences and identity perceptions. This was associated with significant quantitative increases in mindfulness, spirituality, muscle relaxation and EEG alpha activity. Integrated findings indicated the beneficial, personal, spiritual and psychotherapeutic value of the Self-identification meditation intervention.
... However, several studies have indicated that working memory shows no change in the alpha NFT group even with a significant increase in the alpha amplitude [Juhel, 2011]. NFT caused no change in alpha amplitude and working memory performance [Boynton, 2001]. These controversial results from previous studies raise a reliability issue for the application of alpha NFT. ...
... Previous studies have raised the issue of trainability in alpha rhythm [Boynton, 2001;Cho et al., 2008;Juhel, 2011;Zoefel et al., 2011]. In the present study, 80% of the 25 participants showed significant training success throughout 12 sessions of six 6-min training blocks. ...
Article
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Neurofeedback training (NFT) of the alpha rhythm has been used for several decades but is still controversial in regards to its trainability and effects on working memory. Alpha rhythm of the frontoparietal region are associated with either the intelligence or memory of healthy subjects and are also related to pathological states. In this study, alpha NFT effects on memory performances were explored. Fifty healthy participants were recruited and randomly assigned into a group receiving a 8-12-Hz amplitude (Alpha) or a group receiving a random 4-Hz amplitude from the range of 7 to 20 Hz (Ctrl). Three NFT sessions per week were conducted for 4 weeks. Working memory was assessed by both a backward digit span task and an operation span task, and episodic memory was assessed using a word pair task. Four questionnaires were used to assess anxiety, depression, insomnia, and cognitive function. The Ctrl group had no change in alpha amplitude and duration. In contrast, the Alpha group showed a progressive significant increase in the alpha amplitude and total alpha duration of the frontoparietal region. Accuracies of both working and episodic memories were significantly improved in a large proportion of participants of the Alpha group, particularly for those with remarkable alpha-amplitude increases. Scores of four questionnaires fell in a normal range before and after NFT. The current study provided supporting evidence for alpha trainability within a small session number compared with that of therapy. The findings suggested the enhancement of working and episodic memory through alpha NFT. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Different explanations have been proposed to account for A/T's mechanisms of action. It has been proposed (Boynton 2001;Dehghani-Arani et al. 2013;Gruzelier 2014;Imperatori et al. 2017) that the deep relaxation associated with A/T training enhances well-being, the ability to better tolerate stress as well as emotional selfawareness. It has also been proposed that the neurophysiological substrates of the A/T training could be represented by an increase of functional connectivity in cortical networks, especially between anterior and posterior areas (Gruzelier 2009). ...
... Indeed, coherence analysis "supplies information on the degree of synchrony of brain activity at different locations for each frequency, independent of power" (Bowyer 2016, p. 5). Previous studies hypothesized that deep relaxation (i.e., hypnagogic experience) associated with A/T NF enhances well-being and emotional self-awareness (Boynton 2001;Gruzelier 2014). Therefore, we may speculate that the neuro-physiological pattern observed in our study after NF training (i.e., the increase of EEG connectivity in those frequencies strongly related with DMN activity), reflects the participants' tendency to be more aware of their introspective abilities, such as emotional self-awareness. ...
Article
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Several studies showed the effectiveness of alpha/theta (A/T) neurofeedback training in treating some psychiatric conditions. Despite the evidence of A/T effectiveness, the psychological and neurobiological bases of its effects is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the A/T training in increasing mentalization in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in Default Mode Network (DMN) associated with A/T training were also investigated. Forty-four subjects were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive ten sessions of A/T training [neurofeedback group (NFG) = 22], or to act as controls [waiting list group (WLG) = 22]. All participants were administered the mentalization questionnaire (MZQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). In the post training assessment, compared to WLG, NFG showed a significant increase of MZQ total scores (3.94 ± 0.73 vs. 3.53 ± 0.77; F1;43 = 8.19; p = 0.007; d = 0.863). Furthermore, A/T training was also associated with a significant increase of EEG functional connectivity in several DMN brain areas (e.g. Posterior Cingulate Cortex). Taken together our results support the usefulness of the A/T training in enhancing mentalization and DMN connectivity.
... Raymond, Varney, Parkinson, and Gruzelier (2005) explore its general effect on mood. Boynton (2001) examines the effect on creativity. Von Stein and Sarnthein (2000) examine the protocol's neuroregulatory effects. ...
Chapter
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A modified version of the alpha-theta protocol has been developed for the purpose of demonstrating the therapeutic power of neurofeedback. Neurofeedback demonstration has a different goal from that of therapy in that here the objective is educating the client at a personal level rather than modifying the client. A portable neurofeedback workstation using only audio feedback used in conjunction with this alpha-theta protocol enables an unfamiliar client to experience a single session of neurofeedback and understand what is to them a completely new approach for growth and healing.
... " Thus, creativity means bringing into being, as it involves generation of novelty and transformation of existent information [1]. In its wider meaning, creativity can be understood as the ability to adapt cognitive processing strategies to face new and unexpected conditions and is thus closely related to efficient problem-solving and coping with stress, resulting in increased well-being [3][4][5][6]. Research examining the effects of mindful training on creative performance has been relatively scarce and mainly focused on sitting meditations. While some studies found evidence for a strong positive impact of meditation practice on creativity [7], others found only a weak association or no effect at all [8,9]. ...
Article
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Mind-body practices (MBP) are known to induce electrophysiological and morphological changes, whereas reports related to changes of neurotrophins are surprisingly scarce. Consequently, in the current paper, we focused on the Quadrato motor training (QMT), a newly developed whole-body movement-based MBP, which has been reported to enhance creativity. Here we report the effects of 4 weeks of daily QMT on creativity and proNGF level in two interrelated studies. In Study A, we examined the effects of QMT compared with a walking training (WT) in healthy adults, utilizing the alternate uses task. In contrast with the WT, QMT resulted in increased creativity. In addition, the change in creativity negatively correlated with the change in proNGF levels. In Study B, we examined QMT effects on creativity and additional metacognitive functions in children, using a nonintervention group as control. Similar to Study A, following QMT, we found a negative correlation of proNGF with creativity, as well as working memory updating and planning ability. Together, the current results point to the relationship between increased creativity and decreased proNGF following MBP. Thus, the current research emphasizes the importance of widening the scope of examination of "MBP in motion" in relation to metacognition and well-being.
... This finding points to an opportunity to make a space for daydreaming as a stimulus to individual idea Organizational Creativity 24 generation and to provide resources, such as idea notebooks, to capture the output of daydreaming. In another study, Boynton (2001) was able to enhance creative flexibility (as measured by the TTCT), and well-being, by deliberately inducing hypnagogia, which is a restful state between wakefulness and sleep. Interestingly, Cai, Mednick, Harrison, Kanady, and Mednick (2009) argued that sleep states involving rapid eye movement (REM) improved creativity. ...
Chapter
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This chapter illustrates precise aspect of the creative process, reviews descriptions, skills and practices associated with idea generation and idea evaluation. Before delving headlong into a review of idea generation and idea evaluation, it is important first to define these terms, and then to locate these constructs within the network of related creativity concepts. Creativity studies are a young field, and within this field, the topic of organizational creativity is a recent area of interest. With the increased concern for innovation among corporations, it would be useful to engage in more field studies. Within the field of creativity, idea generation in general and the usefulness of idea generation methods has received much greater attention than idea evaluation. Idea evaluation research needs to catch up to the body of literature dedicated to idea generation; what training approaches work best, to what degree does training transfer to the workplace, what are the most effective approaches for organizations to vet and develop the most promising ideas, what idea evaluation tools are most useful to individuals and teams, and what dynamics impact successful idea evaluation in teams. These are just a few of the questions that might be useful to explore in future research.
... Here the A/T learning enhancing effects were replicable, particularly with respect to the parameters of Musicality -Stylistic Accuracy and Interpretative Imagination, together with the Overall Quality of performance. This provided support for the creativity hypothesis outlined in the Discussion (Green and Green, 1977; Gruzelier, 2009) whereas other attempts had been inconclusive (Moore et al, 2000; Boynton, 2001). The constructive replication and the correlations with learning indices provided important sources of validation. ...
Article
Alpha/theta (A/T) and sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback were compared in university instrumentalists who were novice singers with regard to prepared and improvised instrumental and vocal performance in three music domains: Creativity/Musicality, Technique and Communication/Presentation. Only A/T training enhanced advanced playing seen in all three domains by expert assessors and validated by correlations with learning indices, strongest with Creativity/Musicality as shown by Egner and Gruzelier (2003). Here A/T gains extended to novice performance - prepared vocal, improvised vocal and instrumental-and were recognised by a lay audience who judged the prepared folk songs. SMR learning correlated positively with Technical Competence and Communication in novice performance, in keeping with SMR neurofeedback's known impact on lower-order processes such as attention, working memory and psychomotor skills. The importance of validation through learning indices was emphasised in the interpretation of neurofeedback outcome.
... However, Gruzelier (2009) argues that creative cognition might also be enhanced through alpha/theta neurofeedback training, drawing upon neuropsychological research suggesting that theta facilitates long distance cortical and subcortical connections, which might underpin novel ideation. Boynton (2001) assessed the creative performance of participants before and after alpha/theta neurofeedback and found no enhancement of divergent thinking in comparison to a control group. However, this study had a potential confound in the conditions, where both groups received training that facilitated access to hypnagogia (both groups showed improved creativity). ...
... Des effets positifs ontégalementété montrés sur les capacités attentionnelles (Egner et Gruzelier, 2001, 2004 et mémorielles (Vernon, 2005;Escolano et al., 2011;Nan et al., 2012), ainsi que sur la planification en micro-chirurgie (Ros et al., 2009), le temps de réaction (Doppelmayr et Weber, 2011) ou encore l'apprentissage (Reiner et al., 2013). D'autre part, des travaux ont eté menés sur les bénéfices du neurofeedback sur la créativité et le niveau de bien-être (Boynton, 2001;Gruzelier, 2009 Batail et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
Cette thèse porte sur la conception, l’implémentation et l’évaluation d’un système de neurofeedback EEG portable, d’aide à la gestion du stress, à destination du grand public. Un tel système permet aux utilisateurs d’apprendre à moduler leurs états mentaux par des phénomènes de plasticité cérébrale. Cependant, plusieurs facteurs peuvent compliquer cet apprentissage, comme un plus faible rapport signal sur bruit de l'EEG acquis par des électrodes sèches, la contamination par des artefacts ou encore la définition de paramètres pertinents à partir des signaux EEG. Afin d’optimiser ce retour neuronal, ma thèse propose d’abord une méthode statistique permettant de s’assurer de la qualité des signaux EEG acquis, ainsi qu’une méthode corrective d’artefacts, afin de pouvoir extraire une mesure pertinente de l’activité EEG reflétant le niveau de stress ou de relaxation de l’individu. Le développement d’un indice de neurofeedback pertinent et adapté à l’utilisateur est également proposé. A la suite de la constitution algorithmique d’un tel système, les caractéristiques d'apprentissage par neurofeedback ont pu être étudiées. En particulier, je montre qu'un apprentissage intersession semble se mettre en place et que chez les sujets stressés, des changements cérébraux s'opèrent dans la bande alpha durant les phases de repos. Finalement, par ces aspects méthodologiques, d’intégration logicielle et d’analyse longitudinale, cette thèse constitue les briques fondamentales d’un système de recommandation automatique adapté à l’utilisateur. Un tel système permettrait un suivi personnel des utilisateurs afin de leur proposer une stratégie préventive pour la gestion du stress.
... Creemos interesante destacar cómo en estudios experimentales que emplean instrumentos como un biofeedback de EEG para fomentar el uso deliberado de la hipnagogia (fase del sueño) consiguen mejorar su creatividad (flexibilidad, fluidez, originalidad) así como su bienestar emocional (Boynton, 2001). ...
Thesis
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El presente trabajo de tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo el estudio de la creatividad en alumnos de primaria. La creatividad no puede ser abordada como un rasgo simple de los seres humanos, es indudable que aspectos como la mente, los procesos cognitivos que en esta etapa se llevan a cabo, la personalidad, la motivación, las emociones, el mundo afectivo y el entorno juegan un componente singular en este proceso. La creatividad forma parte de nuestro ser, de todos, y es por ello que podemos desarrollarla a través de la educación empezando por incorporarla al ámbito educativo y comenzando por la infancia. En este ámbito y en esta etapa se centrará el trabajo de la presente tesis doctoral.
... The "extraversion" scale identifi ed groups with high (>15 points, eight subjects), intermediate (7-15 points, six subjects), and low (<7 points, three subjects) levels. The "neuroticism" scale identifi ed groups with high (16 points, nine subjects) and intermediate (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16) points, eight subjects) levels. ...
Article
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Studies on 17 volunteers addressed the ability to carry out voluntary control of the expression of the α and β2 frequency bands in the parietal and frontal areas of the cortex using a biofeedback method. The effects of a number of psychological properties on the effectiveness control were studied. The study results showed that in these experiments, decreases in the expression of β2 frequencies in the frontal areas of the cortex were more easily produced than decreases in the power of the α frequencies in the parietal areas. The effectiveness of the voluntary control of brain activity was affected by personality factors such as extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, mobility, the balance of nervous processes, and the level of trait anxiety.
... It has been proposed (Fahrion et al., 1992) that, as a result of A/ T training, the increase of alpha power may reflect neural mechanisms underlying successful coping with stressful, craving-related situations. Consistently, it has been observed that the deep relaxation associated with NF enhances well-being, the ability to better tolerate stress as well as emotional and self-awareness (Boynton, 2001;Gruzelier, 2014) during anxiety situation associated with addiction (i.e., withdrawal symptoms, craving) (Dehghani- Arani et al., 2013;Peniston and Kulkosky, 1989;Scott et al., 2005). Therefore, in accordance with our self-report results, after NF, participants may be more aware of their interoceptive abilities (e.g., emotional and physical state) and consequently, they may cope more effectively with some FC's features, such as craving related to physiological state. ...
... Because of A/ T training, the increase in alpha power may reflect neural mechanisms underlying successful coping with stressful situations. Consistently, it has been observed that the deep relaxation associated with NF enhances well-being, the ability to better tolerate stress, and emotional and self-awareness (Boynton, 2001;Gruzelier, 2014) during anxiety situation (Dehghani-Arani et al., 2013;Peniston and Kulkosky, 1989;Scott et al., 2005). ...
Article
Major risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and cancer (prostate, intestine, breast, etc.) are obesity and being overweight. This study aims to investigating the effect of neurofeedback training to food craving and mental health in overweight women. To this aim, thirty overweight women were divided into two groups; neurofeedback and control groups, using a simple random method. In this experiment, which was accompanied with pre-test and post-test with the control group, women in the experimental group received 10 sessions of neurofeedback. Both experimental and control subjects filled the food craving and general health questionnaire before and after the intervention. Univariate analysis of covariance was used for data analysis. The results showed a significant difference in food craving and mental health between the neurofeedback group and control group. The results showed that neurofeedback training can be considered as one of the complementary therapy intervention, in the field of obesity and overweight.
... The initial development of the alpha theta meditation training protocol was based on associations between alpha activity and the subjective phenomenology of relaxation as well as theta activity in certain meditative states (Egner, Strawson & Gruzellier, 2002;Kamiya, 1969). Subsequent research has indicated that alpha 420 Edwards,Van Der Westhuizen,Van Heerden,Davidson,Dawood et al. theta training using neurofeedback equipment has value in enhancing creativity and well-being (Boynton, 2001), as well as improving cognitive performance (Hanslmayr, Sauseng, Doppelmayr, Schabus & Klimesch, 2005), sport performance (Cherapkina, 2011), depression (Choi, Chi, Chung, Kim, Ahn & Kim, (2009), post-traumatic stress disorder (Penniston, Marrinam, Deming & Kulkosky,1993) and alcoholism (Saxby & Penniston, 1995). ...
Article
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The aim of this investigation was to record a small group of participants' experiences of a single session of an alpha theta meditation with special reference to its influence on perceptions of mindfulness and mood. An integral approach, with mixed qualitative and quantitative methodology was adopted. Qualitative research technology involved qualitative phenomenological descriptions of meditation derived experiences. Quantitative techniques included Infiniti neurofeedback instrumentation for EEG data recorded, and psychometric measures of mindfulness and mood states. There were 10 participants, 5 men and 5 women with mean age of 49 years and age range of 31 to 63 years. Participants experienced various consciousness transformation themes. These included adjustment, relaxation, absorption, imagery, being in the zone and transcendence. There were no significant changes were observed with regard to mindfulness and mood perceptions of anger, energy or fatigue. Contrary to expectations, the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores. Comparisons with other meditation sessions indicated that the alpha theta meditation session was significantly associated with more alpha and beta activity. Integrated findings are in line with other studies which support the psychological value of alpha theta training.
... Die kognitive Leistungsfähigkeit und deren Steigerungsfähigkeit ist dabei ein zentrales Forschungsthema (Beatty et al., 1974;Egner & Gruzelier, 2001Vernon et al., 2003). Des Weiteren existieren Studien in anderen Bereichen wie Wohlbefinden, Kreativität, Sport und Musik (Boynton, 2001;Landers et al., 1991;Petche et al., 1993). Arbeitsgedächtnisses, das von Aufmerksamkeits-prozessen nicht zu trennen ist. ...
Thesis
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Inhalt der vorliegenden Studie ist der Vergleich von drei Biofeedback-Varianten in Bezug auf die Aufmerksamkeitssteigerung bei gesunden Erwachsenen. Verwendet wurden das Temperatur-Biofeedback sowie zwei Neurofeedback-Varianten. Während in der Temperatur-Biofeedback-Gruppe die Hauttemperatur erhöht werden sollte, wurden in den beiden Neurofeedback-Gruppen zwei verschiedene EEG-Frequenzbereiche trainiert. In der einen Gruppe sollte das Low-Beta-Frequenzband zwischen 12 und 15 Hertz erhöht und in der anderen Gruppe die Slow Cortical Potentials (SCP) zwischen 0 und 2 Hertz trainiert werden. Die zentrale Fragestellung bestand darin herauszufinden, ob sich die Aufmerksamkeit bei gesunden Erwachsenen durch eine der drei Biofeedback-Varianten positiv beeinflussen lässt und wenn ja, welche der drei Varianten am wirksamsten ist und die höchste Aufmerksamkeitssteigerung erzielt. Daraus entstanden folgende Hypothesen: Die Low-Beta-Gruppe erzielt die höchste und die SCP-Gruppe die zweithöchste Aufmerksamkeitssteigerung der drei Trainingsgruppen.
... NFT of alpha activity exhibits significant enhancement of working memory (WM) (Zoefel et al., 2011;Nan et al., 2012) and/or episodic memory (EM) (Hsueh et al., 2016;Wei et al., 2017). Some articles have found little memory improvement throughout alpha NFT (Bauer, 1976;Boynton, 2001;Angelakis et al., 2007). These controversial results may arise from a weak experimental design [e.g., no control arm (Hanslmayr et al., 2005) non-random allocation (Bauer, 1976)], or little power due to a small population in previous studies. ...
Article
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Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT) has recently been proposed as a valuable technique for cognitive enhancement and psychiatric amelioration. However, effect of NFT of alpha activity on memory is controversial. The current study analyzed previous works in terms of randomized and blinded analyses, training paradigms, and participant characteristics to validate the efficacy of alpha NFT on memory in a healthy population. Objectives: A systematic meta-analysis of studies with randomized controlled trials was performed to explore the effect of alpha NFT on working memory (WM) and episodic memory (EM) in a healthy population. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 1, 1999, to November 30, 2019. Previous studies were evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB). A meta-analysis calculating absolute weighted standardized mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models was employed. Heterogeneity was estimated using I ² statistics. Funnel plots and Egger's test were performed to evaluate the quality of evidence. Results: Sixteen studies with 217 healthy participants in the control group and 210 participants in the alpha group met the eligibility criteria. Alpha NFT studies with WM measures presented little publication bias ( P = 0.116), and 5 of 7 domains in the Cochrane RoB exhibited a low risk of bias. The overall effect size from 14 WM studies was 0.56 (95% CI 0.31–0.81, P < 0.0001; I ² = 28%). Six EM studies exhibited an effect size of 0.77 (95% CI 0.06–1.49, P = 0.03; I ² = 77%). Conclusion: Meta-analysis results suggest that alpha NFT seems to have a positive effect on the WM and EM of healthy participants. Future efforts should focus on the neurophysiological mechanisms of alpha NFT in memory.
... Through the use of a brain measuring instrument called the electroencephalographic (EEG), studies on Zen meditation have found to influence many brain regions, and are able to increase certain brain waves such as alpha and theta, these are associated with relaxation (Chiesa, 2009). In the article Applied Research Using Alpha/Theta Training for Enhancing Creativity and Well-Being by Boynton (2001), a study was used to investigate EEG biofeedback of intentional hypnagogia to enhance creativity and wellbeing. Hypnagogia is a state of primarily alpha and theta brain wave activity. ...
Technical Report
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Communities contain valuable expertise and resources, that when used properly can support community development. However, communities risk losing valuable opportunities due to collaborative barriers. One of the reasons is due to weak links between dispersed expertise and resources within a community. Another is that community members do not have sufficient time, energy, or reward to foster multidisciplinary projects, and already have substantial workloads to consider. Further, the additional workloads would come at the reduction of personal time, and failure, at the risk to their professional standing. Too much burden has been placed on community members alone to act on interdisciplinary opportunities, resulting in unactualized opportunities, and unaccountable losses to community development. The position of community coordinator (CC) aims to address these barriers to opportunities for community development. The CC relieves the burden of the community members by specializing in the process of joining dispersed expertise and resources of communities, through identifying and supporting the development and actualization of projects by multiple parties to reach both their party's individual goals and concurrently, an overarching mutually beneficial goal held by all parties. This research aimed to support the development of the CC theory. To do this, the CC position has been explored through action research and reflective practices and resulted in the development of meta-models to describe the CC position, and thoughts on CC competencies, tasks, tactics, and strategies. The meta-models that were developed are as follows: The Core Principles of a CC, The Realms and Dimensions of a CC, The Relationship and Alliance Hierarchy, Bridging the Community Gap, The CC Visibility Field, The CC Journey, Seeking a Contact, The CC and the Collaboration Life Cycle, and A Path Towards Strategic Alignment. The top competencies of a CC were found to be human-relationship, organizational, research, analysis, problem-solving, and creative thinking skills. This research contributes to the emerging body of CC literature, the advancement of the CC position, and by supporting the development of the CC theory. Due to the subjective nature of the research approach, it is suggested that further qualitative and quantitative research be conducted to validate these research findings, identify gaps, improve the current CC models, and develop new CC models. Additionally, multidisciplinary teams of experienced CC's should work together to identify and improve the CC's working methods and develop a practical training guide.
... Nonostante la comprovata efficacia di questo training, i suoi meccanismi psicologici e neurobiologici non sono stati ancora chiariti (Raymond et al., 2005). È stato proposto (Boynton, 2001;Dehghani-Arani, Rostami e Nadali, 2013;Gruzelier, 2014b;Imperatori et al., 2016) che il profondo stato di rilassamento indotto dal training incrementi il benessere, la capacità di tollerare in maniera più adeguata lo stress e la consapevolezza emotiva. Dal punto di vista neurofisiologico, invece, è stato suggerito che l'alpha/theta NF conduca a un aumento delle connessioni corticali in diversi network cerebrali. ...
Article
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Sommario Nel presente lavoro è stata approfondita l'utilità terapeutica del neurofeedback in asso-ciazione alla terapia cognitivo-comportamentale, nel trattamento di pazienti con disturbi dello spettro impulsivo-compulsivo. Allo studio hanno preso parte 19 soggetti che hanno condotto 10 sedute di alpha/theta training, in associazione con sedute di terapia cognitivo-comportamentale. A seguito del protocollo di neurofeedback è stato riscontrato un incremento delle capaci-tà di mentalizzazione, una riduzione della disregolazione emotiva e una riduzione della sin-tomatologia impulsiva legata alla pianificazione. È stata osservata, inoltre, un'associazione tra l'indice di apprendimento al neurofeedback e il miglioramento sintomatologico. Tali risultati suggeriscono l'utilità di questa tecnica di neuromodulazione in associazione con la terapia cognitivo-comportamentale tradizionale nel trattamento di pazienti con disturbi dello spettro impulsivo-compulsivo. Parole chiave: neurofeedback, terapia cognitivo-comportamentale, alpha/theta training, spettro impulsivo-compulsivo. Utilità del neurofeedback in associazione alla terapia cognitivo-comportamentale nel trattamento dello spettro impulsivo-compulsivo: dati preliminari di uno studio sperimentale naturalistico
... Os resultados de pesquisas conduzidas sugeriram que o comportamento criativo pode melhorar o bem -estar e vice-versa (Boynton, 2001;Wechsler, Oliveira, & Tonete-Suárez, 2015), ainda que diferenças individuais possam determinar limites no nível de benefício alcançado. Tal característica poderia atuar de forma positiva para o desenvolvimento do bem-estar, melhor percepção de saúde e redutor do estresse, sendo, por tal motivo, a relação entre criatividade e bem-estar investigada junto a diferentes populações e contextos (Leckey, 2011), podendo-se citar, como exemplos, crianças em idade escolar (World Health Organization, 2003) ou no ambiente organizacional (Wright & Walton, 2003). ...
Article
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Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo, investigar a relação entre estilos de pensar e criar, bem-estar, saúde percebida e estresse na terceira idade. Para isso, 123 idosos (98 mulheres e 25 homens), com idades entre 60 a 90 anos (M=68,35; DP=7,4) responderam a Escala de Estilos de Pensar e Criar, Escala de Saúde Mental Positiva, Escala de Estresse Percebido e um questionário sociodemográfico. Análises de ρ de Spearman e uma rede de correlações parciais regularizadas foram utilizadas para investigar as relações entre os construtos avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que os estilos que mais se relacionaram, de forma positiva, com as variáveis de saúde, bem-estar e estresse foram os estilos inconformista-transformador e emocional-intuitivo. As características de tais estilos podem ser incentivadas de modo a atuarem como fatores positivos para a qualidade de vida na maturidade.
... In the CPS framework, creative thinking occurs when a problem or challenge is considered from many different perspectives, which leads to a multitude of possible solutions or answers (this is also known as divergent thinking-see Wieth and Francis, 2018 for a review). In this stage of creative problem solving, many original solutions or answers are desired (Boynton, 2001). The second aspect of the CPS framework is critical thinking (also known as convergent thinking-see Wieth and Francis, 2018 for a review). ...
... Nonostante la comprovata efficacia di questo training, i suoi meccanismi psicologici e neurobiologici non sono stati ancora chiariti (Raymond et al., 2005). È stato proposto (Boynton, 2001;Dehghani-Arani, Rostami e Nadali, 2013;Gruzelier, 2014b;Imperatori et al., 2016) che il profondo stato di rilassamento indotto dal training incrementi il benessere, la capacità di tollerare in maniera più adeguata lo stress e la consapevolezza emotiva. Dal punto di vista neurofisiologico, invece, è stato suggerito che l'alpha/theta NF conduca a un aumento delle connessioni corticali in diversi network cerebrali. ...
... All told there were six demonstrations of A/T facilitating creativity in elite and novice musical performance, and five demonstrations of an enhancement in communication, to include a striking impact on the latter from the perspective of lay judges. The consistency of the evidence here on arts performance is in contrast to the elusive nature of laboratory demonstrations on cognitive measures of creativity (Boynton 2001;Doppelmayer and Weber 2011). ...
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Applications of EEG-neurofeedback to the performing arts with actors, musicians and dancers are reviewed. Neurofeedback involves learning to self-regulate targeted brain rhythms having putative relevance to behavioural outcome. Actors received sensory-motor rhythm training, theorised to favour authenticity in acting, with a training context immersing them in an onstage theatre auditorium through either 2D or 3D representation. The more immersive format led to superior acting according to experts, especially on creativity subscales. Furthermore the actors' experience of flow in performance was superior following neurofeedback, with affirmative correlations between subjective flow and objective expert ratings. A slow wave protocol training-up the theta rhythm over alpha in hypnogogiae showed consistent benefits for elite music performance, especially musicality/creativity and extending to communication and technique. This was also found with novice performance, to include school children, where the sensory-motor rhythm protocol also enhanced performance, perhaps facilitating lower-lever processes such as attention, memory and psychomotor skill. With competitive ballroom and contemporary dancers the alpha/theta protocol was compared with heart rate coherence biofeedback; both interventions were of value. The evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for ecological validity in creativity research for both creative process and product.
... Our result of finding mind wandering to be a state of low alertness supports both views. It can be considered a could also be seen as an hypnagogic state that may lead to creative insights (Boynton 2001). We believe that by studying the common brain structures and dynamics involved in mind wandering, meditation, self, and creativity, brain-imaging (Lutz and Thompson 2003) yet argues for the need of a more fine-grained taxonomy of private mental states. ...
Article
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During concentration tasks, spontaneous attention shifts occurs towards self-centered matters. Little is known about the brain oscillatory activity underlying these mental phenomena. We recorded 128-channels electroencephalographic activity from 12 subjects performing a breath-counting task. Subjects were instructed to press a button whenever, based on their introspective experience, they realized their attention had drifted away from the task. Theta (4-7 Hz) and delta (2-3.5 Hz) EEG activity increased during mind wandering whereas alpha (9-11 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) decreased. A passive auditory oddball protocol was presented to the subjects to test brain-evoked responses to perceptual stimuli during mind wandering. Mismatch negativity evoked at 100 ms after oddball stimuli onset decreased during mind wandering whereas the brain-evoked responses at 200 ms after stimuli onset increased. Spectral analyses and evoked related potential results suggest decreased alertness and sensory processing during mind wandering. To our knowledge, our experiment is one of the first neuro-imaging studies that relies purely on subjects' introspective judgment, and shows that such judgment may be used to contrast different brain activity patterns.
... All told there were six demonstrations of A/T facilitating creativity in elite and novice musical performance, and five demonstrations of an enhancement in communication, to include a striking impact on the latter from the perspective of lay judges. The consistency of the evidence here on arts performance is in contrast to the elusive nature of laboratory demonstrations on cognitive measures of creativity (Boynton 2001;Doppelmayer and Weber 2011). ...
Chapter
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Applications of EEG-neurofeedback to the performing arts with actors are reviewed and compared with relevant studies of musicians and dancers. Neurofeedback involves learning to self-regulate targeted brain rhythms, rhythms that here have putative relevance to artistic performance. Actors received sensory-motor rhythm training, theorised to favour authenticity in acting, with a training context immersing them in an onstage theatre auditorium through either 2D or 3D representation. The more immersive format led to superior acting according to experts, especially on creativity subscales. Furthermore the actors’ experience of flow in performance was superior following neurofeedback, with affirmative associations between subjective flow and objective expert ratings. A slow wave protocol which involves training-up the theta rhythm over alpha with eyes closed before entering sleep (see Sect. 14.1) showed consistent benefits for elite music performance, especially musicality/creativity and extending to communication and technique. This benefit was also found with novice performers, to include school children, where the sensory-motor rhythm protocol also enhanced performance, perhaps facilitating lower-lever processes such as attention, memory and psychomotor skill. With competitive ballroom and contemporary dancers the alpha/theta protocol was compared with heart rate coherence biofeedback; both interventions were of value. The evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for real life validity in creativity research for both creative process and product.
... It is not stimulation of the brain. Neurofeedback training is a doorway to personal progress, to reach higher levels of consciousness, abilities, and mind function (Boynton, 2001). Such performance technology is currently used by such people and groups as follows: universities, Institute for Performance Improvement, US Olympic Training Center, US Military Center for Enhance Performance, large companies, professional athletes in NFL and PGA, US Army Marksmanship Team, corporate executives, and individuals who want to strengthen their brain power to accomplish their goals (Egner & Gruzelier, 2003). ...
... Finally, returning to consider the effect on creativity which was the second of the two group effects, it is of theoretical interest that A/T training did result in a significant improvement in expressive creativity on the classical divergent thinking test (Guilford, 1978). An earlier attempt to investigate A/T effects on creativity tests in a controlled study had been unsuccessful (Boynton et al., 2001). The result in dancers was in support of the experimental hypotheses and the original development of the A/T protocol (Green and Green, 1977). ...
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Storytelling sessions regularly occur in United Kingdom libraries; however, the storytelling techniques of library staff vary. In order to pinpoint an optimum technique and discover the benefit of storytimes, observations of storytelling sessions on children's mobile libraries were analyzed. The use of participant observation, ethnography, and grounded theory revealed that children's cognizance increased through focused attention and that hearing different storytellers broadens children's learning. Although the techniques of individual storytellers differed, children concentrated well and it was concluded that the combination of deep concentration and variety of experience enriches children's knowledge of language and subsequently their literacy.
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Introduction. Considerable interest has been, and still is, generated by the potential performance enhancing benefits of alpha neurofeedback training (NFT) for healthy participants. A plausible rationale for such training, with an aim to improve mood and/or enhance cognition, can be made based upon what is already known of the links between alpha EEG activity and behavior. However, designing an optimal NFT paradigm remains difficult because a number of methodological factors that may influence the outcome of such training remain largely unexplored.Method. This article focuses on these methodological factors in an attempt to highlight some of the unanswered questions and stimulate future research.Results. Specifically, this article examines the NFT training schedule; the variety, basis, and setting of reward thresholds; the nature and modality of the feedback signal provided; unidirectional as compared to bidirectional NFT; the establishment of a target frequency range for alpha; whether NFT should be conducted with eyes open or closed; and the identification of a clear index of learning.Conclusions. Throughout, the article provides a number of suggestions and possible directions for future research.
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A previous comprehensive bibliography of neurofeedback outcome studies was published by the author in 2001. Since that time there have been many new publications as the field of neurofeedback continues maturing, and a few older references were discovered. Therefore a new update of references under categories for various clinical conditions is provided.
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One approach to understanding processes that underlie skilled performing has been to study electrical brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). A notorious problem with EEG is that genuine cerebral data is often contaminated by artifacts of non-cerebral origin. Unfortunately, such artifacts tend to be exacerbated when the subject is in motion, meaning that obtaining reliable data during exercise is inherently problematic. These problems may explain the limited number of studies using EEG as a methodological tool in the sports sciences. This paper discusses how empirical studies have generally tackled the problem of movement artifact by adopting alternative paradigms which avoid recording during actual physical exertion. Moreover, the specific challenges that motion presents to obtaining reliable EEG data are discussed along with practical and computational techniques to confront these challenges. Finally, as EEG recording in sports is often underpinned by a desire to optimise performance, a brief review of EEG-biofeedback and peak performance studies is also presented. A knowledge of practical aspects of EEG recording along with the advent of new technology and increasingly sophisticated processing models offer a promising approach to minimising, if perhaps not entirely circumventing, the problem of obtaining reliable EEG data during motion.
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As a continuation of a review of evidence of the validity of cognitive/affective gains following neurofeedback in healthy participants, including correlations in support of the gains being mediated by feedback learning (Gruzelier, 2013a), the focus here is on the impact on creativity, especially in the performing arts including music, dance and acting. The majority of research involves alpha/theta (A/T), sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) and heart rate variability (HRV) protocols. There is evidence of reliable benefits from A/T training with advanced musicians especially on creative performance, and reliable benefits from both A/T and SMR training for novice music performance in adults and in a school study with children with impact on creativity, communication/presentation and technique. Making the SMR ratio training context ecologically relevant for actors enhanced creativity in stage performance, with added benefits from the more immersive training context. A/T and HRV training have benefitted dancers. The neurofeedback evidence adds to the rapidly accumulating validation of neurofeedback, while performing arts studies offer an opportunity for ecological validity in creastivity research for both creative process and product.
Book
Throughout time, people have explored the ways in which they can improve some aspect of their performance. Such attempts are more visible today, with many working to gain an 'edge' on their performance, whether it is to learn a new language, improve memory or increase golf handicaps. This book examines a range of techniques that are intended to help improve some aspect of performance, and examines how well they are able to achieve this. The various performance enhancing techniques available can be divided into those where the individual remains passive (receiving a message, suggestion or stimulus) and those where the individual needs to take a more active approach. Human Potential looks at a range of techniques within each of these categories to provide the reader with a sense of the traditional as well as the more contemporary approaches used to enhance human performance. The techniques covered include hypnosis, sleep learning, subliminal training and audio and visual cortical entrainment as well as mnemonics, meditation, speed-reading, biofeedback, neurofeedback and mental imagery practice. This is the first time such a broad range of techniques has been brought together to be assessed in terms of effectiveness. It will be useful to all psychology and sports science students, practicing psychologists, life coaches and anyone else interested in finding out about the effectiveness of performance enhancement techniques.
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The theta-over-alpha frequency crossover seen in alpha-theta neurofeedback, considered an important factor in the treatment's success, has had little definitive research. this study examined 182 alpha-theta session graphs from 10 subject case files for interactions between frequency band activity and subject reports of imagery or biographical memories during crossovers, as well as treatment outcomes. Statistical analyses revealed significantly more reports of imagery/memories during crossover conditions having specific spectral, amplitude, and duration characteristics. Imagery reports were more likely to occur during crossover activity of 1 microvolt or more, lasting at least 3 minutes, and including 3.75μv of 15-20 Hz beta. The defined therapeutic crossover condition also was significantly related to better treatment outcome measures.
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The ability to voluntary control severity of alpha- and beta-2 frequency bands in the parietal and frontal cortical areas was investigated at 17 volunteers using biofeedback. The impact of different personality traits on the effectiveness of control was evaluated. According to the data, it was easier task to decrease expression beta-2 frequency in the frontal cortex than to decline the power of alpha frequency in the parietal cortex. The effectiveness of voluntary control of brain activity is influenced by personality features as extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, mobility and steadiness of nerve processes, level of person anxiety.
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The monograph is devoted to problems of development of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces or BCI designed primarily to improve the quality of life of completely paralyzed people and create additional communication channels. The monograph contains an overview of the available scientific papers in this research field and the results of the author's own study. The first charter is devoted to the analysis of a person's ability to voluntary control of the parameters of brain electric activity (EEG) using biofeedback method (BFB) and to assess the efficacy of this control. The second charter describes the development and testing of the prototype of KRINC-BCI neural interface (Kogan Research Institute for Neurocybernetics - BCI).
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The genesis of mathematical creation is a problem which should intensely interest the psychologist. It is the activity in which the human mind seems to take least from the outside world, in which it acts or seems to act only of itself and on itself, so that in studying the procedure of geometric thought we may hope to reach what is most essential in man's mind.
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Attempts to indicate that "psychophysiological training for creativity is a reasonable hypothesis." Earlier work on electrophysiological instrumentation and methodology which resulted in the audiogenic feedback training method is summarized. Results with this method for about 60 Ss showed such physiological changes as (a) relaxation of muscle tension to low levels, (b) control of temperature of the hand, and (c) increase in alpha rhythm with eyes open and while talking to the E. Psychological changes included (a) body-image changes, (b) feelings of tranquility, and (c) hypnagogic and dream-like images. Reverie accompanying production of theta waves and low-frequency alpha seems, under certain conditions, to make possible "hypnagogic-like imagery, the sine qua non of creativity for many outstanding people." Other methods for producing hypnagogic-like imagery are discussed. It is concluded that such methods hold much promise for transpersonal psychology by providing training in internal awareness and control. (52 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
HYPOTHESES DERIVED FROM SUPER'S OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF SELF-CONCEPT METADIMENSIONS AND FROM BIERI'S RESEARCH WITH COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY WERE TESTED BY BY FACTOR ANALYSIS. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT A FACTOR ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM 106 MALE STUDENTS WITH A BATTERY OF MEASURES OF SELF-CONCEPT, DIVERGENT THINKING, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION OF DESCRIPTIVE TRAIT SYSTEMS WOULD REVEAL: (1) A FACTOR OF SELF-ACCEPTANCE OF SELF-CONCEPT, (2) A FACTOR OF DIVERGENT THINKING, (3) A FACTOR OF INTELLIGENCE, AND (4) A FACTOR OF STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATION OF DESCRIPTIVE TRAIT SYSTEMS. THE RESULTS SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESES EVEN THOUGH CONSTRUCT VALIDITY WAS NOT DEMONSTRATED FOR THE MEASURES ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOTHESIS 4. RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE FOR THE REFINEMENT OF SUPER'S THEORY. (20 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A controlled case study was conducted of effects of EEG alpha and theta brainwave training with a recovering alcoholic patient who experienced craving and fear of relapse after 18 months of abstinence. Training consisted of six sessions of thermal biofeedback to increase central nervous system (CNS) relaxation. Effects were documented with pretreatment and post-treatment personality testing, 20-channel digitized EEG evaluations both under relaxed conditions and under stress, minute-by-minute physiologic recordings of autonomic and EEG data during each training session, blood pressure, and heart rate indications taken both during relaxation and under stress, and by clinical observation. Results replicated those of a previous controlled study with chronic alcoholic patients not abstinent prior to treatment. New findings include post-treatment indications of more relaxed CNS functioning under stress, and of reduced autonomic activation both during relaxation and under stress. Brain-mapping indications of anxiety associated with painful cold-pressor stimulation were seen only in the pretest readings; at post-test the brain map indicated pain-associated EEG activity in the contralateral somatosensory area, but no apparent anxiety-associated EEG activity. At 4 months post-treatment the patient's wife and colleagues report the patient appears to function in a more relaxed way under the impact of stress, and he reports no longer experiencing craving for alcohol. Overall, support is provided for the possibility that alpha and theta brainwave training may be a useful intervention for the abstinent alcoholic experiencing stress-related craving and fear of relapse.
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--California State University, Long Beach. Abstract preceding title page. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
An alpha-theta brainwave biofeedfack training program was applied as a novel treatment technique for chronic alcoholics. Following a temperature biofeedback pretraining phase, experimental subjects completed 15 30-min sessions of alpha-theta biofeedback training. Compared to a nonalcoholic control group and a traditionally treated alcoholic control group, alcoholics receiving brainwave training (BWT) showed significant increases in percentages of EEG record in alpha and theta rhythms, and increased alpha rhythm amplitudes. Alcoholics receiving BWT showed a gradual increase in alpha and theta brain rhythms across the 15 experimental sessions. These experimentally treated alcoholics showed sharp reductions in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory) compared to the control groups. Alcoholics receiving standard medical treatment (abstinence, group psychotherapy, antidepressants) showed a significant elevation in serum beta-endorphin levels at the conclusion of the experiment. This neuropeptide is an index of stress and a stimulant of caloric (e.g., ethanol) intake. Application of brainwave treatment, a relaxation therapy, appears to counteract the increase in circulating beta-endorphin levels seen in the control group of alcoholics. 13-month follow-up data indicate sustained prevention of relapse in alcoholics that completed alpha-theta brainwave training.
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