Article

The Effect of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study describes the 1st-year effects of a Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support on four schools in impoverished communities in rural west Texas. The authors present pre- and postdescriptive data that demonstrate the positive effect upon decreasing discipline referrals, lowering in school suspension rates, and reducing failure rates. The authors hypothesized that using a Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support system is used in rural impoverished schools can help mitigate the negative consequences children experience in communities with few mental health services, thereby increasing their academic engagement and success.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... We identified 24 articles that evaluated the impact on academic outcomes of targeted prevention components of school behavioral health programs or frameworks. 20,41,46,47,49,[54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73] A table containing summary information about the articles is available as Table S2 (also at http://csmh.umaryland.edu/ Resources/School-Mental-Health-Impact/). ...
... SWPBIS has been associated with improved academic achievement and school engagement among elementary, middle, and high school students. 58,66,68 There were decreased discipline referrals, in-school suspensions, and academic failures rates in the first year of SWPBIS implementation in rural elementary, middle, and high schools compared to prior to implementation, 66 and students in Maryland elementary and middle schools implementing SWPBIS with fidelity had higher math and reading achievement and improved attendance compared with nonimplementing schools in the state. 68 Finally, students in 2 Midwest urban, public K-12 schools that implemented PBIS and comprehensive school mental health services (universal and indicated preventive interventions as well as clinical interventions for identified students) had less functional impairment, fewer mental health difficulties, and improved behavior in school than prior to PBIS implementation. ...
... SWPBIS has been associated with improved academic achievement and school engagement among elementary, middle, and high school students. 58,66,68 There were decreased discipline referrals, in-school suspensions, and academic failures rates in the first year of SWPBIS implementation in rural elementary, middle, and high schools compared to prior to implementation, 66 and students in Maryland elementary and middle schools implementing SWPBIS with fidelity had higher math and reading achievement and improved attendance compared with nonimplementing schools in the state. 68 Finally, students in 2 Midwest urban, public K-12 schools that implemented PBIS and comprehensive school mental health services (universal and indicated preventive interventions as well as clinical interventions for identified students) had less functional impairment, fewer mental health difficulties, and improved behavior in school than prior to PBIS implementation. ...
... Training for educators mitigates the use of restraint and seclusion, as the use of these procedures decreases considerably when teachers are instructed in nonviolent de-escalation techniques (Ryan et al., 2007). More generally, there is growing recognition that the use of positive behavioral supports would largely eliminate the use of highly aversive procedures; this alternative framework, which emphasizes the teaching and rewarding of positive behavior over the punishment of negative acts, has been shown to reduce restraint and seclusion (Peterson et al., 2009;USDOE, 2010) as well as a host of other negative outcomes such as behavioral referrals, suspensions, and extended time-outs (Curtis, Van Horne, Robertson, & Karvonen, 2010;McCrary, Lechtenberger, & Wang, 2012;Ward & Gersten, 2013). Another recent report also supports the efficacy of positive behavioral supports when such practices are scaled-up to the state level (Pas & Bradshaw, 2012). ...
... As Gust and Sianko (2012) suggest, it may be more effective to supply practitioners with the skills necessary to respond to challenging behavior rather than simply banning techniques that are deemed inappropriate. There is growing acknowledgment that Positive Behavioral Support can greatly reduce the use of aversive procedures and decrease disciplinary infractions (Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, 2006;Curtis et al., 2010;McCrary et al., 2012;Otten, Matson, & Peterson, 2013;Pas & Bradshaw, 2012;Peterson et al., 2009;USDOE, 2010;Ward & Gersten, 2013). The skewed distribution of restraint and seclusion rates shown here could be explained if that small proportion of high restraining and secluding districts were both permitted to use such procedures and lacked the necessary knowledge to use alternative methods. ...
Article
Restraint and seclusion are possible aversive responses to problematic student behavior used in some public schools, most commonly on students with a disability. Considerable recent attention has been paid to these practices both in the media and in Congress, and subsequently roughly half of U.S. states have made changes to their laws or policy statements around restraint and seclusion since 2009. In this article, we illuminate trends in restraint and seclusion across the United States in recent years to better inform policy discussions on these matters. Specifically, we examined rates of reported restraint and seclusion across U.S. districts in the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 school years. We found that general trends persist between the data collections: Most districts report no/little use of restraint or seclusion, with a small percentage of districts reporting exceedingly high rates. Furthermore, the vast majority of variation exists within rather than between states, which may suggest the importance of local factors such as district policy, school culture, and practitioner support in determining the frequency of restraint and seclusion in schools.
... School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), a servicedelivery framework based on the public health model, is one example [5,6]. A growing number of schools in rural areas are employing PBIS [7][8][9][10]. Given the large service disparities for children in rural areas, offering EBPs through PBIS can improve access and lead to better longterm outcomes [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background An increasing number of schools in rural settings are implementing multi-tier positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) to address school-climate problems. PBIS can be used to provide the framework for the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to address children’s mental health concerns. Given the large service disparities for children in rural areas, offering EBPs through PBIS can improve access and lead to better long-term outcomes. A key challenge is that school personnel need technical assistance in order to implement EBPs with fidelity and clinical effectiveness. Providing ongoing on-site support is not feasible or sustainable in the majority of rural schools, due to their remote physical location. For this reason, remote training technology has been recommended for providing technical assistance to behavioral health staff (BHS) in under-served rural communities. Objectives The purpose of this study is to use the user-centered design, guided by an iterative process (rapid prototyping), to develop and evaluate the appropriateness, feasibility, acceptability, usability, and preliminary student outcomes of two online training strategies for the implementation of EBPs at PBIS Tier 2. Methods The study will employ a pragmatic design comprised of a mixed-methods approach for the development of the training platform, and a hybrid type 2, pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the implementation and student outcomes of two training strategies: Remote Video vs. Remote Video plus Coaching. Discussion There is a clear need for well-designed remote training studies focused on training in non-traditional settings. Given the lack of well-trained mental health professionals in rural settings and the stark disparities in access to services, the development and pilot-testing of a remote training strategy for BHS in under-served rural schools could have a significant public health impact. Ethics and dissemination The project was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board. Results will be submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov and disseminated to community partners and participants, peer-reviewed journals, and academic conferences. Trial registration ClinicialTrials.gov, NCT05034198 and NCT05039164
... While criteria for inclusion included rurality, only four of the 46 eligible articles described rural setting. McCrary et al. (2012) described the implementation of Tier 1 PBIS across four schools from two rural districts in Texas. The predescriptive and postdescriptive data demonstrated positive effects on decreasing discipline referrals, lowering suspension rates, and reducing failure rates. ...
Article
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a prevention-oriented multitiered system of support. In this article, we discuss how PBIS implementation might be different for schools in rural settings. We used two subsamples of an extant data set of 11,561 schools in 44 U.S. states reporting on PBIS implementation fidelity during the 2018-19 school year. We examined PBIS implementation in rural and nonrural settings using a subsample of 6,631 schools during their first five years of PBIS implementation (2014-15 to 2018-19 school years). Further, we used a subsample of 2,266 schools to examine differences in implementation for rural schools, specifically ( n = 1,215) in their first five years of PBIS implementation (2014-15 to 2018-19) compared to rural schools ( n = 1,051) implementing six or more years (2000-01 to 2013-14). Rural schools differ from other school locales in the implementation of Tiers 2 and 3 systems during initial implementation. When examining the implementation in rural schools implementing PBIS for five or fewer years to those implementing for six years or more, those implementing longer had higher scores at Tiers 2 and 3. Practical implications across all three tiers, special education, and rural locales are presented.
... In the 17 studies that reported changes in academic outcome measures such as state achievement tests, course failures, reading and math scores, and perceptions of academic competence, 15 reported significant improvements. For example, in a descriptive study of poor rural school districts in Texas, authors reported a 54% decrease in course failures during a 6-week period and 71% overall decrease in course failures for the year (McCrary et al., 2012). In a quasiexperimental study occurring in an elementary school, Nelson and colleagues (2009) reported students receiving only Tier 1 (i.e., SWPBIS) support evidenced improvements in teachers' perceptions of academic competence as well as improved reading scores. ...
Article
For more than 20 years, the schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) literature base has been growing as it relates to implementation and sustainability across various settings and grade levels. While the research is clear that SWPBIS is an effective multitiered framework, gaps in the literature exist. Specifically, the extent to which SWPBIS has been implemented in traditionally underrepresented schools has yet to be fully examined. This systematic review of the SWPBIS literature base resulted in 46 articles that were coded across 13 variables. The number of articles highlight underrepresentation in the SWPBIS literature. Researchers demonstrated variable (a) reductions in rates of disciplinary infractions and exclusionary responses, (b) implementation with fidelity, and (c) positive student outcomes across academics, attendance, and achievement.
... This approach is particularly suited to meeting the needs of rural communities where families often receive the majority of their behavioral health services through the education system (McCrary, Lechtenberger, & Want, 2012). SWPBIS has effectively been implemented in rural districts to reduce ODRs, suspensions, and absences (Fitzgerald, Geraci, & Swanson, 2014;McCrary et al., 2012). ...
Article
Rural school districts are unique educational settings requiring efficient use of resources. Barriers to high-quality educational practices in rural settings include the distance from professional development expertise and limited funding. To address these potential obstacles for implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, we utilized telecoaching for providing monthly technical assistance. Results of this case study indicate that telecoaching in a rural school district across 1 academic year may be an effective alternative for in-person coaching. Descriptive statistics including implementation fidelity, discipline and attendance outcomes, and telecoaching treatment integrity are presented. Implications for practice and future directions are discussed.
... Shih et al affirmed that junior high school teachers in teaching and operating classes who use positive discipline to guide students in learning and complying with the code of ethic, it can be approved the class management effectiveness [7]. And McCrary et al., [8] indicated that the positive discipline is effective in increasing discipline references and failure rate. Also positive behavior encouragement system can lead to increase negative results of the students' experiences and also increase their educational entertainment and successfulness. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Schools nowadays face many challenges of different natures. One of these challenges is also the relationship created between teachers and students in classrooms during their daily work. Creating positive relationships is seen as an important element to help students to be acceptable and successful in the school environment and in society. The purpose of this study is to examine the positive discipline that the teacher uses with the students in the classroom environment and the impact that this relationship has on the academic achievement. To achieve this goal, quantitative methods have been used. The sample included in the study is 400 pupils of fifth and sixth grades. These classes are chosen deliberately to understand the impact that has positive relationship among students belonging to primary and secondary education, because in the primary education system in Albania the pupils are in contact with few teachers whereas in the secondary education the pupils have contact with many teachers. From the analysis of the data were identified forms of positive and negative relations that the teacher uses in the classroom environment and it was found that the positive relationship positively affects the academic achievements of the students. It was also noted that positive discipline was more present in primary education while the forms of negative discipline are more present in secondary education. Consequently, it is suggested that teachers should create a positive climate of cooperation in the classroom by practising as many elements of positive discipline, because this relationship increases the level of student learning by influencing their education with values and positive principles for a healthier society. Keywords: Relationships, teachers, pupils, positive discipline, learning, teaching.
... Nationally, about 1-7% of students have significant emotional and behavioral problems, while roughly 5-15% of students are at-risk of developing emotional and/or behavioral problems (Eber, 2001). In rural areas, the social and emotional growth of children is often negatively affected by poverty and residential instability (McCrary, Lechtenberger, & Wang, 2012). According to Eber, Lewis-Palmer, and Pacchiano (2002), "More positive and effective school environments can serve to prevent the development of severe behavioral problems, as well as contribute to the success of interventions for those students with the most comprehensive needs" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many educators struggle with the challenges of effective behavior management. In rural schools, this frequently means that educators are struggling to do more, with little or no additional resources. Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) is one approach to proactive behavior management. In order to facilitate PBIS in a regional area, researchers implemented a week-long training and year-round ongoing coaching for representative members of participating schools/districts to create a plan for implementation suited to the needs of their schools/districts. This article provides a brief overview of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports with a particular focus on one rural school's successful implementation.
Article
Rural schools experience unique challenges, including teacher quality and teacher retention, limited resources, and availability of funding. Furthermore, access to professional development and, subsequently, implementation of evidence-based practices may also be limited in rural settings. One evidence-based framework for implementing evidence-based practices, School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), has been widely implemented, including in rural and urban schools. Yet, very little research has explicitly compared rural and urban schools implementing SWPBIS with regard to implementation and discipline. Therefore, we examined statewide data to evaluate differences between rural and urban schools implementing SWPBIS in Florida. We found that both rural and urban schools were equally likely to implement all the components of SWPBIS. When comparing schools, we found that rural schools implementing SWPBIS had more out-of-school suspensions than nonimplementing rural schools, while the opposite was true for urban schools. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter provides background on rural culture and the influence it has on the implementation of trauma-informed care. The cultural characteristics create additional obstacles to schools that are working to mitigate the adverse experiences that have debilitated many students. The poverty and drug use that families face has created a generation of children who struggle with chronic stress from the adverse childhood experiences that occur in their lives. This impedes all academic and many functional areas. Without appropriate education, teachers are often unable to reach students and misunderstand why students with multiple adverse experiences display behaviors. The authors share strategies to mitigate the impact of the adversities.
Article
An emerging body of research shows Tier 1 Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) can be successfully implemented in high schools to improve school climate and graduation rates and reduce problem behaviors. However, high schools are often hesitant to adopt PBIS because of contextual barriers such as school size, organizational culture, and student developmental level. Resistance to high school implementation is also related to teachers perceiving PBIS as less socially valid for high school students. Although previous systematic reviews of Tier 1 have examined implementation and effects, none have exclusively focused on the unique contextual needs related to high school implementation. In this review, we synthesized 16 published research studies conducted at the high school level, described how authors addressed the unique challenges of implementing PBIS in high schools, reported findings related to academic and behavioral outcomes, and made recommendations for future research and practice based on our findings.
Article
Although evidence suggests significant and positive relationships between School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) implementation and student outcomes, research is still needed to review and consolidate this existing literature base. The current study synthesized findings from 55 cases in order to better understand the (a) general quantity, quality, and types of SWPBIS research being conducted, and (b) overall magnitude of these relationships across studies. The majority of cases were single descriptive studies, included PBIS implementation data, and studied diverse elementary or multigrade populations within the United States. Of the cases that performed statistical analyses, the majority reported unanimously positive or predominately positive findings, and these findings were notably more positive for behavioral outcomes than for academic outcomes. Limitations and implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Research
Full-text available
This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students' misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom (in‐school) or on school premises (out‐of‐school). In some extreme cases the student is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion). The review summarises findings from 37 reports covering nine different types of intervention. Most studies were from the USA, and the remainder from the UK. Included studies evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions to reduce the rates of exclusion. Interventions were implemented in mainstream schools and targeted school‐aged children from four to 18, irrespective of nationality or social background. Only randomised controlled trials are included. The evidence base covers 37 studies. Thirty‐three studies were from the USA, three from the UK, and for one study the country was not clear. School‐based interventions cause a small and significant drop in exclusion rates during the first six months after intervention (on average), but this effect is not sustained. Interventions seemed to be more effective at reducing some types of exclusion such as expulsion and in‐school exclusion. Four intervention types – enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, and skills training for teachers – had significant desirable effects on exclusion. However, the number of studies in each case is low, so this result needs to be treated with caution. There is no impact of the interventions on antisocial behaviour. Variations in effect sizes are not explained by participants' characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, or the quality of the intervention. Independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. Plain language summary Interventions can reduce school exclusion but the effect is temporary Some interventions – enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, and skills training for teachers – appear to have significant effects on exclusion. The review in brief Interventions to reduce school exclusion are intended to mitigate the adverse effects of this school sanction. Some approaches, namely those involving enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring and those targeting skills training for teachers, have a temporary effect in reducing exclusion. More evaluations are needed to identify the most effective types of intervention; and whether similar effects are also found in different countries. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students’ misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom (in‐school) or on school premises (out‐of‐school). In some extreme cases the student is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion). The review summarises findings from 37 reports covering nine different types of intervention. Most studies were from the USA, and the remainder from the UK. What is this review about? School exclusion is associated with undesirable effects on developmental outcomes. It increases the likelihood of poor academic performance, antisocial behavior, and poor employment prospects. This school sanction disproportionally affects males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those with special educational needs. This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes to reduce the prevalence of exclusion. What are the main findings of this review? What studies are included? Included studies evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions to reduce the rates of exclusion. Interventions were implemented in mainstream schools and targeted school‐aged children from four to 18, irrespective of nationality or social background. Only randomised controlled trials are included. The evidence base covers 37 studies. Thirty‐three studies were from the USA, three from the UK, and for one study the country was not clear. School‐based interventions cause a small and significant drop in exclusion rates during the first six months after intervention (on average), but this effect is not sustained. Interventions seemed to be more effective at reducing some types of exclusion such as expulsion and in‐school exclusion. Four intervention types ‐ enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/ monitoring, and skills training for teachers – had significant desirable effects on exclusion. However, the number of studies in each case is low, so this result needs to be treated with caution. There is no impact of the interventions on antisocial behaviour. Variations in effect sizes are not explained by participants’ characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, or the quality of the intervention. Independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. What do the findings of this review mean? School‐based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion immediately after, and for a few months after, the intervention (6 months on average). Four interventions presented promising and significant results in reducing exclusion, that is, enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, skills training for teachers. However, since the number of studies for each sub‐type of intervention was low, we suggest these results should be treated with caution. Most of the studies come from the USA. Evaluations are needed from other countries in which exclusion is common. Further research should take advantage of the possibility of conducting cluster‐randomised controlled trials, whilst ensuring that the sample size is sufficiently large. How up‐to‐date is this review? The review authors searched for studies published up to December 2015. This Campbell systematic review was published in January 2018. Executive Summary/Abstract BACKGROUND Schools are important institutions of formal social control (Maimon, Antonaccio, & French, 2012). They are, apart from families, the primary social system in which individuals are socialised to follow specific codes of conduct. Violating these codes of conduct may result in some form of punishment. School punishment is normally accepted by families and students as a consequence of transgression, and in that sense school isoften the place where children are first introduced to discipline, justice, or injustice (Whitford & Levine‐Donnerstein, 2014). A wide range of punishments may be used in schools, from verbal reprimands to more serious actions such as detention, fixed term exclusion or even permanent exclusion from the mainstream education system. It must be said that in some way, these school sanctions resemble the penal system and its array of alternatives to punish those that break the law. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is defined as a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students’ misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom or, in more serious cases, on school premises.Based on the previous definition, this review uses school exclusion and school suspension as synonyms, unless the contrary is explicitly stated. Most of the available research has found that exclusion correlates with subsequent negative sequels on developmental outcomes. Exclusion or suspension of students is associated with failure within the academic curriculum, aggravated antisocial behaviour, and an increased likelihood of involvement with punitive social control institutions (i.e., the Juvenile Justice System). In the long‐term, opportunities for training and employment seem to be considerably reduced for those who have repeatedly been excluded. In addition to these negative correlated outcomes, previous evidence suggest that the exclusion of students involves a high economic cost for taxpayers and society. Research from the last 20 years has concluded quite consistently that this disciplinary measure disproportionally targets males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those presenting special educational needs. In other words, suspension affects the most vulnerable children in schools. Different programmes have attempted to reduce the prevalence of exclusion. Although some of them have shown promising results, so far, no comprehensive systematic review has examined these programmes’ overall effectiveness. OBJECTIVES The main goal of the present research is to systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of different types of school‐based interventions aimed at reducing disciplinary school exclusion. Secondary goals include comparing different approaches and identifying those that could potentially demonstrate larger and more significant effects. The research questions underlying this project are as follows: • Do school‐based programmes reduce the use of exclusionary sanctions in schools? • Are some school‐based approaches more effective than others in reducing exclusionary sanctions? • Do participants’ characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) affect the impact of school‐based programmes on exclusionary sanctions in schools? • Do characteristics of the interventions, implementation, and methodology affect the impact of school‐based programmes on exclusionary sanctions in schools? SEARCH METHODS The authors conducted a comprehensive search to locate relevant studies reporting on the impact of school‐based interventions on exclusion from 1980 onwards. Twenty‐seven different databases were consulted, including databases that contained both published and unpublished literature. In addition, we contacted researchers in the field of school‐exclusion for further recommendations of relevant studies; we also assessed citation lists from previous systematic and narrative reviews and research reports. Searches were conducted from September 1 to December 1, 2015. SELECTION CRITERIA The inclusion and exclusion criteria for manuscripts were defined before we started our searches. To be eligible, studies needed to have: evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions intended to reduce the rates of suspension; seen the interventions as an alternative to exclusion; targeted school‐aged children from four to 18 in mainstream schools irrespective of nationality or social background; and reported results of interventions delivered from 1980 onwards. In terms of methodological design, we included randomised controlled trialsonly, with at least one experimental group and onecontrol or placebo group. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Initial searches produced a total of 42,749 references from 27 different electronic databases. After screening the title, abstract and key words, we kept 1,474 relevant hits. 22 additional manuscripts were identified through other sources (e.g., assessment of citation lists, contribution of authors). After removing duplicates, we ended up with a total of 517 manuscripts. Two independent coders evaluated each report, to determine inclusion or exclusion. The second round of evaluation excluded 472 papers, with eight papers awaiting classification, and 37 studies kept for inclusion in meta‐analysis. Two independent evaluators assessed all the included manuscripts for risk of quality bias by using EPOC tool. Due to the broad scope of our targeted programmes, meta‐analysis was conducted under a random‐effect model. We report the impact of the intervention using standardised differences of means, 95% confidence intervals along with the respective forest plots. Sub‐group analysis and meta‐regression were used for examining the impact of the programme. Funnel plots and Duval and Tweedie's trim‐and‐fill analysis were used to explore the effect of publication bias. RESULTS Based on our findings, interventions settled in school can produce a small and significant drop in exclusion rates (SMD=.30; 95% CI .20 to .41; p<.001). This means that those participating in interventions are less likely to be suspended than those allocated to control/placebo groups. These results are based on measures of impact collected immediately during the first six months after treatment (on average). When the impact was tested in the long‐term (i.e., 12 or more months after treatment), the effects of the interventions were not sustained. In fact, there was a substantive reduction in the impact of school‐based programmes (SMD=.15; 95%CI ‐.06 to .35), and it was no longer statistically significant. We ran analysis testing the impact of school‐based interventions on different types of exclusion. Evidence suggests that interventions are more effective at reducing expulsion and in‐school exclusion than out‐of‐school exclusion. In fact, the impact of intervention in out‐of‐school exclusion was close to zero and not statistically significant. Nine different types of school‐based interventions were identified across the 37 studies included in the review. Four of them presented favourable and significant results in reducing exclusion (i.e., enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, skills training for teachers). Since the number of studies for each sub‐type of intervention was low, we suggest that results should be treated with caution. A priori defined moderators (i.e., participants’ characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, and quality of the intervention)showed not to be effective at explaining the heterogeneity present in our results. Among three post‐hoc moderators, the role of the evaluator was found to be significant: independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. Two researchers independently evaluated the quality of the evidence involved in this review by using the EPOC tool. Most of the studies did not present enough information for the judgement of quality bias. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS The evidence suggests that school‐based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion immediately after, and for a few months after, the intervention. Some specific types of interventions show more promising and stable results than others, namely those involving mentoring/monitoring and those targeting skills training for teachers. However, based on the number of studies involved in our calculations, we suggest that results must be cautiously interpreted. Implications for policy and practice arising from our results are discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of positive discipline on the learning process and its achieving strategies from teachers and principals' point of view in the city of Ahwaz in 2011-2012 academic years. The method of research was descriptive-survey. The statistical population of this study includes all Ahwaz high school teachers and principals. All of the sample members (105 principals and 321 teachers) were selected by stratified random sampling. In order to collect the data, a self-administrated questionnaire was used. In descriptive statistics frequency, percentage, and mean were used and in inferential statistics one-sample t-test, Friedman test and structural equation modeling in Amos were utilized. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between positive discipline and each of three presented strategies is significant. Teachers' learning motivation with 71% and students' self-control with 58% had, respectively, high correlation coefficient with positive discipline from teachers and principals' view. The first rank in teachers and principals' view assigned to the students' learning motivation and their commitment.
Article
Full-text available
Rates of crime and delinquency vary widely across communities, and research going back many decades provides a good understanding of the nature, correlates, and probable causes of these community differences. Unfortunately, previous studies have been limited in an important way. Virtually all studies of communities and crime are based on large urban areas, almost totally excluding nonmetropolitan areas—that is, rural areas and smaller cities and towns. The findings in this Bulletin help to fill some gaps in the research by examining variations in rates of juvenile violence across nonmetropolitan communities in Florida, Georgia, Nebraska, and South Carolina. Social disorganization is the primary theory by which criminologists account for rates of crime in urban communities. If this theory also applies to rural settings, then what is known about crime in urban areas can provide a basis for developing programs that address the problem of delinquency in smaller communities. The research presented in this Bulletin indicates that the principles of social disorganization theory hold up quite well in rural settings. As in urban areas, rates of juvenile violence are considerably higher in rural communities that have a large percentage of children living in single-parent households, a high rate of population turnover, and significant ethnic diversity. These factors, it should be noted, are statistical correlates and not causes of such violence; nor are they the only correlates.
Article
Full-text available
Explored the effects of a proactive school-wide discipline approach on the frequency of problem behavior exhibited by elementary students. Specifically, the study was designed to explore the impact of a social skill instruction program combined with direct intervention on problem behavior. Participants were approximately 110 students in Grades 1–5 observed in 3 specific school settings: cafeteria, recess, and a hallway transition. Educators reduced the rate of problem behavior across each targeted setting. Implications for school discipline programs and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
A recent and compelling study entitled Neurons to Neighborhoods, conducted by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine, calls attention to the importance of early emotional development in young children.1 Based on a careful review of neuroscience and developmental research, it highlights compelling evidence that a child’s earliest experiences and relationships set the stage for how a child manages feelings and impulses, and relates to others. It also highlights emerging and perhaps surprising evidence that emotional development and academic learning are far more closely intertwined in the early years than has been previously understood. What research tells us is that, for some young children, emotional and behavioral problems serve as a kind of red flag. Without help, evidence suggests that these emotional and behavioral difficulties may stabilize or escalate and negatively affect early school performance. In turn, early school performance is predictive of later school outcomes. 2 Thus, paying attention to the emotional status of young children has important implications for policy and practice strategies designed to promote school readiness.
Article
Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow guidelines for identifying the reasons for their children's behavior and effectively intervening through three basic methods: preventing problems; replacing behavior; and managing consequences. The included exercises and worksheets help parents easily track their child's progress, and three illuminating chapter-long case studies walk parents through PBS and show them how this process can transform family life. This book is organized into the following parts: (1) Introduction and Overview: The Basics of Positive Behavior Support; (2) The Process of Positive Behavior Support: Problem-Solving Through Positive Behavior; (3) Stories of Positive Behavior Support: Practicing the Process Through Case Illustrations; and (4) Enhancing Lives Through Positive Behavior Support: Making Positive Behavior Support Work for Families. An index is included.
Article
Investigated the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students in major transition settings. Three transition settings were targeted in an elementary school: (1) entering the school building, (2) moving to the cafeteria for lunch, and (3) exiting the school building. A multiple baseline design across the 3 transition settings was used. An analysis of baseline data indicated high rates of student problem behavior, especially running, hitting, and yelling, and low rates of precorrection and active supervision behaviors by staff. Results showed increases in precorrection and active supervision behaviors by staff with concomitant, substantial reductions in student problem behavior. Details of the methodology and results, and practical implications and directions for future research are described and discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Abstract  Human capital models assume residential mobility is both voluntary and opportunity-driven. Residential mobility of low income households, however, often does not fit these assumptions. Often characterized by short-distance, high frequency movement, poverty-related mobility may only deepen the social and economic instability that precipitated the movement in the first place. Children may be particularly affected because of disrupted social and academic environments. Among community institutions, schools often experience significant student turnover as a consequence. This paper presents a case study of student transiency and residential instability within an impoverished rural New York school district, examining both enrollment change data and residential histories collected from economically disadvantaged parents of mobile students. It finds that poverty-related mobility is frequently not voluntary but the consequence of precipitating social and economic crises at the household level in combination with the inability to obtain adequate and affordable housing. Hence, poverty-related hypermobility may be interpreted as both a consequence and determinant of rural community disadvantage.
Article
Two years of office referral data are presented in evaluation of a school-wide behavioral support program designed to define, teach, and reward appropriate student behavior in a rural middle school (grades 6, 7, and 8). During 1994-95, the school had 530 students and recorded 2,628 office referrals. The 1995-96 school year began with a full day in which students were taught five school expectations. Throughout the year, students also received rewards for appropriate behavior and office referrals for infractions. Results during 1995-96 document a 42% reduction in office referrals from the previous year. While the evaluation results do not document functional relationship, they suggest an efficient process for evaluating school-wide behavioral support, teaching appropriate behaviors, and changing the overall climate of the school. Implications for future research, and the use of schools as a unit of analysis, are discussed.
Article
Children born to adolescent mothers have heightened vulnerability for exposure to multiple stressful life events owing to factors associated with teenaged parenthood such as poverty and low levels of maternal education. This study investigated whether early exposure to negative life events such as parental divorce, residential instability, and deaths in the family predicted children’s socioemotional and behavioral functioning at age 10. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that negative life events—which were reported by 94% of the sample—were associated with less favorable developmental outcomes, with social support serving as a buffer between exposure to these events and children’s anxiety, internalization, externalization, and maladaptive behaviors.
School-wide and classroom management: Reconceptualizing the integration and management of students with behavior problems in general education. Education and Treatment of Children
  • G Colvin
  • E J Kame'enui
  • G Sugai
Colvin, G., Kame'enui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). School-wide and classroom management: Reconceptualizing the integration and management of students with behavior problems in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16, 361-381.
Basic facts about low-income children birth to age 18
  • A Douglas-Hall
  • M Chau
Douglas-Hall, A., & Chau, M. (2007). Basic facts about low-income children birth to age 18. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/ publications/pub 762.html
Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide positive behavior support: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities
  • R Freeman
  • L Eber
  • C Anderson
  • L Irvin
  • R Horner
  • M Bounds
Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Horner, R., Bounds, M., et al. (2006). Building inclusive school cultures using school-wide positive behavior support: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31(1), 4-17.
Rural poverty at a glance
  • D Jolliffe
Jolliffe, D. (2007). Rural poverty at a glance (Rural Development Research Report No. 100). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Economic information bulletin
  • L D Kusmin
Kusmin, L. D. (2008). Economic information bulletin (Rural Development Research Report No. 40). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Creating school environments to prevent problem behavior and support students at-risk and those with disabilities through school-wide positive behavior support
  • T Lewis
Lewis, T. (2007). Creating school environments to prevent problem behavior and support students at-risk and those with disabilities through school-wide positive behavior support. Retrieved from Rural SWPBS 7
Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach
  • A Todd
  • R H Horner
  • G Sugai
  • J R Sprague
Todd, A., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sprague, J. R. (1999). Effective behavior support: Strengthening school-wide systems through a team-based approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 23-27.
School-wide Evaluation Tool
  • A Todd
  • T Lewis-Palmer
  • R Horner
  • G Sugai
  • N Sampson
  • D Phillips
Todd, A., Lewis-Palmer, T., Horner, R., Sugai, G., Sampson, N., & Phillips, D. (2003). School-wide Evaluation Tool. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Educational and Community Supports.
School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual
  • A Todd
  • T Lewis-Palmer
  • R Horner
  • G Sugai
  • N Sampson
  • D Phillips
Todd, A., Lewis-Palmer, T., Horner, R., Sugai, G., Sampson, N., & Phillips, D. (2005). School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/school/ primary level/default.aspx