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Abstract

The primary goal of this study was to develop and test a social exchange model of employee reactions to electronic performance monitoring (EPM) to help managers use EPM more effectively. This study proposed that certain EPM practices are related to perceptions of interpersonal and informational justice, which in turn build trust in the manager, along with other important attitudes and outcomes. In a sample of 257 call center representatives, the purpose for using EPM, development versus control, was associated with interpersonal justice perceptions, but EPM-based feedback characteristics, whether the feedback was timely, specific, and constructive, were not. Furthermore, the presence of an explanation for EPM was positively related to perceptions of informational justice. Moreover, interpersonal and informational justice perceptions were positively related to trust in the manager, which in turn was positively related to job performance and job satisfaction.

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... Besides this, subordinates expect trust and respect from their leaders (Ullrich et al., 2009); they want independence and dignity in their employment (Deci and Ryan, 2002). Research has shown if EPM employees think that they are being viewed with integrity and dignity by their leader, they can respond by believing the leader more (McNall and Roch, 2009). The positive effect led to leader-member exchange (LMX) due to a rise in the trust level (Newcombe and Ashkanasy, 2002). ...
... When observed as developmental, monitoring is regarded as fairer compared to when it is alleged as a warning to future conduct (Wells et al., 2007). Expanding on the social exchange model of McNall and Roch (2009) on EPM reactions, we believe that the perceived developmental purpose of EPM can be a base for felt trust and perceived LMX quality and ultimately ambidextrous behavior of sales workers. ...
... On the other hand, this relationship can be improved when subordinates perceive the purpose of monitoring as developmental. When EPM employees think that they are being viewed with integrity and dignity by their leader, they can respond by believing the leader more (McNall and Roch, 2009). The developmental motive for EPM (Tomczak et al., 2018) may positively impact the perception of relationship quality among subordinates. ...
Article
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The present research proposes an electronic performance monitoring framework based on ambidextrous leadership and social exchange theories in a dynamic environment. It reviews and integrates essential literature on electronic performance management (EPM), trust, and ambidextrous behavior. For this, authors have reviewed relevant literature on various themes and underpinned them for managing EPM. The study emphasizes individuals’ psychological foundations that demonstrate trust behavior and relationship with their leaders. Eventually, through an ambidextrous approach, managers gain steady performance and relationships with their subordinates through EPM. The study shows that ambidexterity benefits organizations; it enhances employees’ resources, resulting in enhanced performance that leads to the performance of an organization. The authors discuss the theoretical as well as practical implications of this study.
... Over the past two decades, scholars have increasingly moved away from examining EPM dichotomously (present or absent), towards more precise exploration of the effects of EPM characteristics, such as the purpose (e.g., Bartels & Nordstrom, 2012;Holman, Chissick, & Totterdell, 2002), timing (e.g., Alder, 2007;Watson et al., 2013), target (e.g., Ambrose & Alder, 2000), intensity (e.g., Alge, Ballinger, & Green, 2004;Laird, et al., 2018), scope (e.g., Moorman & Wells, 2003), control (e.g., , feedback delivery (e.g., Holman, et al., 2002;Moorman & Wells, 2003) transparency (e.g., Lowry, Posey, Bennett, & Roberts, 2015;McNall & Roch, 2009), and clarity (e.g., Holman et al., 2002). Results from EPM research conducted over the past twenty years suggest that to understand the effects of a particular use of EPM, one must examine the psychological characteristics of that use. ...
... EPM systems are capable of providing individuals with specific and meaningful performance feedback to promote learning and skill development (Holman et al., 2002;McNall & Roch, 2009), but few studies have found positive and significant relationships between Development EPM and performance outcomes. Researchers have tended to study the effects of Development EPM on task performance using relatively simple tasks and goals that participants may not accept as their own. ...
... Some evidence exists to suggest positive relationships between Development EPM and attitudinal outcomes (e.g., McNall & Roch, 2009;Wells et al., 2007). In their study of sales representatives, Wells and colleagues (2007) found that Development EPM was associated with greater feelings of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and feelings of reciprocal obligation to their organization. ...
Preprint
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Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers to the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to job performance. The last comprehensive review of the EPM literature was published in 2000. Since 2000, dramatic advances in information technologies have created an environment in which organizations are able to monitor employees to a greater extent and with greater intensity than was previously possible. Moreover, since that time, considerable research has been devoted to understanding the effects of EPM on individual performance and attitudes. Contradictory findings in the EPM literature exist, suggesting that EPM is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, and one for which contextual and psychological variables are pertinent. Thus, we propose a theory-based typology of EPM characteristics and use this typology as a framework to review the EPM literature and identify an agenda for future research and practice. Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers to the now-common use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance (Bhave, 2014; Stanton, 2000). Advances in information technologies, the reduction of costs of those technologies, and a paradigm shift of work into cyberspace have created an environment in which organizations are able to monitor employees to a greater extent, and with greater intensity, than was previously possible (Holland, Cooper, & Hecker, 2015). Many forms of EPM (e.g., video monitoring, call monitoring, electronic medication administration records, GPS tracking, wearable electronic safety monitors, electronic time clock systems, email and internet usage monitoring) are already widely used, and technologies such as microchip wrist implants (e.g., Astor, 2017) and body heat sensor desk hardware (e.g., Morris, Griffin & Gower, 2017) may be the future of work monitoring. The world has changed dramatically in the twenty years since the last comprehensive review of EPM research was published (Stanton, 2000): for example, portable devices such as smartphones, capable of collecting large amounts of personal and behavioral data about employees, are ubiquitous today, but did not exist in 2000. This rapidly changing environment of information technologies, and the growing prevalence of EPM, make a theory-based and detailed understanding of the effects of EPM critical. Thus, the time is ripe to review and integrate the last two decades worth of EPM research, examine big questions in EPM that have developed over the last twenty years, and identify gaps in our knowledge, with the goal of advancing both theory and practice in this area. PREPRINT Corresponding author: Tara Behrend, Behrend@gwu.edu. 3 We begin our review by briefly discussing how EPM differs from traditional forms of performance monitoring and then discuss modern conceptualizations of EPM as multi-dimensional technologies. We next propose a theory-based typology of EPM characteristics and use the typology as a framework to review the EPM literature, with a particular focus on the past twenty years of research. Finally, based on our review, we identify avenues for future EPM research and implications for organizations. REVIEW METHOD To review the EPM literature, we conducted keyword searches on Google Scholar and cross-checked results with searches in PsycINFO and ABI-Inform. Key words included "electronic monitoring", "electronic performance monitoring", "EPM", "workplace surveillance", "workplace monitoring", and "computer monitoring". We also cross-checked results with references from key articles. We limited our search to peer-reviewed journal articles published in psychology, management, business, and human resource related fields. Although our review largely focuses on empirical research published in the twenty-first century, for the sake of inclusiveness, we did not limit our initial search by time. We next read through article abstracts to ensure content relevance, excluding articles that only focused on broad or traditional monitoring and articles that focused on non-employee EPM (e.g., marketing-focused
... Over the past two decades, scholars have increasingly moved away from examining EPM dichotomously (present or absent) toward more precise exploration of the effects of EPM characteristics, such as the purpose (e.g., Bartels & Nordstrom, 2012;Holman, Chissick, & Totterdell, 2002), timing (e.g., Alder, 2007;Watson et al., 2013), target (e.g., Ambrose & Alder, 2000), intensity (e.g., Alge, Ballinger, & Green, 2004;Laird et al., 2018), scope (e.g., Moorman & Wells, 2003), control (e.g., McNall & Stanton, 2011, feedback delivery (e.g., Holman et al., 2002;Moorman & Wells, 2003), transparency (e.g., Lowry, Posey, Bennett, & Roberts, 2015;McNall & Roch, 2009), and clarity (e.g., Holman et al., 2002). Results from EPM research conducted over the past 20 years suggest that to understand the effects of a particular use of EPM, one must examine the psychological characteristics of that use. ...
... EPM systems are capable of providing individuals with specific and meaningful performance feedback to promote learning and skill development (Holman et al., 2002;McNall & Roch, 2009), but few studies have found positive and significant relationships between development EPM and performance outcomes. Researchers have tended to study the effects of development EPM on task performance using relatively simple tasks and goals that participants may not accept as their own. ...
... Some evidence exists to suggest positive relationships between development EPM and attitudinal outcomes (e.g., McNall & Roch, 2009;Wells et al., 2007). In their study of sales representatives, Wells and colleagues (2007) found that development EPM was associated with greater feelings of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and feelings of reciprocal obligation to their organization. ...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) refers to the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to job performance. The last comprehensive review of the EPM literature was published in 2000. Since 2000, dramatic advances in information technologies have created an environment in which organizations are able to monitor employees to a greater extent and with greater intensity than was previously possible. Moreover, since that time, considerable research has been devoted to understanding the effects of EPM on individual performance and attitudes. Contradictory findings in the EPM literature exist, suggesting that EPM is a multidimensional phenomenon and one for which contextual and psychological variables are pertinent. Thus, we propose a theory-based typology of EPM characteristics and use this typology as a framework to review the EPM literature and identify an agenda for future research and practice.
... Sapienza and Korsgaard (1996) showed that more timely feedback on task performance resulted in more favorable outcomes in an entrepreneurship simulation. McNall and Roch (2009) explored feedback on job performance as facilitated by an electronic monitoring system. They included a six-item "feedback characteristics" scale, with one item focusing on feedback timeliness. ...
... We asked participants to complete our three-item measure of procedural timeliness and measures of three variables in its nomological network: procedural justice, informational justice, and feedback timeliness. Participants rated procedural justice and informational justice using Colquitt's (2001) (Bayerlein, 2014;McNall & Roch, 2009) whereas others only provided one sample item (Ilgen, Peterson, Martin, & Boeschen, 1981). Thus, we constructed a three-item scale by combining the items given in those three articles. ...
... Thus, we constructed a three-item scale by combining the items given in those three articles. The items included "My supervisor gives feedback in a timely and prompt manner" (McNall & Roch, 2009), "My supervisor lets me know right away when I have done a good job" (Ilgen et al., 1981), and "The feedback I receive from my supervisor is provided in time to help me improve" (Bayerlein, 2014). The correlations and descriptive statistics for procedural timeliness and the other three variables are shown in Table 2. Coefficient alphas are shown on the diagonal. ...
Article
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Although studies have linked procedural justice to a range of positive attitudes and behaviors, the focus on justice has neglected other aspects of decision‐making procedures. We explore one of those neglected aspects: procedural timeliness—defined as the degree to which procedures are started and completed within an acceptable time frame. Do employees react to how long a procedure takes, not just how fair it seems to be? To explore that question, we examined the potential effects of procedural timeliness using six theories created to explain the benefits of procedural justice. This integrative theory‐based approach allowed us to explore whether “how long” had unique effects apart from “how fair.” The results of a three‐wave, two‐source field study showed that procedural timeliness had a significant indirect effect on citizenship behavior through many of the theory‐based mechanisms, even when controlling for procedural justice. A laboratory study then replicated those effects while distinguishing procedures that were too fast versus too slow. We discuss the implications of our results for research on fostering citizenship behavior and improving supervisors’ decision‐making procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Finally, additional information about the purpose of EPM, such as why these procedures are being used and how they will affect decision making, may be provided prior to training to allay employees' concerns about how their individual data will be used. Prior research suggests providing a rationale and explanation of the use of EPM increases employees' perceived fairness and justice of EPM in the workplace, and ultimately job performance and satisfaction (McNall & Roch, 2009). ...
... By carefully considering the way in which EPM is implemented, employers may be able to mitigate some of the negative effects of monitoring training activities while still gaining the desired information. Perhaps providing appropri- ate information about how EPM information will be used could reduce the evaluation apprehension experienced by e-learners (e.g., McNall & Roch, 2009). ...
Article
Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... Yet monitoring can also be used to facilitate desirable outcomes, such as employee growth and enhanced employee well-being (Ravid et al., 2020). As a result, some research has demonstrated that employees do not always react negatively to monitoring (e.g., Ambrose & Alder, 2000;McNall & Roch, 2009;Sewell et al., 2012;Wells et al., 2007). One challenge for employees in reacting to monitoring is that the intentions of the organization are often unclear. ...
... Thus, monitoring that could be perceived as coercive may instead be viewed as acceptable by employees experiencing high levels of justice. Our findings offer insight into why some research has concluded that employees report monitoring as a beneficial practice (Ambrose & Alder, 2000;McNall & Roch, 2009). Consequently, the effects of monitoring on the self-regulatory system hinge, in part, on perceptions of justice and have important downstream implications for employee deviance. ...
Article
Organizations have long sought to mitigate risks associated with unsupervised employee conduct (e.g., employee deviance) through employee monitoring, an approach consistent with traditional theorizing. Yet the effectiveness of employee monitoring as a deviance deterrent has been called into question by emerging evidence suggesting that monitored employees may actually engage in higher levels of deviance. To address this critical tension and shed light on why and when monitoring leads to deviance, we draw upon social cognitive theory to examine the self-regulatory consequences of employee monitoring. We theorize that monitoring paradoxically creates conditions for more (not less) deviance by diminishing employees’ sense of agency, thereby facilitating moral disengagement via displacement of responsibility. Integrating fairness heuristic theory, we further argue that overall justice provides a powerful heuristic that mitigates the potential loss of sense of agency associated with monitoring. Accordingly, we suggest that employee perceptions of high justice will attenuate displacement of responsibility and, in turn, deviance. Across a field study and an experimental study, we find converging support for our predictions and rule out alternative explanations. This research provides important theoretical and practical insights into how monitoring can be used effectively without also promoting unintended consequences.
... Some examples of negative reactions to EPM include the following: A recent simulated scenario experiment of 208 college students concluded that location monitoring in the workplace evokes feelings of privacy invasion, and these feelings are highest for individuals that do not have the option of turning the monitoring off outside of working hours (McNall & Stanton, 2011). (McNall & Roch, 2009;Moorman & Wells, 2003;Stanton, 2000aStanton, , 2000b: A study of 257 call center representatives concluded that being monitored on the job can lead to perceptions of unfairness toward managers, and feelings of informational unfairness (negative perceptions of the quality of information exchange between managers and subordinates) were highest for those that were not given an explanation for being monitored (McNall & Roch, 2009). ...
... Some examples of negative reactions to EPM include the following: A recent simulated scenario experiment of 208 college students concluded that location monitoring in the workplace evokes feelings of privacy invasion, and these feelings are highest for individuals that do not have the option of turning the monitoring off outside of working hours (McNall & Stanton, 2011). (McNall & Roch, 2009;Moorman & Wells, 2003;Stanton, 2000aStanton, , 2000b: A study of 257 call center representatives concluded that being monitored on the job can lead to perceptions of unfairness toward managers, and feelings of informational unfairness (negative perceptions of the quality of information exchange between managers and subordinates) were highest for those that were not given an explanation for being monitored (McNall & Roch, 2009). ...
Article
From security cameras to GPS tracking systems, nearly 80% of organizations use some type of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). EPM uses technology to gather, store, analyze, and report employee behavior (e.g., productivity, use of company time, incivility). The objective, real-time data that EPM systems collect can be used for performance appraisal, training and development, logistical tracking, wellness programs, employee safety, and more. Despite the organizational benefits of EPM, these systems can have adverse effects on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, fairness perceptions, and employee behavior. Research provides evidence, however, that these downfalls can be mitigated by implementing these systems with employee attitudes and privacy perceptions in mind. Using theory and empirical research evidence, we offer five recommendations for maximizing the positive effects and minimizing the negative effects of EPM: (1) Be transparent with employees about EPM use, (2) be aware of all potential employee reactions to being monitored, (3) use EPM for learning and development rather than deterrence, (4) restrict EPM to only work-related behaviors, and (5) consider organizational makeup when implementing an EPM system.
... Yet monitoring can also be used to facilitate desirable outcomes, such as employee growth and enhanced employee well-being (Ravid et al., 2020). As a result, some research has demonstrated that employees do not always react negatively to monitoring (e.g., Ambrose & Alder, 2000;McNall & Roch, 2009;Sewell et al., 2012;Wells et al., 2007). One challenge for employees in reacting to monitoring is that the intentions of the organization are often unclear. ...
... Thus, monitoring that could be perceived as coercive may instead be viewed as acceptable by employees experiencing high levels of justice. Our findings offer insight into why some research has concluded that employees report monitoring as a beneficial practice (Ambrose & Alder, 2000;McNall & Roch, 2009). Consequently, the effects of monitoring on the self-regulatory system hinge, in part, on perceptions of justice and have important downstream implications for employee deviance. ...
... As with selection, increased job-relevance of the monitoring procedure and the opportunity for participation and feedback, reduce perceived invasion of privacy (violation) and increase perceived procedural justice (satisfaction) (Alge, 2001). Where procedural justice is violated, negative outcomes include loss of trust with the employer (McNall and Roch, 2009). Further research is required, however, specifically on employees' perceptions of the reliability and appropriateness of SNS information for workplace purposes (Davison et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Employer monitoring of employees’ and job applicants’ social networking site (SNS) data is widespread and growing, but remains ethically, legally and efficaciously controversial. Examining this emergent source of tension in the employment relationship, this paper explores how Generation Y employees experience and perceive employer use and monitoring of SNSs, and whether employer-related concerns influenced their online behaviour. A survey of 385 employed students revealed widespread SNS engagement amongst respondents, with many experiencing some form of employer SNS use. Employer SNS use was, however, generally perceived negatively. Negativity took the form of procedural justice violations based on issues such as invasion of privacy. Nevertheless, many students displayed alertness through actively managing online profiles which, in turn, marginally yet significantly increased their justice perceptions. The study has ethical and practical implications for employer monitoring and use of SNSs, as well as contributing to our understanding of young people's online behaviour.
... So did the scholars from the field of organizational control and those with a more micro-level perspective. Contrary to this, however, the monitoring/surveillance literature treated transparency as emerging and fluid (e.g., McNall & Roch, 2009;Zweig & Webster, 2002). Similarly, the development of a technology that allows expanding functionalities that are often not foreseeable from the outset can only be captured by a further design option -"function creep", that now constitutes an important element of our DTCCs framework. ...
... By studying, jointly exploring and designing via different devices to be fit to purpose, managers in different departments may be able to optimize how data is collected, secured and utilized for performance (or other specific) purposes. This process would furthermore promote ownership and participation, while increasing managerial accountability [30]. These steps may be the first one in a line of steps to ensure digitization also generates actionable and meaningful performance-related outcomes, rather than just data for the sake of data. ...
Conference Paper
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) has played an important role in per-formance assessment in many different work settings. Our literature view on EPM (1978-2016) resulted in a total of 95 articles on EPM. Based on our review of this literature, we briefly outline our observations regarding the findings on EPM to date. We identify three pertinent areas that need more consideration due to the increasing digitization at work, the amount of data being collected by vari-ous devices with many potential purposes, and the resulting interconnectedness that challenges existing practices. The first challenge regards the unknown role and context effects that have not been explored in the EPM literature. The second challenge concerns data collection and management issues within organizations due to digitization. The third challenge is to determine when, how, by whom, about whom (employees, managers, or teams), and for what specific, legal or eth-ically justifiable reason data (such as EPM) is collected within organizations, a process that requires a multi-stakeholder perspective.
... This is in line with a number of empirical findings (see Fulmer & Gelfand, 2012, for a review). As an example, McNall and Roch (2009) found that trust in the manager was significantly positively related to job satisfaction as employees who trust their supervisors are willing to reciprocate this trust in the form of desired work behaviors. Similarly, apart from being a direct cause of job satisfaction, Braun, Peus, Weisweiler, and Frey (2013) found that trust in leaders mediated the effect of perceptions of leadership on job satisfaction. ...
Article
Employees frequently engage in social comparison processes and tend to perceive their own performance as superior compared to that of their peers. We expect this to be particularly salient in virtual teams where employees receive few cues upon which the comparison with other members of their team can be based. With reliance on social comparison and social exchange theory, we propose that such “perceived overperformance” has negative effects on job satisfaction, which is mediated by trust in the team. We confirm this with a sample of field-service employees (n = 753) using structural equation modeling with bootstrapping. We corroborated our findings in focus groups, which suggest the need for performance indicators that are easily communicated to and comprehended by employees to maintain trust and satisfaction.
... Notre revue de littérature des travaux empiriques en sociologie, psychologie, économie, gestion et ergonomie sur les effets de la surveillance informatique montre que ses impacts sur la performance et le bien-être des salariés sont contrastés. Ainsi, pour McNall et Roch (2009), c' est la manière d'implanter et d'utiliser la surveillance informatique, plus que la surveillance elle-même, qui est un problème. Alors que pour Dickinson et Villeval (2008) dès lors que l' on donne à un superviseur la possibilité de surveiller en permanence, il choisit un niveau de surveillance supérieur au niveau optimal car il va surestimer systématiquement la proportion de salariés qui auront un comportement opportuniste. ...
Book
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Cet ouvrage retrace, dans une première partie, différents travaux théoriques et empiriques relatifs aux centres d’appels ou à la technologie numérique. Il nous plonge ensuite au cœur d’une expérimentation randomisée réalisée dans des conditions de travail réelles au sein d’un centre d’appels sous-traitant. L'angle choisi est celui de l’étude de l’impact de la surveillance informatique sur la performance et la qualité de vie au travail des conseillers téléphoniques. Les parties suivantes exposent, dans l’ordre, une présentation du lieu d’expérimentation, une description de l’expérimentation implantée, les résultats obtenus et la discussion de ces résultats. Une des originalités de ce travail est d’être interdisciplinaire, alliant l’économie et la psychologie sociale. La conclusion développe des pistes d’amélioration et de réflexion touchant le système d’organisation du centre d’appels et l’impact de la technologie numérique sur le système lui-même, sur la performance économique de l’entreprise et la qualité de vie au travail des différents acteurs concernés.
... work-life balance, information needs, trust in management) clearly demonstrate the organization's (e.g. management) attitude and responsiveness to the concerns of employees, and thus are likely to increase perceived organizational support and reciprocal citizenship behaviors (Bergeron et al., 2014;McNall and Roch, 2009). Research supports this perspective; for example, studies in the creative industries show that employee perceptions of organizational acts to support creativity (e.g. ...
Article
Employee safety citizenship behaviors are crucial to risk management in safety-critical industries, and identifying ways to encourage them is a priority. This study examines (i) whether safety citizenship behaviors are a product of social exchanges between employees and organizations, and (ii) the organizational exchanges (i.e. actual activities to support employees) that underlie this relationship. We studied this in the offshore oil and gas industry, and investigated whether organizational activities for supporting workforce health are a signal to employees that the organization supports them, and an antecedent to safety citizenship behaviors. Using questionnaires, we collected data from employees (n = 820) and medics (n = 30) on 22 offshore installations. Multi-level path analysis found that where activities to support workforce health were greater, offshore employees were more likely to perceive their organization to support them, and in turn report more commitment to the organization and safety citizenship behaviors. This indicates safety citizenship behaviors are a product of social exchange, and provides insight on how organizations can influence employee engagement in them. It also suggests social exchange theory as a useful framework for investigating how organizational safety is influenced by workforce relations. We contributed to the social exchange literature through conceptualizing and demonstrating how organizational exchanges lead to reciprocal employee citizenship behaviors.
... In terms of attitudes and reactions, the most comprehensive framework of EPM's impact is detailed by Stanton (2000). Subsequent research further exploring Stanton's framework has indicated that reactions to EPM are closely linked to perceptions of organizational justice, fairness, and not surprisingly, privacy (Alder & Ambrose, 2005;McNall & Roch, 2009;Stanton, 2000). Although Guzzo et al. discuss privacy in terms of its structural elements (i.e., how to build it and maintain it), they do not discuss the importance of perceived violation of privacy, one of the more substantial outcomes of EPM. ...
Article
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Guzzo, Fink, King, Tonidandel, and Landis (2015) provide a clear overview of the implications of conducting research using big data. One element we believe was overlooked, however, was an individual-level perspective on big data; that is, what impact does this sort of data collection have on the individuals being studied? As psychologists, the ethics and impact of big data collection from workers should be at the forefront of our minds. In this reply, we use years of research on electronic monitoring and tracking to provide evidence that an individual-level perspective is an essential part of the discussion surrounding industrial–organizational psychology and big data. Specifically, we examine electronic performance monitoring (EPM) literature to identify how the widespread, pervasive collection of employee data affects employees’ attitudes and behaviors.
... We also determined high correlations between informational and interpersonal justice. Similar results were observed in some studies (Cropanzano & Greenberg, 1997;Mayer et al., 2007;McNall & Roch, 2009). Employees' perception of informational and interpersonal justice is investigated within the questions about their superiors and these sub-dimensions of organizational justice are combined into one in some of the studies (Beugre, 2002;Colquitt, 2001;Thomas & Nagalingappa, 2012). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice and to explore the impact of communication satisfaction on perceived justice in a group of university employees. Data were obtained through questionnaires among 481 academics working in public and private universities in Turkey. The research measures used in this study were the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire of Downs and Hazen and the Organizational Justice Scale of Colquitt. Correlation analysis showed that there was an explicit positive relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice. Communication satisfaction explained 63.9% of the variability in perceived organizational justice and dimensions of justice (procedural, distributive, interpersonal, informational) were all found to be markedly related to communication satisfaction. Besides, a stronger relation was assessed for procedural justice. In conclusion, the present study supported the expected relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational justice and implied that higher level of communication satisfaction can favorably influence the perceptions of organizational justice.
... We also determined high correlations between informational and interpersonal justice. Similar results were observed in some studies (Cropanzano & Greenberg, 1997;Mayer et al., 2007;McNall & Roch, 2009). Employees' perception of informational and interpersonal justice is investigated within the questions about their superiors and these sub-dimensions of organizational justice are combined into one in some of the studies (Beugre, 2002;Colquitt, 2001;Thomas & Nagalingappa, 2012). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice and to explore the impact of communication satisfaction on perceived justice in a group of university employees. Data were obtained through questionnaires among 481 academics working in public and private universities in Turkey. The research measures used in this study were the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire of Downs and Hazen and the Organizational Justice Scale of Colquitt. Correlation analysis showed that there was an explicit positive relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice. Communication satisfaction explained 63.9% of the variability in perceived organizational justice and dimensions of justice (procedural, distributive, interpersonal, informational) were all found to be markedly related to communication satisfaction. Besides, a stronger relation was assessed for procedural justice. In conclusion, the present study supported the expected relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational justice and implied that higher level of communication satisfaction can favorably influence the perceptions of organizational justice.
... (e.g., Chiaburu & Lim, 2007;Luo, 2007;Ambrose & Schminke, 2009). A study by McNall and Roch (2009), on the electronic performance informational justice on trust in managers, job performance, and job satisfaction. This study found interpersonal and informational justice to be correlated at .64, which falls in the "grey area" suggesting that aggrega-tion might be necessary. ...
... Previous EPM research has found that responses to monitoring differ depending on whether the monitoring is used mostly to control employees or whether monitoring is used for more developmental purposes, such as giving feedback on customer service (e.g., Aiello and Shao 1993;Chalykoff and Kochan 1989;McNall and Roch 2009). For instance, Chalykoff and Kochan (1989) found that 91% of sampled individuals at the Automated Collection Agency of the United States Internal Revenue Service agreed with the statement ''monitoring is a good tool if used properly'' (p. ...
Article
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Purpose This study explored reactions to location sensing technologies (LSTs) which enable organizations to track the location and movements of employees, even off-site. In particular, we examined the relationships among two monitoring characteristics (i.e., purpose and control), perceptions of privacy invasion, and monitoring fairness. Design/Methodology/Approach This study employed a 2 (purpose) × 2 (control) factorial design using 208 college students. Study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression. Findings The ability to control the location sensing device was related to monitoring fairness via privacy invasion, but no support was found for monitoring purpose. Implications The results underscore the importance of giving employees a sense of control over monitoring and providing them with “protected spaces” where monitoring can be avoided. Originality/Value This study offers the first examination of attitudes toward location sensing technologies.
... Gabriel's responses reflect the functionalist researches, which deal with the possibility of resistance not manifesting (MCNALL and ROCH, 2009;ZWEIG, 2005), of operators liking assessment (BALL, 2010), and workers proposing improvements in the control system (RIVARD and LAPOINTE, 2012). When it comes to research from the critical current of thought, however, workers proposing improvement of the control system generated a series of questions for critical researchers: if resistance always exists (FOUCAULT, 1987), even hidden behind a behavior of consent (MCCABE, 2014), how can resistance act in favor of its own domination? ...
Article
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Studies show that managers' responses to resistance to electronic surveillance in the workplace affects the behavior of resistance and its effects on organizations. However, there are few studies about managers' responses to these behaviors and the following questions remain unanswered: "How do managers respond to resistance to electronic surveillance in the workplace?" and "Why do managers respond in this way?" This study seeks to answer these questions in order to understand managers' response to resistance to electronic surveillance in the workplace. The theoretical framework adopted combines Coetsee (1999), Lapointe and Rivard (2005), Regan (1996) and Rivard and Lapointe (2012). The data was collected through interviews with nine call center team managers working in companies of different sectors and was analyzed by Content Analysis with the support of Atlas.TI ® software. The results suggest that managers respond to resistance to surveillance in three ways: they try to convince the employee to abandon the resistance (dissuasion), they do not act on it at all (inaction) or they change the surveillance system (rectification). Four aspects lead managers to these responses: resistance behavior, frequency of resistance, target technology and size of the managers' team. The participant with the smallest team did not report resistance to surveillance, which could indicate the absence of these behaviors in some contexts. This study helps researchers to define the theoretical framework of their work, to better understand the issue of control on organizations nowadays, as well as to define new research' problems. As for managers, this study clarifies aspects regarding technologies targeted by acts of resistance and the resistance behavior that may be present in the workplace.
... (e.g., Chiaburu & Lim, 2007;Luo, 2007;Ambrose & Schminke, 2009). A study by McNall and Roch (2009), on the electronic performance informational justice on trust in managers, job performance, and job satisfaction. This study found interpersonal and informational justice to be correlated at .64, which falls in the "grey area" suggesting that aggrega-tion might be necessary. ...
Article
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-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.
... Giving feedback is also a good way to build relationships (and influence feelings of relatedness). So the reasons for monitoring (development vs. surveillance) matter (McNall and Roch 2009;Wells et al. 2007) because they signal not only how much the organization values employees but also how much it trusts them. Therefore, developing economical means to gather performance data and use them to develop rather than reward might be the best way to ensure autonomous motivation is fostered. ...
Article
For decades, compensation management has advocated for the use of financial incentives, such as bonuses, merit increases and stock options. The reason for their use is that employees should be compensated based on, and commensurate with, their contribution to organizational success. Not only is compensation based on individual contributions deemed a good way to align employees’ goals with organizational goals ( Jensen and Meckling 1976), but it should also create perceptions of equity by paying better performers more than poorer ones (Gerhart 2017). This view relies heavily on expectancy and equity theories (Adams 1965; Vroom 1964). Expectancy theory argues that work motivation is a function of beliefs about one’s competence to reach expected performance levels coupled with the expectation of getting a valued reward if one does so; equity theory adds that work motivation is also a function of perceptions that one’s performance/rewards
... In the stream of ethics in workplace surveillance we find emphasize on positive consequences such as ethical utilitarianism strengthens the positive relationship of positive beliefs about monitoring tools and perceived organizational support, trust in organization, trust in supervisor, and perception on monitoring fairness [4], surveillance is a valuable tool in organizations with prior use of the "Theory X" labor relations, speed up union pressures, in organizations with mature products, in organizations with routine works [1], electronic performance monitoring can increase employee sustained attention and video-based monitoring also has positive impact [42], surveillance plays a deterrence role in reducing workplace delinquency [28], computer monitoring is significantly associated with compliance intention [43], telecommunication monitoring significantly reduces employee telecommunication violation [36], and explanation of electronic performance monitoring is positively associated with perception on informational justice, and justice perception is positively associated with trust in manager, job performance, and job satisfaction [44]. In this stream, studies also look into the negative consequences that are monitoring is negatively associated with lesser intrinsic motivation via less felt trust [45], employee performance monitoring has a negative impact on job design and worker stress [32], electronic monitoring increases stress, job dissatisfaction, and poor quality of work [7], electronic surveillance may increase discriminatory behavior [46], employee surveillances increase the concern for social inequalities [47], employee's feeling of inappropriate e-mail monitoring is associated with the negative response towards top management [48], and surveillance attracts legal consequences [49]. ...
Conference Paper
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An earlier study predicts that computerized monitoring and surveillance will be the next big brother in a digitized workplace. Virtual workplace monitoring and surveillance have become crucial and challenging because of workplace transformation facilitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) framework, we select 68 unique papers on surveillance in organizations for this critical literature review exercise. Our critical literature review reveals four research gaps that further studies can investigate within the context of surveillance and monitoring in the workplace.
... Interpersonal and contextual moderators may help explain the significant heterogeneity observed in our results. For instance, although some research has examined trust in management as an outcome of EPM (e.g., Butler, 2012;McNall & Roch, 2009) it is also likely to be an important determinant of individual responses to monitoring. In the current study, EPM characteristics such as Purpose were coded according to the nature of explicit communications to workers, but these communications will only have predictable effects to the degree that employees believe that they are truthful. ...
Preprint
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Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461), while taking into account the characteristics of the monitoring. Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM increases worker stress and strain, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work.
... We also determined high correlations between informational and interpersonal justice. Similar results were observed in some studies (Cropanzano & Greenberg, 1997;Mayer et al., 2007;McNall & Roch, 2009). Employees' perception of informational and interpersonal justice is investigated within the questions about their superiors and these sub-dimensions of organizational justice are combined into one in some of the studies (Beugre, 2002;Colquitt, 2001;Thomas & Nagalingappa, 2012). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice and to explore the impact of communication satisfaction on perceived justice in a group of university employees. Data were obtained through questionnaires among 481 academics working in public and private universities in Turkey. The research measures used in this study were the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire of Downs and Hazen and the Organizational Justice Scale of Colquitt. Correlation analysis showed that there was an explicit positive relationship between organizational communication satisfaction and organizational justice. Communication satisfaction explained 63.9% of the variability in perceived organizational justice and dimensions of justice (procedural, distributive, interpersonal, informational) were all found to be markedly related to communication satisfaction. Besides, a stronger relation was assessed for procedural justice. In conclusion, the present study supported the expected relationship between communication satisfaction and organizational justice and implied that higher level of communication satisfaction can favorably influence the perceptions of organizational justice.
... Multilevel Hierarchical Regression Models. The dependent variable is Individual Performance within GVTs. Standardized coefficient and p-values in parentheses. p < 0.000. (***); p < 0.01 (**); p<=0.05 (*). Number of teams: 689. N = 2,756.satisfaction(McNall & Roch, 2009;Piccoli et al., 2004;Robert & You, 2018) and individual performance ...
Article
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Although the satisfaction–performance relationship has been well-established in the context of traditional face-to-face teams, prior research has largely overlooked the context of global virtual teams (GVTs). As the COVID-19 pandemic has given virtual teams a further boost and increased their relevance, it is unclear whether findings based on traditional teams are generalizable to GVTs. Our multilevel analysis, based on a sample of 2,756 participants working in 689 teams, examines the relationship between satisfaction and both individual and team performance in GVTs. Our results show that increased individual satisfaction with the team’s effort and performance is negatively associated with individual performance in GVTs. In contrast, average satisfaction within the team leads to higher team and individual performance. The results show that satisfaction positively mediates the effects of team motivation and technical expertise, and negatively mediates the effect of conflict and individual and team performance. Our study contributes to the “Holy Grail”-literature by extending the satisfaction–performance relationship to the contemporary setting of GVTs and enriches the current literature by examining the mechanisms contributing to high individual performance in GVTs.
... As we have discussed, workers' preferences for monitoring depend on their individual differences and the characteristics of their jobs. Increased transparency affords workers the opportunities to clarify the characteristics of monitoring systems and to determine whether they view the practices as fair [35]. We hope that such transparency extends beyond workplaces to benefit the average person. ...
Article
Many individuals perceive digital monitoring to be an inherently negative practice that invades privacy, but recent research suggests that it has positive effects for workers under certain circumstances. This review expands upon existing digital monitoring frameworks by adopting a psychological perspective to explain individual and contextual variation in monitoring reactions. To do so, we identify person characteristics (e.g. trait reactance, self-efficacy, ethical orientation, goal orientation) and job characteristics (e.g. manual versus nonmanual labor, autonomy, task significance) that moderate workers' reactions and performance outcomes while being digitally monitored. Future research on moderators such as these will remain important as organizations continue to collect big data using digital monitoring.
... So did the scholars from the field of organizational control and those with a more micro-level perspective. Contrary to this, however, the monitoring/surveillance literature treated transparency as emerging and fluid (e.g., McNall & Roch, 2009;Zweig & Webster, 2002). Similarly, the development of a technology that allows expanding functionalities that are often not foreseeable from the outset can only be captured by a further design option -"function creep", that now constitutes an important element of our DTCCs framework. ...
Article
The goal of this paper is to develop an empirically-grounded framework to analyze how new technologies, particularly those used in the realm of datafication, alter or expand traditional organizational control configurations. Datafication technologies for employee-related data-gathering, analysis, interpretation and learning are increasingly applied in the workplace. Yet there remains a lack of detailed insight regarding the effects of these technologies on traditional control. To convey a better understanding of such datafication technologies in employee management and control, we employed a three-step, exploratory, multi-method morphological analysis. In step 1, we developed a framework based on twenty-six semi-structured interviews with technological experts. In step 2, we refined and redefined the framework in four workshops, conducted with scholars specializing in topics that emerged in step 1. In step 3, we evaluated and validated the framework using potential and actual users of datafication technology controls. As a result, our refined and validated "Datafication Technology Control Configurations" (DTCC) framework comprises eleven technology control dimensions and thirty-six technology control elements, offering the first insights into how datafication technologies can change our understanding of traditional control configurations.
... Yet relatively little is known on how trust inside the organization is impacted through the use of smart technology; let alone through datafication controls. For example, research on electronic performance monitoring [16] primarily examines its impact on employee strain, privacy, or justice perceptions and, if anything, its impact on trust in direct supervisors [17]. In this paper, however, we define trust inside the organization as a proxy for "trust as the enacted principle" across all organizational relationships", hence with no fixed trustor-trusteedirection. ...
... McNall and Stanton (2011) demonstrated that a lack of control over employee surveillance predicted employees' feelings of privacy invasion, which in turn lead to perceptions of unfairness. And McNall and Roch (2009) showed that the purpose and explanation given for the use of employee surveillance affected employee's trust in the organization. ...
Article
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Consent is central to many organizational interactions and obligations. Employees consent to various terms of employment, both formal (contractual obligations) and informal (extra-role responsibilities, interpersonal requests). Yet consent has traditionally been considered a legal matter, unrelated to organizational behavior. In this article, we make a case for why, and how, organizational behavior scholars should undertake the study of consent. We first review scholarship on the legal understanding of consent. We argue that the traditional legal understanding is an incomplete way to think about consent in organizations, and we call for a more nuanced understanding that incorporates psychological and philosophical insights about consent—particularly consent in employer-employee relationships. We then connect this understanding of consent to traditional organizational behavior topics (autonomy, fairness, and trust) and examine these connections within three organizational domains (employee surveillance, excessive work demands, and sexual harassment). We conclude with future directions for research on consent in organizations.
... In the wake of technological advances such as the introduction of computers and the Internet, techniques like electronic performance monitoring, computer-aided monitoring and email monitoring became popular during the 1990s (Ravid et al., 2020). The effects of these machine-based modes of monitoring have been noted in stimulating privacy concerns (Bhave et al., 2020), along with other adverse outcomes (Aiello and Kolb, 1995;Alder et al., 2008;McNall and Roch, 2009;Stanton and Weiss, 2000;Tomczak et al., 2018). Therefore, a parallel stream of research has begun to emphasize the role of human actors, i.e. supervisors as a mode of performance monitoring (Auh et al., 2016;Choi et al., 2009;Rietzschel et al., 2014). ...
Article
Abstract Purpose Drawing on self-determination theory and organizational support theory, the present study explored how two styles of supervisor monitoring, namely, interactional and observational, differently impact job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment of subordinates. In addition, the mediating roles of psychological need satisfaction from the supervisor and perceived supervisory support were also investigated. Design/methodology/approach Responses were collected from 183 full-time employees through a web-based survey, and data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings Results indicate that interactional monitoring positively influences psychological need satisfaction from the supervisor and perceived supervisory support, while observational monitoring negatively influences psychological need satisfaction from the supervisor and perceived supervisory support. Psychological need satisfaction from the supervisor fully mediates the relationship between interactional monitoring and affective organizational commitment, while perceptions of supervisory support partially mediate the relationship between the two monitoring styles and job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications The findings of the study need to be interpreted with caution as causality could not be inferred due to the cross-sectional nature of the study. Practical implications Supervisors are advised to adopt an interactional style of monitoring, as it favorably influences the work attitudes of subordinates. Originality/value The present study is one of the few works that have examined the differential impact of supervisor monitoring styles on subordinates' work outcomes.
... Studies found that EPM use may have a negative impact on employee trust toward the organization (Stanton and Sarkar-Barney, 2003;Jensen and Raver, 2012;Holland et al., 2015). However, research also indicates that organizational trust may increase when employees are informed about the monitoring as well as the monitoring purpose in advance (Hovorka-Mead et al., 2002;Alder et al., 2006;McNall and Roch, 2009). In general, however, we observe that in a majority of studies EPM negatively affected trust. ...
Article
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The rise of digital and interconnected technology within the workplace, including programs that facilitate monitoring and surveillance of employees is unstoppable. The COVID-19-induced lockdowns and the resulting increase in home office adoption even increased this trend. Apart from major benefits that may come along with such information and communication technologies (e.g., productivity increases, better resource planning, and increased worker safety), they also enable comprehensive Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM) which may also have negative effects (e.g., increased stress and a reduction in job satisfaction). This conceptual article investigates EPM to better understand the development, adoption, and impact of EPM systems in organizations. The EPM literature published since the 1980s constitutes the basis for this conceptual article. We present a framework which is intended to serve as foundation for future studies. Moreover, we reviewed more than three decades of empirical EPM research and identified six major outcomes that are influenced by the use of an EPM system, as well as a large number of moderator variables. Based on our conceptual analyses and the resulting insights, which also include privacy, ethical, and cultural considerations, we discuss future research opportunities where we also refer to design implications for EPM systems.
... However, benevolence, compassion, and integrity as trustworthiness antecedents (70,71) are of special importance for the perceived humanness and trust development in workplaces (72)(73)(74). Hence, the lived-out lack of benevolence and compassion shown towards employees leads to loss of agency (51), a perceived violation of the psychological contract (14), feelings of injustice (75), and hence unwillingness to be vulnerable and follow (67,76). ...
Conference Paper
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms are changing the work in many ways. One hitherto little-studied area is how these technologies are impacting leader-employee relationships, particularly employees’ trust relationships in their “flesh-and-blood” leaders. In this paper, we discuss how algorithms change the nature of leadership when some leadership functions become automated. As a consequence, employees will often find themselves in a “two-leader-situation” with resulting frictions, that create novel leadership focus areas. Three situations, in particular, can be trust-problematic in the eyes of followers: the triad relationship might (1) make responsibilities blur, (2) create conflicting decisions of human leaders and algorithms, and (3) make employees’ voice unheard. We argue that these situations can undermine employee perceptions of leaders' trustworthiness as followers might start to question a leaders’ ability, benevolence, and integrity if leaders do not understand these novel situations.
Article
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Zusammenfassung Durch die Zunahme digitalisierter kontextsensitiver Arbeitssysteme besteht vermehrt auch die Möglichkeit, Arbeitsplätze und -tätigkeiten umfassend elektronisch zu überwachen. In diesem Review wird die Frage adressiert, wie sich eine potentielle Überwachung auf Beschäftigte auswirkt. Das Review umfasst 85 Studien zur Auswirkung auf die Outcome-Variablen Leistung, Stress, Belastung und Beanspruchung, Motivation, Zufriedenheit, Vertrauen, Commitment sowie positive und negative Verhaltensweisen und den affektiven Zustand von Beschäftigten. Die Studien werden sowohl qualitativ als auch meta-analytisch aufbereitet. Es zeigen sich heterogene Befunde auf die Leistung der Beschäftigten und überwiegend kleine nachteilige Effekte auf die Stresserleben, Beanspruchung, wahrgenommene Kontrolle, Zufriedenheit, Commitment und Affekt. Daran anknüpfend lässt sich nachzeichnen, dass die nachteiligen Auswirkungen von Überwachung durch eine bewusste Gestaltung und Implementierung der Systeme abgefedert werden können, z. B. durch die Vermeidung von Einzelüberwachung (Überwachungsebene), eine partizipative Einführung unter Beteiligung der Beschäftigten, eine sinnvolle Begründung und ein positives Feedback. Die meisten Studien im Review basieren jedoch auf korrelativen bzw. quasiexperimentellen Designs und erlauben daher nur Aussagen zu Gestaltungshinweisen bzw. -empfehlungen. Für ein gesichertes Gestaltungswissen sind Studien erforderlich, die längsschnittlich angelegt sind und systematische Interventionen, auch im Feld, umfassen. Praktische Relevanz Durch die Digitalisierung der Arbeitswelt, insbesondere die Einführung vernetzter, intelligenter bzw. kontextsensitiver Systeme, entstehen neue Potentiale zur Überwachung der Beschäftigten. Dieser Aspekt wird bislang noch sehr selten bei der arbeitswissenschaftlichen Gestaltung und Bewertung von Assistenzsystemen berücksichtigt. Der Beitrag sensibilisiert für diese Thematik und verdeutlicht die möglichen Auswirkungen und Risiken von elektronischer Überwachung. Zur Vermeidung negativer Auswirkungen werden praxisnahe Gestaltungshinweise gegeben.
Article
The use of monitoring devices (data collection) in business organizations is facilitated through New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT) such as fingerprint, facial or eyes biometric, time clocks, cyber surveillance, remote tracking of employees via GPS, and others. While standard economic theory advocates the use of incentive systems and surveillance to increase performance at work, some empirical studies show a fall in the level and quality of effort after the introduction of monitoring. Using self-determination theory (SDT), we explain this phenomenon by the negative impact of “monitoring systems extensiveness” on employees’ intrinsic motivation (IM). We hypothesize the mediation of this impact by the degree to which employees perceive their supervisors as being “autonomy supportive”. We also investigate the possibility of a moderating effect of “employees’ beliefs about the purposes of devices for monitoring” on the relationships between “monitoring systems extensiveness”, “perception of supervision” and “intrinsic motivation”. We test these hypotheses using a questionnaire, collected in France, from 579 employees having at least one supervisor. Developing a structural equation model, we find: firstly, a significant crowding out effect of IM by monitoring; secondly, this crowding out effect is significantly mediated by employees’ perception of supervision; thirdly, we confirm a strong positive relation between an autonomy supportive supervision and IM. Finally, we do not find any significant moderation by employees’ beliefs about the purposes attributed to monitoring devices.
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Management scholars have historically framed trust as a consequence of organizational justice that develops slowly over time. However, theory and empirical research outside of the management literature suggest that trust is inevitably present prior to the initiation of exchange relationships. For instance, neuroscientific evidence suggests that the human brain has evolved mechanisms capable of automatically evaluating the trustworthiness of potential exchange partners without conscious deliberation. This article presents a new theoretical model suggesting that trust forms rapidly and exerts significant influence on employee perceptions of justice. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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We examined whether the reason offered for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) influenced participants' performance, stress, motivation, and satisfaction. Participants performed a data-entry task in one of five experimental conditions. In one condition, participants were not electronically monitored. In the remaining conditions, participants were electronically monitored but the explanation varied. One group was told that they would be electronically monitored but were given no explanation. Another group was told that EPM would be used to research factors associated with performance. In the developmental condition, participants were told that EPM would be used to provide them with feedback to improve performance, and in the administrative condition, participants were informed that EPM would be used to distribute rewards and punishments. Administrative condition participants had higher motivation and performance yet relatively low stress and dissatisfaction levels. Thus, EPM may enhance performance on simple, repetitive tasks without necessarily producing negative outcomes.
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Despite organizational psychologists’ long-standing caution against monitoring (citing its reduction in employee autonomy and thus effectiveness), many organizations continue to use it, often with no detriment to performance and with strong support, not protest, from employees. We argue that a critical step to resolving this anomaly is revisiting researchers’ fundamental assumptions about access to gathered data. Whereas previous research assumes that access resides nearly exclusively with supervisors and other evaluators, technological advances have enabled employee access. We hypothesize that with employee access, the psychological effects of monitoring may be far more complex than previously acknowledged. Whereas multiparty access may still decrease employee autonomy, it may also trigger an important psychological benefit: alleviating employees’ perceptions of polarization—the increasing social and ideological divergence between themselves and their evaluators. Access gives employees unprecedented opportunities to use the “objective” footage to show others their perspective, address evaluators’ erroneous assumptions and stereotypes, and otherwise defuse ideological tensions. Lower perceived polarization, in turn, attenuates the negative effects that low autonomy would otherwise have on employee effectiveness. We find support for these hypotheses across three field studies conducted in the law enforcement context, which has been a trailblazer in using technological advances to grant broad access to multiple parties, including employees. Overall, our studies shed light on the conflicting (and ultimately more innocuous) impact of monitoring and encourage scholars to break from prior approaches to account for its increasing egalitarianism.
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Threats against network security systems are increasing with more sophisticated attack techniques being utilized by adversaries from both outside and inside of the network itself. In response to this ever growing threat, there is a new concept for the formation of a new type of Incident Response Center (IRC) specifically to address the Insider Threat against enterprise level systems that utilize Security Information & Event Management (SIEM) monitoring technology. The SIEM technology and the IRC are being developed and integrated for computer network real-time monitoring in order to counter Insider Threats within an organization. The SIEM technology monitors network system security and access controls in real-time and correlates this logged information with other events triggered within the network to keep track of possible threats. This study will examine the effects of real-time SIEM technology on employee computer use.
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The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers February 2019
Article
The teleoperators adjustment strategies with the stress generated by the electronic performance monitoring in call centers The electronic monitoring performance (MEP) is at the epicentre of managerial practices implemented in call centers. If the official target is to improve the “performance”, the concrete practical implementation of such a system leads to behavioral control process and generates the “stress” for call center operators. Our research focused on adjustment strategies used by employees monitored to deal with this stress, while questioning the human consequences of such practices, with particular update contradictory and paradoxical dynamic. A qualitative study was conducted in a call center (inbound and outbound calls) via semi-structured interviews with 12 teleoperators. Through a comprehensive and interpretativist approach our job is to propose a typology of adjustment strategies deployed by call center operators, based on the theory of coping. Four main types of behavior were identified: the “players” who are part of the social game of the monitoring to divert for personal purposes (first type) or seek to respect the rules of their way hoping to draw benefits in terms of career (second type); the “passengers” who are there only to food motivation and have no desire to make a career in a call center (often students); and “self-ethical”, which does not fit into the social game but in a life narrowly approach.
Chapter
The telephone systems in healthcare settings serve as a viable tool for improving the quality of service provided to patients, decreasing the cost, and improving the patient satisfaction. It can play a pivotal role for transformation of the healthcare delivery for embracing personalized and patient centered care. This chapter presents a systematic review of new developments of healthcare telephone system operations in various areas such as tele-health. Current research on topics such as tele-diagnosis, tele-nursing, tele-consultation is outlined. Specific issues associated with the emerging applications such as underreferral, legal issues, patient acceptance, on-call physician are discussed. Meanwhile, the architecture and underlying technologies for healthcare telephone systems are introduced, and the performance metrics for measuring the system operations are provided. In addition, challenges and opportunities related with improving the healthcare telephone systems are identified, and the potential opportunities of optimizing these systems are pointed out.
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In this paper, we present the multidimensional Legitimate Monitoring and Control Questionnaire (LMCQ), which is based on social-exchange and institutional theory. Our aim was to develop and validate a widely applicable leadership inventory that accounts for comparable criterion variance as transformational leadership. While transformational leadership scales emphasize charismatic or visionary behavior, the basis for the LMCQ is the belief that perceptions of control legitimacy are essential and lead to high-quality social-exchange relationships between supervisors and subordinates. To build the dimensions comprising the LMCQ, an exploratory study (study 1, 38 respondents) was conducted to investigate which kinds of socioemotional benefits actually drive subordinates' perceptions of control legitimacy. The interview data were used to compile an initial item pool that was condensed as a subsequent step (study 2, 494 respondents). Lastly, the resulting measurement instrument representing six dimensions of legitimacy-enhancing supervisory behavior was validated (study 3, 936 respondents).
Chapter
The continued rise of digitalization allows employees to be highly flexible regarding when and where to work, both inside and outside the traditional office, a trend captured in the term new ways of working (NWW). With NWW, increased employee flexibility changes the relationship between supervisor and employees, thereby posing both benefits and new challenges for leadership. For supervisors, NWW particularly complicate the nevertheless necessary task of exercising control over employees. In NWW supervisors often rely on electronic performance monitoring techniques as an alternative to traditional forms of supervisory control. Yet, since employees often perceive electronic monitoring as a signal of their supervisors’ distrust, these new monitoring systems can harm the employee–supervisor relationship. At the same time, by accepting the control and monitoring behavior of their supervisors, employees can form high-quality relationships with supervisors, which can in turn translate into greater productivity and mutual trust. By more closely tracing this process, the present chapter investigates how supervisors in NWW can effectively supervise employees by maintaining control while still expressing trust.
Article
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Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Cambridge Core - Organisation Studies - The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers
Chapter
The telephone systems in healthcare settings serve as a viable tool for improving the quality of service provided to patients, decreasing the cost, and improving the patient satisfaction. It can play a pivotal role for transformation of the healthcare delivery for embracing personalized and patient centered care. This chapter presents a systematic review of new developments of healthcare telephone system operations in various areas such as tele-health. Current research on topics such as tele-diagnosis, tele-nursing, tele-consultation is outlined. Specific issues associated with the emerging applications such as underreferral, legal issues, patient acceptance, on-call physician are discussed. Meanwhile, the architecture and underlying technologies for healthcare telephone systems are introduced, and the performance metrics for measuring the system operations are provided. In addition, challenges and opportunities related with improving the healthcare telephone systems are identified, and the potential opportunities of optimizing these systems are pointed out.
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Despite a significant growth and mounting popular interest in electronic monitoring and surveillance of workers, there has not been a great deal of systematic research into the relationship among various monitoring techniques, employee reactions to such monitoring, and outcomes such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance and job stress. By applying the concept of procedural justice, this paper develops propositions to guide research on electronic control systems.
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An estimated 26 million workers are electronically monitored by organizations. Contradictory evidence indicates that such monitoring may lead to either positive or negative outcomes for both organizations and their members. This article applies theories of organizational justice and concertive control to account for these contradictions. It is argued that, when organizations involve employees in the design and implementation of monitoring systems, restrict monitoring to performance-related activities, and use data obtained through electronic means in a concertive manner by emphasizing two-way communication and supportive feedback, they are likely to reap positive results. However, when employees are not involved in the introduction of monitoring, when data gathered through electronic performance monitoring are used to provide coercive, obtrusive feedback, or when monitoring includes nonwork activities, the organization may experience negative results.
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A conceptual framework is described for examining employee reactions to performance monitoring. The framework incorporates attitudinal and motivational effects of performance monitoring on monitored employees and discusses effects of performance monitoring on performance feedback and performance appraisal. The framework is used to organize a review of research literature relevant to employee reactions to electronic and nonelectronic performance monitoring. The article includes specific propositions for additional research and general directions for future research in performance monitoring.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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In this study, the authors attempted to comprehensively examine the measurement of performance appraisal reactions. They first investigated how well the reaction scales, representative of those used in the field, measured their substantive constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that these scales did a favorable job of measuring appraisal reactions, with a few concerns. The authors also found that the data fit a higher order appraisal reactions model. In contrast, a nested model where the reaction constructs were operationalized as one general factor did not adequately fit the data. Finally, the authors tested the notion that self-report data are affectively driven for the specific case of appraisal reactions, using the techniques delineated by L. J. Williams, M. B. Gavin, and M. L. Williams (1996). Results indicated that neither positive nor negative affect presented method biases in the reaction measures, at either the measurement or construct levels.
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This study explores the dimensionality of organizational justice and provides evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. Items for this measure were generated by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature. The measure was then validated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 occurred in a university setting, and Study 2 occurred in a field setting using employees in an automobile parts manufacturing company. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor structure to the measure, with distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice as distinct dimensions. This solution fit the data significantly better than a 2- or 3-factor solution using larger interactional or procedural dimensions. Structural equation modeling also demonstrated predictive validity for the justice dimensions on important outcomes, including leader evaluation, rule compliance, commitment, and helping behavior.
Article
The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.
Book
This is the eighteenth in the most prestigious series of annual volumes in the field of industrial and organizational psychology. The series provides authoritative and integrative reviews of the key literature of industrial psychology and organizational behavior. The chapters are written by established experts and topics are carefully chosen to reflect the major concerns in the research literature and in current practice. Specific issues covered in this volume reflect the growth and complexity of the organizational psychology field, for example: Implicit Knowledge and Experience in Work and Organizations, Flexible Working Arrangements, Web-based Recruiting and Testing, Economic Psychology, Workaholism, and a review of Ethnic Group Differences and Measuring Cognitive Ability. Each chapter offers a comprehensive and critical survey of a chosen topic, and each is supported by valuable bibliography. For advanced students, academics, and researchers, as well as professional psychologists and managers, this remains the most authoritative and current guide to developments and established knowledge in the field of industrial and organizational psychology.
Article
Executive Overview Computer monitoring should not be seen as a way of gathering information about workers, per se, but rather as one part of a production and quality strategy that provides needed information to a diverse team of workers. In its most powerful and effective form, computer monitoring is the use of computers to collect, process, and provide feedback information about work with the intent of improving performance and developing employees. Unfortunately, computer monitoring has also been used to punish employees. Here, a study of a successful computer monitoring system at Hughes Aircraft Company is described. The study shows that computer monitoring can facilitate integrated production and quality control strategies without negative effects on employee quality of work life. Managers who wish to design and effectively use computer monitoring systems should: (1) Use the monitoring system to provide feedback data to the workforce—not to gather social information (e.g.. time taken for bathroom breaks); (2) Determine the type of data that employees believe will help them and be willing to adapt the system as they get ideas about how to use the data: (3) Design a system that gathers integrated data—data that will allow for useful comparisons between, as well as within, specific tasks: and (4) Realize that computer monitoring is only as noxious as the management system itself.
Article
Procedural justice and social facilitation theories were used to investigate effects of 2 kinds of process control on fairness perceptions, task satisfaction and performance of complex, computer-monitored tasks. A laboratory study manipulated participation (high or low voice) and monitoring approach (monitoring, control over monitoring, or no monitoring). High-voice participants perceived higher justice. Monitored participants reported higher satisfaction with high voice and lower satisfaction with low voice. Task performance was poorer for monitored participants unless they had control over monitoring. Among those with control, performance was not impaired for higher baseline performers. The 2 kinds of process control had different effects on the outcome variables. Results suggest the value of considering variations in the kinds of control provided and the justice principles that may apply in predicting effects of monitoring procedures.
Conference Paper
Those who install computerized performance monitoring systems claim that their use will increase productivity - but critics argue that the systems are dehumanizing and stress inducing. Very little research has been done to determine who's right. The authors studied monitored and unmonitored workers doing indentical jobs in the same firm and turned up dramatically different attitudes toward productivity and customer service.
Article
In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.
Article
Performance appraisal research over the last 10 years has begun to examine the effects of the social context on the appraisal process. Drawing from previous theoretical work, we developed a model of this process and conducted a systematic review of the relevant research. This review of over 300 articles suggests that as a field we have become much more cognizant of the importance of the social context within which the performance appraisal process operates. First, research has broadened the traditional conceptualization of performance appraisal effectiveness to include and emphasize ratee reactions. Second, the influence that the feedback environment or feedback culture has on performance appraisal outcomes is an especially recent focus that seems to have both theoretical and applied implications. Finally, there appears to be a reasonably large set of distal variables such as technology, HR strategies, and economic conditions that are potentially important for understanding the appraisal process, but which have received very little research attention. We believe that the focus of recent performance appraisal research has widespread implications ranging from theory development and enhancement to practical application.
Article
Extensive and growing use of electronic performance monitoring in organizations has resulted in considerable debate. Advocates of electronic monitoring approach the debate in teleological terms arguing that monitoring benefits organizations, customers, and society. Its critics approach the issue in deontological terms countering that monitoring is dehumanizing, invades worker privacy, increases stress and worsens health, and decreases work-life quality. In contrast to this win-lose approach, this paper argues that an approach which emphasizes communication in the design and implementation of monitoring systems offers a win-win solution that should satisfy both deontological and teleological ethicists.
Article
The authors used exchange theory to clarify distinctions between organizational justice types and considered the implications of recent conceptual developments regarding justice associated with interpersonal treatment (interactional justice) and the inclusion of justice associated with outcomes (distributive justice) for an exchange model of justice. Using two samples (401 part-time and 272 full-time employees), they found unique relationships of interactional justice and justice concerning informational adequacy with supervisor relationship quality, justice concerning procedures with organizational support, and distributive justice with pay satisfaction. Also, an updated measure of interactional justice appears to capture more of the interpersonal fairness domain than the current measure.
Article
We integrate and extend research and theory on organizational justice, performance feedback, and performance monitoring to develop a model of individuals' reactions to computer monitoring. The model proposes that the perceived interpersonal and procedural fairness of monitoring-related feedback are key to understanding individuals' attitudinal and performance reactions to monitoring. Based on the feedback, justice, and monitoring literatures, the model further suggests that feedback constructiveness, feedback source (whether monitored employees receive feedback from the computer monitoring system or from their supervisors), and control over the feedback are three key feedback dimensions expected to drive fairness judgments. Implications for management and research on feedback, justice, and computer monitoring are described.
Article
There has been an increasing amount of research conducted on issues of procedural justice. Although this research has demonstrated that the type of procedure used to allocate outcomes has an independent influence on people's judgments of the fairness of a decision, there is growing empirical evidence that such judgments are influenced by the enactment of the procedure as well. Fairness concerns raised about the propriety of a decision maker's behavior during the enactment of procedures are representative of a desire forinteractional justice. In this paper, we present three studies that examine the effects of giving acausal account, or a justification, versus not providing a justification, on judgments of interactional fairness and endorsement of a decision maker's actions. In Study I, a laboratory study, ratings of interactional fairness and support for a manager were higher when subjects received a causal account that claimed mitigating circumstances for a manager's improper action than when they did not receive such a causal account. A second laboratory study replicated the same pattern of findings in two different organizational contexts. In addition, it was found that the perceived adequacy of the causal account was a critical factor explaining its effect. In Study 3, a field setting, ratings of both interactional fairness and procedural fairness were higher when a manager provided anadequate causal account to justify the allocation of an unfavorable outcome. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for research on interactional and procedural justice.
Article
In many approaches to interpersonal and organizational trust, researchers focus on employees' perceptions that their managers are trustworthy. We turn the tables, however, and examine the antecedents of managerial trustworthy behavior and the challenge oi initiating trust. Drawing on agency and social exchange theories, we present an exchange relationship framework that identifies organizational, relational, and individual factors that encourage or constrain managerial trustworthy behavior.
Article
On the basis of 7 charismatic and transformational leadership theories, 3 core components (vision, vision implementation through task cues, and communication style) were identified. A laboratory simulation manipulated the 3 components in a completely crossed experimental design, where 2 trained actors portrayed the leader. Participants were 282 students in upper level business classes who performed a simulated production task. The vision of high quality weakly affected performance quality but significantly affected many attitudes. Vision implementation, in the form of task cues, affected performance quality and quantity. Charismatic communication style affected only the perception of charisma. Mediation was not found; rather, an exploratory path analysis found a 2-part causal sequence, where the vision of quality and vision implementation each affected self-set goals and self-efficacy, which, in turn, affected performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the position that fairness is in the eye of the beholder—that is, an impression management perspective of organizational justice—raises two basic questions / first, how can managers create a fair impression / second, what are the effects of being perceived as fair / this chapter is organized around each of these themes how can managers cultivate impressions of fairness? questions managers should ask themselves / what are the consequences of cultivating fair impressions? reaping the benefits, and suffering the liabilities, of looking fair (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
distinguish more clearly between constructive and destructive criticism and describe the negative effects often produced by the former type of feedback [in organizations] / examine when and how destructive criticism can lead to perceptions of injustice or unfair treatment on the part of the recipients of such feedback / comment on the relevance of such self-serving bias and related attributional processes to this process summarize some of the negative effects that may follow from criticism-produced feelings of injustice / consider steps that can be taken to alleviate such problems—techniques for delivering negative feedback in ways that do not anger or annoy recipients, and techniques for "repairing the damage" once such criticism has occurred (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Substantial developments in new office technologies over the past two decades have dramatically transformed today's white-collar workplace. One of these developments, computer-based work monitoring, has enabled employers to continually or intermittently monitor employees in real time or on a delayed basis, with or without their knowledge or permission, at levels and in a manner previously unattainable. This introductory article to this special issue outlines the current status of computer monitoring in the U. S., delineates its major advantages and disadvantages, and provides examples of early research on the topic by the author and others. Factors likely to moderate the acceptance and effectiveness of computer monitoring systems are discussed and implications for work and social relationships in the workplace are considered. An overview of the four special issue articles reporting the results of experiments assessing the effects of computer monitoring on the performance of workers and supervisors is then provided.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
The effects of automated computer monitoring under different conditions of performance standards and reward were examined in two studies conducted in a simulated organization. In the first study, 37 computer operators were divided into six groups who worked for a 2-week period under different levels of performance standards. Individual keystrokes per hour and productive time was monitored by the computers for all of the groups (one group was a control group which was monitored but was unaware of the monitoring). Four of the six groups were assigned work standards, and performance against standards was also monitored for these four groups. Feedback reports on the monitored performance were available on demand at the individual consoles for those groups which were informed of the monitoring. The results showed that computer monitoring and feedback led to increased key rate compared to the control group which was not aware of monitoring. There was little effect of monitoring on work quality, satisfaction, and stress. In the second study, 24 operators worked for a 9-week period under various performance standards and rewards. Individual keystrokes per hour, productive time, and performance against standards were monitored by the computers for all workers. Feedback reports on performance against standards and rewards earned were available on demand at the individual consoles. The results revealed that the feedback from different combinations of standards and rewards had varying effects on performance, satisfaction, and stress. These effects, and the results from the first study, are discussed in terms of goal setting and expectancy theory.
Article
Electronic performance monitoring and control systems (EPMCSs) are raising fairness and privacy concerns in many organizations. Researchers typically have treated different types of EPMCSs as equal, yet various EPMCS types (e.g., computer monitoring, eavesdropping, surveillance) may exert differential influences on fairness and privacy perceptions. In this study, 246 participants read scenarios describing different technologies for evaluating performance. Results indicated that EPMCS types significantly influenced perceptions of procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and privacy. Computer monitoring was perceived as the most procedurally just; but traditional direct observation by a supervisor without electronic monitoring was perceived as the most interpersonally just, and the least invasive in terms of privacy. These findings suggest that employers should be cautious in the type of monitoring used.
Article
More than 40 years ago, Taylor and Wherry (1951) hypothesized that performance appraisal ratings obtained for administrative purposes, such as pay raises or promotions, would be more lenient than ratings obtained for research, feedback, or employee development purposes. However, research on appraisal purpose has yielded inconsistent results, with roughly half of such studies supporting this hypothesis and the other half refuting it. To account for those differences, a meta-analysis of performance appraisal purpose research was conducted with 22 studies and a total sample size of 57,775. Our results support Taylor and Wherry's hypothesis as performance evaluations obtained for administrative purposes were, on average, one-third of a standard deviation larger than those obtained for research or employee development purposes. In addition, moderator analyses indicated larger differences between ratings obtained for administrative and research purposes when performance evaluations were made in field settings, by practicing managers, and for real world subordinates. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Article
Data obtained from full-time employees of a public sector organization in India were used to test a social exchange model of employee work attitudes and behaviors. LISREL results revealed that whereas the three organizational justice dimensions (distributive, procedural and interactional) were related to trust in organization only interactional justice was related to trust in supervisor. The results further revealed that relative to the hypothesized fully mediated model a partially mediated model better fitted the data. Trust in organization partially mediated the relationship between distributive and procedural justice and the work attitudes of job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational commitment but fully mediated the relationship between interactional justice and these work attitudes. In contrast, trust in supervisor fully mediated the relationship between interactional justice and the work behaviors of task performance and the individually- and organizationally-oriented dimensions of citizenship behavior. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Performance monitoring was reviewed from an organizational justice perspective. Several predictors of perceived fairness were derived from this review and tested using employed respondents from eight different organizational settings (N = 301). Analyses confirmed that the predictors accounted for significant variance in perceived fairness in both electronically monitored and traditionally monitored work environments. These predictors were labeled monitoring consistency, knowledge of performance from monitoring, monitoring control, and justifications for monitoring.
Article
Research has examined how the design and implementation of computerized performance monitoring (CPM) systems affects individuals’ performance and attitudes. In this study, we examine how the attributes of the feedback received in a CPM context affects individuals’ reactions to monitoring. One hundred and sixty-five individuals participated in an experiment that examined the effect of three feedback attributes (feedback control, feedback constructiveness, and feedback medium) on monitoring fairness judgments, performance, and satisfaction. Results demonstrate feedback constructiveness significantly predicted monitoring fairness. Additionally, supervisor-mediated feedback was associated with higher levels of monitoring fairness than was computer-mediated feedback. Moreover, monitoring fairness mediated the relationship between these feedback attributes and performance and satisfaction. However, contrary to expectations, feedback control did not affect perceptions of monitoring fairness. Implications for future research on the design of CPM systems are discussed.
Article
Computer-aided monitoring is a phenomenon that is likely to become more prevalent in the workplace and, thus, central to understanding contemporary employee responses to work. This study develops a model for examining the impact of monitoring on employee-level job satisfaction and turnover propensity. The results show that for some employees the negative effects of monitoring are inherent, but for others its negative impact can be mitigated by attention to feedback/performance appraisal processes. While organizational-level rules pertaining to monitoring are important, managerial efforts aimed at minimizing negative consequences for the organization and individuals need to pay close attention to the feedback/performance appraisal processes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes., (C) 1996 by the American Psychological Association
Article
Maximum likelihood factor analysis provides an effective method for estimation of factor matrices and a useful test statistic in the likelihood ratio for rejection of overly simple factor models. A reliability coefficient is proposed to indicate quality of representation of interrelations among attributes in a battery by a maximum likelihood factor analysis. Usually, for a large sample of individuals or objects, the likelihood ratio statistic could indicate that an otherwise acceptable factor model does not exactly represent the interrelations among the attributes for a population. The reliability coefficient could indicate a very close representation in this case and be a better indication as to whether to accept or reject the factor solution.
Article
This study extends prior research on occupational stress and health by examining the cross-sectional association of 12 measures of perceived stress to five indicators of self-reported symptoms of ill health and five medical conditions in a population of blue-collar workers. Net of a variety of confounding factors, including exposure to noxious physical-chemical agents, perceived stress is consistently positively related to self-reported angina, ulcers, and neurotic symptoms and to medical evidence of hypertension and other heart disease risk factors. Perceived stress is also positively associated with self-reported respiratory and dermatological symptoms but only among workers who report exposure to potentially noxious physical-chemical agents. That is, stress seems to exacerbate the deleterious effects of such exposure. The results suggest that occupational stress may affect a wide range of workers and health outcomes. Limitations of the study indicate a need for future longitudinal studies with more medical data on health status and fuller assessment of environmental and genetic factors that may interact with stress in determining health.
Article
Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotic