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Parent-Child Interaction Styles Between Gay and Lesbian Parents and Their Adopted Children

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Abstract

While myths exist that call into question the parenting ability of gay and lesbian parents as well as the impact of such parenting on children in their care, there is an ever increasing body of literature that clearly demonstrates the capabilities of these parents with their birth children. However, there continues to be a dearth of research on gay and lesbian adoptive parents and their children. To address this deficiency in the literature, this article explores the parenting styles of gay and lesbian adoptive parents and strengths of their children between the ages of 5–9 years (N = 94), using scores from the Parent-as-a-Teacher Inventory and the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale. Results illustrate that the gay and lesbian adoptive parents in this sample fell into the desirable range of the parenting scale and their children have strength levels equal to or exceeding the scale norms. Finally, various aspects of parenting style significantly predicted the adoptive parents' view of their child's level of care difficulty which subsequently predicted the type and level of strengths assessed within their adopted child. Recommendations for practice, policy and future research are highlighted.

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... -le CBCL est utilisé dans 7 études, il s'agit d'apprécier les problèmes comportementaux internalisés et externalisés [19, 21-23, 26-28, 31, 34, 36] ; cette approche peut être complétée par (11) qui recourt au SDQ (rempli par les enseignants) qui présente des orientations proches ; -les liens d'attachement aux parents [20,[24][25]32] et aux pairs [24][25] ; -la qualité de vie perçue [24][25] ; -la conformité aux rôles 'genrés' [26-27, 30, 33] ; -le développement intellectuel [34] ; -l'adaptation psycho-sociale [35]. ...
... Aucune des études ne met à jour de différence entre enfants en fonction de la structure familiale lorsqu'elles s'intéressent à la qualité de vie perçue par les enfants [24][25], au développement intellectuel des enfants [34] ou à leur adaptation psychosociale [35]. ...
... -à la qualité de la relation conjugale [24-25, 26-27, 31] ; -au style du fonctionnement familial [19,[21][22][23]; -à la qualité de la relation parentale [26][27][28]33] ; -au style éducatif parental [26][27]35] ; -à la qualité du soutien perçu [21][22][23] ; -à la satisfaction de qualité de vie perçue [24][25] ; -à l'anxiété et la dépression parentale [31,33] Les observations qui croisent structure des familles et qualité du fonctionnement familial, conjugal et parental, ne mettent à jour pratiquement aucune différence entre familles homoparentales et hétéroparentales [19, 21-27, 31, 35]. Lorsque des différences apparaissent, elles plaident plutôt en faveur de ressources plus étayées au sein des couples homoparentaux. ...
Article
Les données relatives au développement des enfants élevés au sein de familles homoparentales ont déjà donné lieu à un bilan, mais la situation spécifique relative à l’adoption n’a été que peu explorée, d’une part, parce que la possibilité même d’adoption est juridiquement récente, d’autre part, parce que de nombreuses recherches antérieures n’ont pas toujours pris en compte de façon suffisamment spécifique le mode de filiation des sujets. L’objectif du présent travail est d’examiner les caractéristiques et les résultats des travaux actuellement disponibles sur ce sujet.
... Again, the pre-existing advantages of the gay/lesbian parents were not controlled statistically, leaving the meaning of the findings in doubt. Ryan (2007) reported results for 94 gay and lesbian parents of the 183 surveyed earlier (Ryan & Cash, 2004) about their children and found that their scores were somewhat more positive and statistically significant on several outcome measures than had occurred in previous studies (not part of this study) with heterosexual parents. As noted previously, substantial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across the studies might have accounted for the reported differences, not to mention any possible effects of social desirability response bias related to the parents reporting on their own parenting qualities. ...
... Even so, the nonrandom nature of most of the samples means that the results of most of the studies cannot be generalized to a larger population from which the studies drew their participants, even given the restricted nature of those populations (e.g., very high socioeconomic status, only one or two adopted children). Some of the studies (e.g., Ryan, 2007) did not involve direct comparison groups of heterosexual adoptive families (not counting those from other studies), which limited their usefulness. ...
... Even though that discrepancy represented a small to medium effect, its nonsignificance (p < .07) permitted Ryan (2007) and Averett et al. (2009) to argue for the no difference hypothesis. Nevertheless, there were several other factors that were more influential for predicting family functioning than parental sexual orientation. ...
Article
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Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents? That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption. Relationship instability appears to be higher among gay and lesbian parent couples and may be a key mediating factor influencing outcomes for children. With respect to part 2, while parental self-reports usually present few significant differences, social desirability or self-presentation bias may be a confounding factor. While some researchers have tended to conclude that there are no differences whatsoever in terms of child outcomes as a function of parental sexual orientation, such conclusions appear premature in the light of more recent data in which some different outcomes have been observed in a few studies. Studies conducted within the past 10 years that compared child outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents were reviewed. Numerous methodological limitations were identified that make it very difficult to make an accurate assessment of the effect of parental sexual orientation across adoptive families. Because of sampling limitations, we still know very little about family functioning among same-sex adoptive families with low or moderate incomes, those with several children, or those with older children, including adolescents or how family functioning may change over time. There remains a need for high-quality research on same-sex families, especially families with gay fathers and with lower income.
... Other research utilizing smaller convenience samples replicated the above findings using the different versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Behavioral Emotional Rating Scale (BERS). Across these studies, children's scores on measures of internalizing behavioral adjustments did not differ by family type Farr et al. 2010;Farr and Patterson 2009;Fulcher et al. 2006;Lavner et al. 2012;Leung et al. 2005;Ryan 2007;Tan and Baggerly 2009). ...
... Furthermore, the NLLFS respondents report similar levels of problem behaviors, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior as age-matched respondents from the National Study of Family Growth (NSFG) . Additional convenience samples indicate related findings; children in same-sex and different-sex parent families performed similarly on various externalizing behavioral indicators of child development contained in the CBCL Farr et al. 2010;Farr and Patterson 2009;Fulcher et al. 2006;Lavner et al. 2012;Leung et al. 2005;Tan and Baggerly 2009) and Behavioral Emotional Rating Scale (Ryan 2007). ...
Article
Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.
... Data analyzed for this study are the qualitative comments part of the larger cross-sectional survey study of 183 LG adoptive parents across the nation. Three studies have been published on the quantitative parenting and child and family functioning data (see Ryan & Cash, 2004;Ryan & Whitlock, 2007;Ryan, 2007). The qualitative data analyzed in this paper are based on parents' responses to the following three questions: ...
... Additionally, more research on the experiences of adopted children in LG families is needed. Although growing evidence indicates that LG parents have parenting capacities equal to heterosexual parents (Ryan, 2007), research indicates that biases still persist throughout the legal system, adoption agencies, and adoption professionals (Ryan, 2000;. Additional research, policy implementation, ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the adoption and parenting experiences of lesbian and gay (LG) adoptive parents. Data for the present study are from a larger national cross-sectional survey of LG adoptive parents. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed in metropolitan LG newspapers, Web sites, and organizations across the country that serve LG individuals. This paper presents an analysis of the qualitative data gathered from 182 participants who responded to the following statement and two questions: 1. Write three short statements describing the biggest barriers or challenges that you faced in your efforts to become an LG adoptive parent. 2. What are the three biggest challenges you now face as an LG adoptive parent? 3. What are the three biggest joys you have experienced as an LG adoptive parent? The sample in this study was 54.9% female and 90% White. Thematic analysis was utilized to summarize the nature of the adoption experience from the LG parent perspective. Parents identified LG-specific barriers to becoming adoptive parents including perceived discrimination at all levels of the adoption process. Further, parents report a lack of role models to guide and mentor them. LG challenges included legal fears and struggles as they attempted to finalize both the initial and second-parent adoption. LG joys included being a role model to other parents, unanticipated increased extended family involvement, and unanticipated community support and acceptance.
... Many gay men have reported numerous challenges throughout the adoption process as a result of negative attitudes toward gay male parenting (Downing, Richardson, Kinkler, & Goldberg, 2009;Gianino, 2008;Goldberg, 2012;Kaye & Kuvalanka, 2006;Mallon, 2004). These attitudes are based on stereotypes that depict gay men as emotionally unstable, incapable and undesirous of long-term relationships, and unfit for assuming parental roles (Lobaugh, Clements, Averill, & Olguin, 2006;Ryan, 2007). There is still a deeply held belief in American society that all children need one male and one female parent (Biblarz & Stacey, 2010). ...
... Moving Beyond Either/Or Thinking. Researchers have found that, like other marginalized groups, the challenges gay and lesbian parents and their children face also bring opportunities (Fulcher, Sutfin, & Patterson, 2008;Perlesz et al., 2006;Ryan, 2007). Goldberg (2012), in conducting qualitative interviews with 70 gay adoptive fathers (35 couples) across the United States using social constructionist and queer theoretical perspectives, found that gay fathers cannot be classified as either conforming to or resisting heteronormativity, but rather they defy these simplistic classifications. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gay adoptive fathers and their children are becoming more visible in American society. Consequently, a deeper understanding is needed of the challenges and opportunities gay fathers experience in social interactions. Using a phenomenological approach, gay adoptive fathers from 20 families were interviewed about their experiences parenting as gay men. Although fathers led fulfilling lives as parents, many of them faced uninvited social interactions that reminded them of their place in a heterosexual order. These reminders of heteronormativity included scrutiny about their parenting, concerns about the well-being of their children, and decisions regarding disclosing information about their families. This article illustrates the use of a social constructionist lens to understand the emotional burdens gay adoptive fathers carry navigating these interactions in public settings. By narrowing the focus on such encounters, this article attunes practitioners and educators to gay fathers' emotional worlds while deepening their understanding of the social fabric of heteronormativity.
... Un estudio sobre progenitores adoptivos gays y lesbianas observaba, igualmente, niveles elevados de respaldo social y habilidades de crianza adecuadas (Ryan, 2007;Ryan y Cash, 2004). Otro estudio usó la Lista de Verificación de la Conducta Infantil (Achenbach y Rescorla, 2000) para comparar los problemas emocionales y conductuales en grandes muestras de niños en edad preescolar y escolar adoptados por gays, lesbianas o heterosexuales, y se concluyó que los problemas psicológicos de los niños no estaban determinados por la orientación sexual de los progenitores (Averett, Nalavany y Ryan, 2009). ...
... Plusieurs études menées à partir d'échantillons constitués de parents adoptifs, sans distinguer les mères lesbiennes et les pères gays, à partir d'autoquestionnaires, décrivent un fonctionnement familial positif et des enfants présentant un ajustement psychologique positif (Erich et al., 2009 ;Erich et al., 2005 ;Leung et al., 2005). Une étude sur des parents adoptifs gays et lesbiens a rapporté des niveaux élevés de soutien social et des compétences parentales appropriées (Ryan, 2007 ;Ryan et Cash, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, rapid changes in both assisted reproduction and social practices have given rise to numerous questions related to parenthood and the definitions of fatherhood and motherhood in a number of disciplines. Gay, lesbian, and trans families in particular call into question the two-parent biological model (one mother and one father) in which parents produce their own children or can pass as having done so. Beyond questions about the psychological development of children born into gay, lesbian, or trans families, which numerous psychological studies have tried to answer, these types of families provide further avenues for thought in the areas of sociology, anthropology, family law, and filiation. In their diversity, these families disassociate the notions of conjugality, procreation, filiation, and parenthood. This disassociation—which jeopardizes the model in which the procreative (born of), legal (the son/daughter of), and emotional (raised by) aspects of the family exist simultaneously—exists today in many other family configurations, in particular blended families, the use of assisted reproduction with a third-party donor, and adoption. This introductory article will serve to remind readers what is meant by gay, lesbian, and trans families, and will discuss, in light of the issues raised by these topics, work from various other disciplines. A literature review will summarize work conducted on gay and lesbian parenting since the 1990s using three primary approaches: psychological, socio-anthropological, and socio-legal. The far fewer and more recent studies of trans parenting will be covered in a separate section. The article will conclude with a presentation of the articles that make up this special issue.
... The authors noted that the lesbian and gay parents who had adopted older children with histories of abuse generally reported higher levels of family functioning than were expected for children with difficult pre-adoption histories. Self-report data from lesbian and gay adoptive parents similarly indicated that adoptive parents showed good parenting skills (Ryan, 2007), again despite many of the children having experienced preadoption trauma. ...
Article
Biblarz and Stacey (2010) have raised many interesting points in their consideration of how the gender of parents matters. They have amassed two types of evidence pertinent to this question: comparisons of families led by same-sex couples versus heterosexual couples and comparisons of families led by single (heterosexual) mothers versus single (heterosexual) fathers. To do justice to Biblarz and Stacey's points regarding parenting by lesbians and gay men, my commentary initially focuses on whether same-sex parenting does indeed make a difference and then considers how this might be.
... There is little research involving samples of transracial adoptive families headed by both same-and other-sex couples (Ryan, 2007). Some studies address the motivations of heterosexual parents to adopt children (e.g., Bausch, 2006;Hollingsworth, 2000), but there is little research specifically addressing the motivations of transracial adopters or of lesbian and gay adoptive parents (e.g., Brooks & James, 2003;Goldberg, 2009). ...
Article
Who completes transracial adoptions and with what results? This study explored pathways to and outcomes of transracial adoption among 106 families headed by lesbian (n = 27), gay (n = 29), and heterosexual (n = 50) couples. Transracial adoptions occurred more often among lesbian and gay than among heterosexual couples, and they occurred more often among interracial than among same-race couples. Lesbian and gay couples were more likely than heterosexual couples to be interracial. Transracial adoptions were also more common among those who gave child-centered reasons as compared to adult-centered reasons for adoption. There were, however, no differences in adjustment between transracial and inracial adoptive families. Implications for child welfare agencies and for legal and policy debates are discussed.
... Research on gay and lesbian adoptive families has generally been scarce (Van Voorhis & Wagner, 2001). However, the literature is growing (Ryan, 2007). There are a few studies that have looked particularly at the functioning level of gay and lesbian adoptive families. ...
Article
Many experts in the helping professions have agreed that there is no scientific credence to support a gay and lesbian adoption ban. Nevertheless, there continues to be persistent mythology pertaining to outcomes for children adopted by gay and lesbian parents. This position may be somewhat due to the dearth of research that compares heterosexual and homosexual parenting outcomes with adopted children. To respond to this gap in the literature, this study explored the extent of emotional and behavioral problems among children aged 1.5 to 5 years (n = 380) and 6 to 18 years (n = 1,004) with gay and lesbian or heterosexual adoptive parents. A multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association between the dependent variables (child internalizing and externalizing behavior) on adoptive parent sexual orientation (gay and lesbian or heterosexual) while controlling for child age, child sex, pre-adoptive maltreatment, co-sibling adoption, adoption preparation, family income, and family functioning. As hypothesized, results indicted that child internalizing and externalizing behavior was not contingent upon adoptive parent sexual orientation. Rather, regardless of sexual orientation, adoptive parents are likely to encounter similar challenges in terms of risk factors for child behavioral problems and mitigating factors of such behavior. Recommendations for practice, policy, and future research are highlighted.
... Initial investigations of adoptive gay father families have reported positive family functioning with respect to quality of parenting and children's psychological well-being (Averett, Nalavany, & Ryan, 2009;Erich, Kanenberg, Case, Allen, & Bogdanos, 2009;Erich, Leung, & Kindle, 2005;Leung, Erich, & Kanenberg, 2005;Ryan, 2007). However, reliance on self-report questionnaires administered to convenience samples, and either the absence of a comparison group of heterosexual adoptive families or the wide age range of children studied, limit the conclusions that may be drawn. ...
Article
Full-text available
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development.
... (Allen & Burrel, 1996;Anderssen, Amlie & Ytteroy, 2002;Crowl, Ahn & Baker, 2008). Da mesma forma, não foram encontradas diferenças entre pais e mães homossexuais e pais e mães heterossexuais ao nível do seu ajustamento psicológico, investimento e envolvimento parental, e ajustamento relacional (Bos, van Balen & van den Boom, 2004, 2005Patterson, 2006;Ryan, 2007). ...
... ⃧ of the abstracts mentions that the researcher tried to implement any kind of changes, create an action plan, or actively promote social change 24 . Some abstracts describe that the articles provide knowledge and information that can be used by learners, in practice, and for further research: Suggestions for practical solutions (Mazor 2004, Matthews and Cramer 2005, Erwin 2007, Short 2007; Recommendations and information for policy and practice (Buxton 2005, Ryan 2007); Discussions of implications of findings (Parks 1998, Berger 1998, Ryan 2000, Brooks and Goldberg 2001, Fredriksen-Goldsen and Erera 2003, Speziale and Gapalakrishna 2004, Coates and Sullivan 2005, Camillieri and Ryan 2006, Matthews and Cramer 2006. Only 14 of the 54 abstracts (less than 25%) explicitly express that the article either provides information or recommendations for practice or policy, and only 4 give suggestions or models for practical solutions. ...
Chapter
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... Un estudio sobre progenitores adoptivos gays y lesbianas observaba, igualmente, niveles elevados de respaldo social y habilidades de crianza adecuadas (Ryan, 2007;Ryan y Cash, 2004). Otro estudio usó la Lista de Verificación de la Conducta Infantil (Achenbach y Rescorla, 2000) para comparar los problemas emocionales y conductuales en grandes muestras de niños en edad preescolar y escolar adoptados por gays, lesbianas o heterosexuales, y se concluyó que los problemas psicológicos de los niños no estaban determinados por la orientación sexual de los progenitores (Averett, Nalavany y Ryan, 2009). ...
Article
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Familias modernas, familias del mismo sexo, familias diversas o nuevas familias son enunciados que suelen escucharse desde los discursos públicos, sociales y académicos para referirse a estos tipos de relaciones afectivas que desafían al modelo tradicional. No obstante lo anterior e independientemente del nombre asignado, estos grupos relacionales vivencian su hacer y ser familia en un contexto donde el modelo imperante se mantiene, negando espacios de visibilización y legitimidad. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un estudio cualitativo en familias compuestas por personas del mismo sexo indagando en sus significaciones de ser familia en un modelo social familiar heteronormativo. El enfoque metodológico es de tipo fenomenológico y el análisis de la información se trabajó desde la técnica de análisis de contenido. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a 5 familias con hijos (as) (3 compuestas por mujeres y 2 por hombres). Los resultados dan cuenta de similitudes respecto de la idea de familia en aspectos cotidianos; no así en las cargas emotivas y sociales que se instalan en el núcleo familiar como un nuevo sistema valórico en sus procesos de crianza.
... Come immaginabile dalle premesse, alcuni degli aspetti più studiati rispetto allo sviluppo dei figli adottivi di gay e lesbiche sono relativi agli esiti emotivi e comportamentali. Nello studio di Ryan (2007) su 94 famiglie adottive con genitori gay e lesbiche i punteggi dei bambini su scale relative allo sviluppo socio-emotivo sono risultati nella norma o superiori. In un ampio campione di famiglie adottive di cui 155 con genitori omosessuali e 1004 con genitori eterosessuali, Averett, Nalavany e Ryan (2009) non hanno riscontrato alcuna relazione tra gli eventuali problemi comportamentali dei figli (di età variabile da 1,5 a 18 anni) e l'orientamento sessuale dei genitori. ...
Article
Premesse teoriche: Le ricerche sulle competenze genitoriali delle persone gay e lesbiche e sul benessere dei loro bambini sono iniziate più di trent’anni fa. La comunità scientifica ha ora a disposizione un consistente corpus di dati empirici in base ai quali è possibile sostenere che: a) le persone gay e lesbiche hanno le stesse competenze genitoriali delle persone eterosessuali; b) gli esiti dello sviluppo dei bambini cresciuti dalle persone gay e lesbiche seguono i percorsi attesi. Obiettivo: Lo scopo di questa rassegna è analizzare le più importanti ricerche in tema di omogenitorialità, facendo luce su alcune recenti controversie e mettendo in risalto i risultati ottenuti dalle ricerche metodologicamente più robuste. Metodologia: È stata considerata la letteratura scientifica pubblicata fino al Maggio 2013, consultando le banche dati di Medline, ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycArticles, PsychINFO e altre fonti internazionali. Discussione critica e conclusioni: I dati disponibili rivelano che i bambini cresciuti da genitori gay e lesbiche, nonostante le discriminazioni a cui sono sottoposti, seguono i percorsi di sviluppo attesi. Il benessere del bambino non dipende dall’orientamento sessuale dei genitori ma dalla loro capacità di amarlo, fornirgli le cure necessarie e un ambiente familiare sereno. Non vi sono dunque motivi per affermare che le persone gay e lesbiche siano genitori meno adeguati a causa del loro orientamento sessuale, né vi sono motivi per ritenere che l’orientamento sessuale costituisca un fattore in base al quale orientare l’affidamento o l’adozione. Saranno dunque analizzate e discusse le dinamiche e le modalità che portano una persona gay o lesbica a diventare genitore. [Theoretical background: Research on parenting skills of lesbians and gay men, and studies on the well-being of their children, began over thirty years ago. At present, the scientific community can count on a large amount of empirical data. This allows us to affirm that: a) lesbians and gay men have the same parenting skills as heterosexual people; b) children raised by lesbians and gay men show positive development outcomes. Objective: This review aims to examine the most important studies regarding the quality of parenting by lesbians and gay men and the psychological adjustment of their children. It also highlights some recent controversies and report findings from methodologically more robust studies. Among important issues examined by research we will consider the dynamics and methods that lead a lesbian or a gay man to become a parent, the various kind of family, and the impact of the stigma and prejudice events on same-sex parents and their children. Methodology: We reviewed the scientific literature published until May 2013, using Medline, ProQuest Psychology Journals, PsycARTICLES, PsychINFO electronic databases and other international sources. Studies carried out under the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) deserve of particular mention: one of its major methodological strengths is that it is a longitudinal study, the “gold standard” in developmental psychology research. Furthermore, in the U.S. NLLFS the participants were recruited before they become parents, minimizing the bias due to the recruitment of parents who already know psychological adjustment of children. Critical discussion and conclusions: The available data show that children raised by lesbian and gay parents have positive development outcomes, despite homophobic prejudices and discrimination. The children well-being does not depend on the parents’ sexual orientation but on their ability to love, to provide the necessary care and a peaceful family entevironment. It seems that these good parenting skills manage to neutralize homophobic discrimination and victimization to which may be subject the children. Therefore, there is no reason to affirm that lesbians and gay men are not suitable as parents due to their sexual orientation, nor is there any reason to believe that parent’s sexual orientation is a factor in decisions regarding foster care or adoption. After highlighting these important issues, we made a point of analyzing the dynamics underlying the choice of becoming parents and the multiple ways in which a lesbian or a gay man can become a parent and “doing a family” (e.g., stepfamily, assisted reproductive technology, adoption, surrogacy, co-parenting). Last but not least, we will highlight the importance for mental health practitioners and researchers to learn about these issues and avoid the risk of believing in sexual prejudices.]
... The authors noted that the lesbian and gay parents who had adopted older children with histories of abuse generally reported higher levels of family functioning than were expected for children with difficult pre-adoption histories. Self-report data from lesbian and gay adoptive parents similarly indicated that adoptive parents showed good parenting skills (Ryan, 2007), again despite many of the children having experienced preadoption trauma. ...
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The essential reference for human development theory, updated and reconceptualized The Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, a four–volume reference, is the field–defining work to which all others are compared. First published in 1946, and now in its Seventh Edition, the Handbook has long been considered the definitive guide to the field of developmental science. Volume 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development presentsup–to–date knowledge and theoretical understanding of the several facets of social, emotional and personality processes. The volume emphasizes that any specific processes, function, or behavior discussed in the volume co–occurs alongside and is inextricably affected by the dozens of other processes, functions, or behaviors that are the focus of other researchers′ work. As a result, the volume underscores the importance of a focus on the whole developing child and his or her sociocultural and historical environment. Understand the multiple processes that are interrelated in personality development Discover the individual, cultural, social, and economic processes that contribute to the social, emotional, and personality development of individuals Learn about the several individual and contextual contributions to the development of such facets of the individual as morality, spirituality, or aggressive/violent behavior Study the processes that contribute to the development of gender, sexuality, motivation, and social engagement The scholarship within this volume and, as well, across the four volumes of this edition, illustrate that developmental science is in the midst of a very exciting period. There is a paradigm shift that involves increasingly greater understanding of how to describe, explain, and optimize the course of human life for diverse individuals living within diverse contexts. This Handbook is the definitive reference for educators, policy–makers, researchers, students, and practitioners in human development, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and neuroscience.
... Regarding specifically children adopted by gay fathers, a number of studies have found high levels of good adjustment among children adopted by gay fathers (Averett, Nalavany, & Ryan, 2009;Erich, Leung, & Kindle, 2005;Farr, Forssell, & Patterson, 2010;Ryan, 2007). Moreover, Golombok et al. (2014) and Miller et al. (2017) reported less child externalizing problems among families of adoptive gay fathers than among heterosexual parent families. ...
Article
The present study investigated the contribution of various factors to parental involvement and children’s psychosocial adjustment among adoptive families headed by two gay fathers. More specifically, we examined the associations between fathers’ resources (income and education), number of hours devoted to paid work, gender role, sharing of parenting tasks, and parental involvement. The contribution of parental involvement, task sharing, and gender role to children’s adjustment was also examined. A sample of 92 fathers and their 46 children aged 1 to 9 years participated in the study. Fathers completed a series of questionnaires: sociodemographic, Who Does What, Parental Engagement, Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Adoptive gay fathers reported a rather egalitarian division of tasks and high levels of involvement in various areas of childcare although within couples one of the two fathers was usually more involved than the other. Income and gender role were the main predictors of overall involvement. Gay fathers also reported few behavior problems in their child. Dissatisfaction with the sharing of parenting tasks was found to predict child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.
... A pesar de los prejuicios que con frecuencia han empañado la mirada sobre las familias homoparentales, la realidad es que tienen muchos puntos en dos con sus hijos e hijas, que incluyen niveles apropiados de aceptación, comunicación, implicación afectiva, control, disciplina basada en la inducción y respeto por la autonomía de niños y niñas (Bos et al., 2007;Ryan, 2007;Vanfraussen, Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, y Brewaeys, 2003). ...
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Revisión de estudios relacionados con las familias de madres lesbianas o padres gays, profundizando tanto en las relaciones familiares como en el desarrollo y ajuste de sus hijos o hijas. Se analizan los principales problemas a que pueden enfrentarse y se plantean pautas para abordarlos, así como para la intervención profesional con estas familias
... The fathers remind us that their children need to be seen not as passive victims, but as active agents in shaping their social worlds (Hines, Merdinger, & Wyatt, 2005;Pinkerton & Dolan, 2007). Similar to parents in a previous study on gay and lesbian adoptive families (Ryan, 2007), the fathers identified strengths that their children exhibit in managing heteronormative environments. The findings of this study contribute to research on disclosure practices of adopted kids raised by gay and lesbian parents (Gianino, Goldberg & Lewis, 2009) and how children and adolescents raised by same-sex parents develop peer relationships and build their social networks (Gershon, Tschann, & Jemerin, 1999;Ray & Gregory, 2001;Rivers, Poteat, & Noret, 2008). ...
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Little is known about how gay fathers support their children as they navigate the challenges of heteronormativity. This article, based on phenomenological interviews with gay adoptive fathers from 20 families (one interview per family), discusses how gay fathers help their children manage the complexities of being adopted, not having a mother, and having gay fathers. Using a social constructionist lens, the article shows how fathers, in empathically responding to these challenges, nurture emotional connections with their children and deepen their sense of being parents. Focusing on how gay fathers provide security to their children in the face of societal stigma expands knowledge about the intimate family lives of gay fathers, resiliencies of families headed by same-sex parents, and the social fabric of heteronormativity.
... Plusieurs études menées à partir d'échantillons constitués de parents adoptifs, sans distinguer les mères lesbiennes et les pères gays, à partir d'autoquestionnaires, décrivent un fonctionnement familial positif et des enfants présentant un ajustement psychologique positif (Erich et al., 2009 ;Erich et al., 2005 ;Leung et al., 2005). Une étude sur des parents adoptifs gays et lesbiens a rapporté des niveaux élevés de soutien social et des compétences parentales appropriées (Ryan, 2007 ;Ryan et Cash, 2004). ...
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L'homoparentalité et la transparentalité au prisme des sciences sociales : révolution ou pluralisation des formes de parenté ?_Martine Gross La chimère de « la théorie du genre » ou comment le débat autour de la loi française du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe dévoile les mécanismes d'un système de genre_Laurence Moliner L'ambivalence de la transmission des normes du genre par les mères lesbiennes : de la critique des stéréotypes à leur reproduction « pour le bien de l'enfant »_Camille Frémont Analyse du fonctionnement psychique d'enfants grandissant avec un couple de femmes _Émilie Moget, Susann Heenen-Wolff « Je leur dis que j'ai deux mamans ? » : carrières de (non-)publicisation de l'homoparentalité à l'école en France_Alice Olivier Les atermoiements du droit français dans la reconnaissance des familles formées par des couples de femmes_Laurence Brunet Incidences de la composante biogénétique dans la reconnaissance de la filiation monosexuée en Espagne_Marta Roca i Escoda L'interdiction de discriminer les personnes trans* dans la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne : pour son amélioration par l'ajout de l'« identité de genre » et de l'« expression de genre » à la liste des motifs de distinction illicites_Jean-Sébastien Sauvé « J'ai aidé deux femmes à fonder leur famille » : le don de gamètes entre particuliers en contexte québécois_Isabel Côté, Kévin Lavoie, Francine de Montigny Transparentalité : vécus sensibles de parents et d'enfants (France, Québec)_Corinne Fortier La gestion médicale et politique de la parenté trans en France_Laurence Hérault 23 automne 2015 n°
... Studies comparing outcomes of children adopted by lesbian and gay families with those of children adopted by straight families find no differences in levels of attachment between children and their adoptive parents or in children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Erich, Hall, Kanenberg & Case, 2009;Erich, Kanenberg, Case, Allen, & Bogdanes 2009). Studies comparing lesbian and gay parents with straight parents show similarities across many domains, including parenting style and skill, emotional adjustment, psychological stability, sensitivity, financial security, resourcefulness, and parenting skill (Brooks & Goldberg, 2001;Flaks et al., 1995;Goldberg & Smith, 2008;Ryan, 2008;Ryan & Cash, 2004). Lesbian couples, however, have been found to exhibit more parenting awareness skills than straight couples (Flaks, Ficher, Masterpasqua & Joseph, 1995). ...
... Ovi radovi su opisivali pozitivno porodično funkcionisanje i dobru prilagođenost dece u lezbejskim i gej porodicama. Ispitivanja usvojitelja, koji pripadaju homoseksualnim porodicama, utvrdila su visok nivo socijalne podrške i zadovoljavajuće roditeljske veštine (Ryan, 2007;Ryan & Cash, 2004). Rađena su i istraživanja na velikim uzorcima dece predškolskog i školskog uzrasta koju su usvojili gej, lezbejski ili heteroseksualni roditelji, koja su pokazala da psihološki problemi dece nisu u vezi sa seksualnom orijentacijom roditelja (Averett, Nalavany & Ryan, 2009). ...
... Outcomes for adopted children placed with gay fathers have been found to be particularly positive (Golombok et al., 2014). Whilst mostly comparative and based on small samples, these studies have contributed to an increasing body of positive research evidence on outcomes for children adopted by lesbians and gay men in terms of children's functioning, family relationships and quality of parenting , Erich et al., 2009, Farr et al., 2010, Ryan, 2007. They challenge earlier concerns about the impact of lesbian and gay adoption on children facing adversity in their early lives and their potential for adjustment later on (Cocker, 2015). ...
Article
This paper reports findings from a study in England, which investigated the experiences of lesbian and gay parents in relation to homophobia in primary and secondary schools. The study was part of a larger European Union project investigating the impact of family and school alliances against homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools across six nation states. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews with seven lesbian and gay parents from five families were conducted to explore their unique experience and perspectives on these issues. Discourse analysis was used to facilitate understanding of how lesbian and gay families negotiated the outsider/insider and public/private spheres of the school and communities of which they were a part. Parents identified a number of strategies to address their experiences of homophobia within schools. The findings have implications for how social work recognises and promotes diversity and equality when working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families, as social workers have a powerful role in supporting families. This involves recognising the strengths of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families in their assessments.
... Regarding specifically children adopted by gay fathers, a number of studies have found high levels of good adjustment among children adopted by gay fathers (Averett, Nalavany, & Ryan, 2009;Erich, Leung, & Kindle, 2005;Farr, Forssell, & Patterson, 2010;Ryan, 2007). Moreover, Golombok et al. (2014) and Miller et al. (2017) reported less child externalizing problems among families of adoptive gay fathers than among heterosexual parent families. ...
Article
Fathers’ sensitivity and child attachment security and externalizing and internalizing problems were investigated among families headed by two adoptive gay fathers. A sample of 68 fathers and their 34 children aged 1–6 years participated in the study. Fathers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental sensitivity and child attachment security were assessed by independent coders with Q-sort methodology during parent–child interactions at home. Results indicate that few children had low attachment security scores and behavior problems in the clinical range. Fathers’ sensitivity within parenting couples appeared similarly high, as did children’s attachment security. In contrast to the weak association found in past studies among heterosexual fathers, a significant moderate correlation was found between paternal sensitivity and child attachment security. Also, children with higher levels of attachment security had less externalizing problems.
... Por otro lado, los estudios dedicados a las competencias parentales de personas lgbt señalan, en términos generales, la ausencia de diferencias significativas al ser comparadas con padres y madres heterosexuales. Respecto a las características de padres y madres lesbianas, gais y bisexuales, tampoco existe ningún indicio de problemáticas ligadas a la salud mental o a la capacidad de establecer vínculos afectivos seguros con sus hijas/os (Bos et al., 2005;Patterson, 2006;Ryan, 2007;Salinas Quiroz et al., 2017); también se demuestra que las parejas del mismo género y las de género distinto presentan niveles de comunicación y apoyo conyugal semejantes (Bos, van Balen y van den Boom, 2004;Bos, van Balen y van den Boom, 2007). ...
... Por otro lado, los estudios dedicados a las competencias parentales de personas lgbt señalan, en términos generales, la ausencia de diferencias significativas al ser comparadas con padres y madres heterosexuales. Respecto a las características de padres y madres lesbianas, gais y bisexuales, tampoco existe ningún indicio de problemáticas ligadas a la salud mental o a la capacidad de establecer vínculos afectivos seguros con sus hijas/os (Bos et al., 2005;Patterson, 2006;Ryan, 2007;Salinas Quiroz et al., 2017); también se demuestra que las parejas del mismo género y las de género distinto presentan niveles de comunicación y apoyo conyugal semejantes (Bos, van Balen y van den Boom, 2004;Bos, van Balen y van den Boom, 2007). ...
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Parenting skills of lesbian women and gay men have been challenged based on a number of arguments that are based on the assumption that sexual orientation is an indicator of lesser parental capacity. Nevertheless, this legal and political argument, with particular relevance on the social level, does not seem to echo in the scientific community. The amount of studies dedicated to homosexual parenting have grown exponentially and consistently revealed that parents’ sexual orientation does not negatively influence child development. Through a theoretical review of studies, it is intended to place the state of research on parenting by homosexuals taking a critical view of the main research paradigms and how these influence the conclusions drawn from the studies. It is concluded that the inexistence of differences between homosexual and heterosexual families is misleading, and that efforts of normalization and minimization of differences undermines the scientific knowledge about these families.
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Increasing numbers of lesbian and gay adults are becoming parents through adoption. The adoption of children by lesbian and gay adults does, however, remain a controversial topic across the USA and around the world. Several questions have been raised in these debates. For instance, to what extent do lesbian and gay adults make capable adoptive parents? Are children who have been adopted by lesbian and gay parents growing up in healthy ways? What factors contribute to positive family functioning in adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents? In this chapter, we present a growing body of social science research that has begun to address such questions. Findings from this research suggest that lesbian and gay adults are successful in adoptive parent roles and that their children are developing in positive directions. Research on these families has, however, been subject to criticism on methodological grounds, and we therefore consider the issues raised by such critiques. Further, in light of the existing literature, we point out directions for future research. Overall, the findings to date suggest that parental sexual orientation should not be a deciding factor in placing children with permanent adoptive families. We discuss various implications of this research for the legal system and for child welfare agencies.
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Adjustment of school-aged children, parents, and families in international versus domestic adoption was studied in 100 Israeli families. No significant differences were found between the two groups of children in school adjustment, grades, IQ level, psychological adjustment (i.e. anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, self-concept), observed behaviours at home, and coping with adoption issues. However, they perceived their parents to be more supportive but controlling. Marked differences were found in parents’ behaviours, especially fathers’, and family functioning: In the international adoption group, compared with the domestic adoption group, parents used more problem-focused and support-seeking ways of coping, viewed parenting more as a challenge, were more involved with their children; but were more intrusive, reported more cohesive family relations and better marital adjustment, and coped differently with adoption issues. Results are discussed in terms of the differences in the two types of adoption.
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This paper reports on associations observed between Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) obtained from adoptive mothers, and emotional themes appearing in doll play narratives obtained from their recently adopted children. The children, aged 4-8 years, carried into their adoptive placements a history of consistently serious maltreatment, including neglect and abuse. Results reveal strong and significant influences of maternal state of mind regarding attachment upon their adopted children's story-completions. Mothers whose AAIs were judged insecure (either dismissing or preoccupied) were likely to have adopted children who, three months after placement, provided story-completions with higher levels of aggressiveness as compared to the stories provided by children adopted by mothers with secure-autonomous AAIs. Children whose adoptive mothers provided AAIs indicative of unresolved (as opposed to resolved) mourning regarding past loss or trauma provided story completions with higher scores for emotional themes such as 'parent appearing child-like' and 'throwing out or throwing away'. Results also include a qualitative section that provides narrative excerpts of maternal AAIs and children's story-completions. Discussion concerns the contribution these findings make to the literature on intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns, and the implications these findings have for child clinical work and social policy.
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Gay and lesbian parenting is a fertile research field with many important new developments in content and methodology over the last decade. Gay and lesbian parenting occurs in a wide diversity of famly constellations, yet the cultural context of lesbian and gay parenting is a neglected topic. The relative depth of knowledge of lesbian parenting is contrasted with the lack of research on gay male parenting across different routes to parenthood. Gay and lesbian parenting researchers have employed a wide variety of methodological designs in their investigations, and the field has benefited from the employment of quantitative and qualitative techniques to investigate developmental outcomes for children and increase understanding of the variety of experiences of gay and lesbian parenthood. This review highlights significant developments in the field and suggests new directions.
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Assessments of developmental status, attachment, and behaviour problems were conducted for 56 Romanian orphans adopted in Ontario. The group as a whole was functioning in the normal range and was considered well adjusted, but children who had experienced less than six months of institutional care had better outcomes than the rest on developmental measures. The adoptees showed an unusual distribution of attachment patterns: Secure attachment was less frequent than normally expected and avoidant attachment was not observed. Unexpectedly, neither age at adoption nor length of institutionalisation was related to attachment outcomes and it was suggested that the present preschool attachment system does not adequately capture attachment phenomena in this sample. Children who had more institution experience, those who were developmentally less competent, and those who were insecurely attached had more parent-reported behaviour problems.
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Assessment of children referred to and receiving special education services is based on a deficit model. Recently, questions about a deficit-driven assessment model have led to calls for alternative approaches. A strength-based approach to assessment focuses on the strengths, resources, and competencies of a child and family. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to provide an overview of strength-based assessment and (b) to discuss the development and psychometric characteristics of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS). The BERS is a norm-referenced, standardized test that assesses the strengths of children and adolescents.
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Individual differences in 30 Korean American and 30 European American preschoolers’ play behavior were examined to understand how intracultural variations in children’s skills and behavioral characteristics may be associated with social pretend play in early childhood. Observers recorded the children’s social behaviors and play complexity. Teachers rated children’s social behavior, parents completed a child rearing questionnaire, and children were given the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised and the Multidimensional Stimulus Fluency Measure. The findings showed that there were similar patterns predictive of pretend play for both groups. Overall, children’s interactive style, positive social interaction with peers, and creativity scores significantly predicted pretend play. The results suggest that individual factors related to pretend play transcend culture.
Article
Describes the Parent As A Teacher Inventory (PAAT), a composite attitude scale in which parents describe: (1) their feelings about various aspects of the parent-child interactive system, (2) their standards for assessing the importance of various aspects of child behavior and (3) their values concerning child behavior. (SB)
Article
Interviews with 21 children of lesbians in greater Boston area, ranging in age from 9 to 26, identified several major issues. Problems experienced involved parents' divorce and disclosure of mother's homosexuality. Problems between mother and children were secondary to the issue of children's respect for difficult step she had taken. (Author/NRB)
Article
Whereas opponents of lesbian and gay parent rights claim that children with lesbigay parents are at higher risk for a variety of negative outcomes, most research in psychology concludes, somewhat defensively, that there are no differences at all in developmental outcomes between children raised by lesbigay and heterosexual parents. This paper challenges this defensive conceptual framework and analyzes the ways in which heterosexism has hampered intellectual progress in the field. We discuss limitations in the definitions, samples, and analyses of the studies to date. Next we explore findings from 21 studies and demonstrate that researchers frequently downplay findings of difference regarding, in particular, children's gender and sexual preferences and behavior that could instead stimulate important theoretical questions. We propose a less defensive, more sociologically-informed analytic framework for investigating these issues that focuses on 1) the role of parental gender vis a vis sexual orientation in influencing children's gender development; 2) the role of selection effects produced by homophobia that may intervene in the relationships between parental sexual orientations and child outcomes; and 3) the relationship between parental sexual orientations and children's sexual preferences and behaviors.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify possible contributing factors to family functioning in three types of adoptive families: those headed by gays/lesbians, those headed by heterosexuals, and those involving the adoption of children with special needs. These three adoptive family types were examined concurrently so that commonalities and differences could be identified and considered for use in adoption practice. A multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the dependent variable (standardized family functioning score) and independent variables (child behavior scores, special needs adoption, gay/lesbian headed families, age at adoption and at interview, diagnoses of disabilities, total social support score, number of previous placements, previous abuse and co-sibling adoption). Results indicated no negative effects for the parenting of adopted children by gay/lesbian headed families. Higher levels of family functioning were found to be associated with special needs, younger, and non-disabled child adoptions. Gay/lesbian headed family adoptions of older children, non-sibling group adoptions, and children with more foster placements also experienced higher levels of family functioning. Implications include the need to (1) place a child in an adoptive family as early as possible, (2) ensure strong support networks for adoptive families of children with disabilities and with those who adopt sibling groups, and (3) encourage the practice of adoption by gay/lesbian headed families, especially for older children.
Article
Photocopy of typescript. Thesis (M.S.W.)--California State University, Long Beach, 1998. Abstract preceding title page. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 108-117).
Article
Thesis -- Arizona State University. Vita. Bibliography: leaves 83-97. Photocopy of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1981. -- 21 cm.
Article
Thesis (Ed. D.)--Temple University, 1980. Bibliography: leaves 96-102. Microfilm of typescript. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Xerox University Microfilms, 1980. -- 1 reel ; 35 mm.
Article
Using data from a 1999 national RDD survey ( N = 1,335), this article examines gender gaps in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, and a variety of topics related to homosexuality. Attitudes toward lesbians differed from attitudes toward gay men in several areas, and significant differences were observed between male and female heterosexual respondents. Survey participants generally were more likely to regard gay men as mentally ill, supported adoption rights for lesbians more than for gay men, and had more negative personal reactions to gay men than to lesbians. Overall, heterosexual women were more supportive than men of employment protection and adoption rights for gay people, more willing to extend employee benefits to same-sex couples, and less likely to hold stereotypical beliefs about gay people. Heterosexual men's negative reactions to gay men were at the root of these gender differences. Of all respondent-by-target combinations, heterosexual men were the least supportive of recognition of same-sex relationships and adoption rights for gay men, most likely to believe that gay men are mentally ill and molest children, and most negative in their affective reactions to gay men. Heterosexual men's response patterns were affected by item order, suggesting possible gender differences in the cognitive organization of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating lesbians from gay men as attitude targets in survey research.
Article
This paper reviews research evidence regarding the personal and social development of children with gay and lesbian parents. Beginning with estimates of the numbers of such children, sociocultural, theoretical, and legal reasons for attention to their development are then outlined. In this context, research studies on sexual identity, personal development, and social relationships among these children are then reviewed. These studies include assessment of possible differences between children with gay or lesbian versus heterosexual parents as well as research on sources of diversity among children of gay and lesbian parents. Research on these topics is relatively new, and many important questions have yet to be addressed. To date, however, there is no evidence that the development of children with lesbian or gay parents is compromised in any significant respect relative to that among children of heterosexual parents in otherwise comparable circumstances. Having begun to respond to heterosexist and homophobic questions posed by psychological theory, judicial opinion, and popular prejudice, child development researchers are now in a position also to explore a broader range of issues raised by the emergence of different kinds of gay and lesbian families.
Article
Behavioral/emotional problems and competencies in 2,148 international adoptees aged 10 to 15 years were compared with those in a same-aged sample of 933 children from the general population using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. Parents reported more externalizing problem behavior for adopted than nonadopted children. More than twice as many 12- to 15-year-old adopted boys were scored above the cutoff criterion for problem behavior than nonadopted boys of the same age. For adopted boys in this age range especially high scores were obtained on the Delinquent and Hyperactive syndromes. Adopted children were scored less competent than nonadopted children in their social and academic functioning, whereas adopted children were found to be more active in nonsports activities and to function somewhat better than nonadopted children in sports and nonsports activities. In contrast to the effect of parental occupational level on competent scores for normative American and Dutch samples, adopted children from lower SES showed better academic performance, were less often referred to special classes, and had less other school problems than adopted children from higher SES.
Article
This paper attempts to refine and state more clearly an operational definition of homophobia. Homophobia is seen as but one dimension among many that collectively refer to the much larger domain of homonegativeism. The paper then presents a new measure of homophobia, called the IHP, and reports the finding of a study designed to validate the new scale. The IHP was found to have a reliability of .90 and good content and factorial validity.
Article
Attachment and indiscriminately friendly behavior were assessed in children who had spent at least 8 months in a Romanian orphanage (RO) and two comparison groups of children: a Canadian-born, nonadopted, never institutionalized comparison group (CB) and an early adopted comparison group adopted from Romania before the age of 4 months (EA). Attachment was assessed using 2 measures: an attachment security questionnaire based on parent report, and a Separation Reunion procedure that was coded using the Preschool Assessment of Attachment. Indiscriminately friendly behavior was examined using parents' responses to 5 questions about their children's behavior with new adults. Although RO children did not score differently from either CB or EA children on the attachment security measure based on parent report, they did display significantly more insecure attachment patterns than did children in the other 2 groups. In addition, RO children displayed significantly more indiscriminately friendly behavior than both CB and EA children, who did not differ in terms of indiscriminate friendliness. RO children's insecure attachment patterns were not associated with any aspect of their institutional environment, but were related to particular child and family characteristics. Specifically, insecure RO children had more behavior problems, scored lower on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, and had parents who reported significantly more parenting stress than RO children classified as secure.
Article
The main aims of this study were to compare the prevalence and the developmental course of problem behaviors in a large sample of 1,538 internationally adopted children with the prevalence and developmental course of nonadopted children across adolescence. The higher levels of problem behaviors in adopted versus nonadopted children as reported by their parents, were confirmed by the results based on the children's self-reports of problem behaviors. The higher levels of problem behaviors in the adopted versus the nonadopted sample even increased across the 3-year study interval from ages 11-14 years to ages 14-17 years. It was concluded that despite the much higher levels of problems in adopted versus nonadopted children, the majority of adopted children seem to function quite well as adolescents.
Article
The Parent Rating Scale of the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (PRS-BASC) was used to examine the behavior of 45 Chinese adoptees. In all but one case, results from the 9 BASC-PRS scales ranged in the average, or normal, range. Thus, as a group, no deviations from normal behavior were revealed. However, the variability of ratings for several scales--Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Attention Problems--indicated a greater potential for at-risk behavior. Age of adoption from China was not a significant influence on parents' perceptions of adoptees' behavior. However, older adoptees were more likely to be rated hyperactive or aggressive than younger children, while younger adoptees were more likely to exhibit withdrawal.
Article
There is a variety of families headed by a lesbian or gay male parent or same-sex couple. Findings from research suggest that children with lesbian or gay parents are comparable with children with heterosexual parents on key psychosocial developmental outcomes. In many ways, children of lesbian or gay parents have similar experiences of family life compared with children in heterosexual families. Some special considerations apply to the context of lesbian and gay parenting: variation in family forms, children's awareness of lesbian and gay relationships, heterosexism, and homophobia. These issues have important implications for managing clinical work with children of lesbian mothers or gay fathers.
Article
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several states offer partner-benefit programs. Studying the effect of these various forms of unions on children could inform the debate over gay marriage to the benefit of all sides of the argument.
Article
This longitudinal study examines continuity and discontinuity of attachment quality from infancy to late adolescence in a sample of 125 participants considered at birth to be at high-risk due to poverty. Strange Situations were conducted at 12 and 18 months; Adult Attachment Interviews were administered at age 19. Child and maternal characteristics and experiences and observational assessments of the families were explored as correlates of continuity and discontinuity in attachment. Contrary to findings of continuity from low-risk samples, analyses demonstrated no significant overall continuity in attachment security. Disorganized infants were significantly more likely than organized infants to be insecure or unresolved in late adolescence. Additionally, infant disorganization predicted unresolved abuse scores on the AAI for those participants who experienced childhood abuse. Significant correlates of continuity and change spanned a variety of age periods and included infant temperament, maternal life stress, family functioning at pre-adolescence, child maltreatment and features of the home environment. Findings are discussed as supporting the coherence of attachment over time.
Child Welfare League of America National data analysis system A three year follow-up of attachment and indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages
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Systematic research syn-thesis: Conceptual integration methods of meta-analysis Intervention research: Design and development for human service
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Rothman, J., Damron-Rodriquez, J., & Shenassa, E. (1994). Systematic research syn-thesis: Conceptual integration methods of meta-analysis. In J. Rothman & E. J. Thomas (Eds.), Intervention research: Design and development for human service (pp. 133-160). New York: Haworth.
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Research on lesbian and gay parenting: Retrospect and prospect
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Tasker, F., & Patterson, C. (2007). Research on lesbian and gay parenting: Retrospect and prospect. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 3(2/3), 9-34.
Examining social workers' placement recommendations of children with gay and lesbian adoptive parents Gay and Lesbian Parenting in Context Ryan, Florida's gay adoption ban: What do Floridians think
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Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss, sadness, and depression. Vol. 3. Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Brodzinsky, D., Patterson, C., & Vaziri, M. (2002). Adoption agency perspectives on les-bian and gay prospective parents: A national study. Adoption Quarterly, 5(3), 5-23.
Maternal attitudes and their influences on the creativity level of pre-school children. Unpublished master's thesis
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Hellen, K. (1999). Maternal attitudes and their influences on the creativity level of pre-school children. Unpublished master's thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. (AAT 1403223, MAI 39/04, p. 971).
Adoptive families headed by gay men and lesbians A historical and cross-cultural encyclopedia of adoption
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Ryan, S. (in press). Adoptive families headed by gay men and lesbians. In V. Bullough and K. Stolley (Eds.), A historical and cross-cultural encyclopedia of adoption. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Adoptive families headed by gay or lesbian parents: A threat . . . or hidden resource
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Ryan, S., & Cash, S. (2004). Adoptive families headed by gay or lesbian parents: A threat... or hidden resource? Journal of Law and Public Policy, 15(3), 443-466.
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