To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) for the detection of dysplasia in long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC).
We prospectively performed a surveillance colonoscopy in 51 patients affected by long-standing UC. Also, in the presence of macroscopic areas with suspected dysplasia, both targeted contrasted indigo carmine endoscopic assessment and probe-based CLE were performed. Colic mucosal biopsies and histology, utilised as the gold standard, were assessed randomly and on visible lesions, in accordance with current guidelines.
Fourteen of the 51 patients (27%) showed macroscopic mucosal alterations with the suspected presence of dysplasia, needing chromoendoscopic and CLE evaluation. In 5 macroscopically suspected cases, the presence of dysplasia was confirmed by histology (3 flat dysplasia; 2 DALMs). No dysplasia/cancer was found on any of the outstanding random biopsies. The diagnostic accuracy of CLE for the detection of dysplasia compared to standard histology was sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 100%.
CLE is an accurate tool for the detection of dysplasia in long-standing UC and shows optimal values of sensitivity and negative predictivity. The scheduled combined application of chromoendoscopy and CLE could maximize the endoscopic diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis of dysplasia in UC patients, thus limiting the need for biopsies.
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"To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of CLE across all of the applications for which it has been used. A crucial difference between CLE and alternative endoscopic techniques is that CLE does not merely identify a lesion, Kiesslich et al. 2007 Hlavaty et al. 2011 van den Broek et al. 2011 Rispo et al. 2012 0.95 (0.74–1.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.60) 0.50 (0.01–0.99) 1.00 (0.48–1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an endoscopic-assisted technique developed to obtain histopathological diagnoses of gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases in real time. The objective of this systematic review is to analyze the current literature on CLE and to evaluate the applicability and diagnostic yield of CLE in patients with gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary diseases. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Register, using pertinent keywords without time limitations. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies that evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy of CLE were eligible for inclusion. Of 662 articles identified, 102 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies were conducted between 2004 and 2015 in 16 different countries. CLE demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus, gastric neoplasms and polyps, colorectal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease, malignant pancreatobiliary strictures, and pancreatic cysts. Although CLE has several promising applications, its use has been limited by its low availability, high cost, and need of specific operator training. Further clinical trials with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and medicoeconomic analyses, as well as standardized institutional training, are advocated to implement CLE in routine clinical practice.
"Intravenous fluoresceinsodium (10%) and topically applied acriflavine (0.2%) have been most commonly used in humans [1,2]. CLE has been first applied in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, showing to be a very useful tool in targeted biopsies , thus reducing the number of samples and increasing the diagnostic accuracy, especially in clinical settings such as Barrett's Esophagus, Ulcerative Colitis and early identification of dysplasia3456. Recently, applications in gastrointestinal surgery, pulmonology and neurosurgery have also been described78910. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Breast neoplasms include different histopathological entities, varying from benign tumors to highly aggressive cancers. Despite the key role of imaging, traditional histology is still required for a definitive diagnosis. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new technique, which enables to obtain histopathological images in vivo, currently used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. This is a single-center pilot feasibility study; the main aim is to describe the basic morphological patterns of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in normal breast tissue besides benign and malignant lesions.
Thirteen female patients (mean age 52.7, range from 22 to 86) who underwent surgical resection for a palpable breast nodule were enrolled. CLE was performed soon after resection with the Cellvizio® Endomicroscopy System (Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France), by using a Coloflex UHD-type probe; intravenous fluorescein was used as contrast-enhancing agent. The surgical specimen was cut along the main axis; dynamic images were obtained and recorded using a hand-held probe directly applied both to the internal part of the lesion and to several areas of surrounding normal tissue. Each specimen was then sent for definitive histologic examination.
Histopathology revealed a benign lesion in six patients (46%), while a breast cancer was diagnosed in seven women (54%). Confocal laser endomicroscopy showed some peculiar morphological patterns. Normal breast tissue was characterized by a honeycomb appearance with regular, dark, round or hexagonal glandular lobules on a bright stroma background; tubular structures, representing ducts or blood vessels, were also visible in some frames. Benign lesions were characterized by a well-demarcated “slit-like” structure or by lobular structures in abundant bright stroma. Finally, breast cancer was characterized by a complete architectural subversion: ductal carcinoma was characterized by ill-defined structures, with dark borders and irregular ductal shape, formingribbons, tubules or nests; mucinous carcinoma showed smaller cells organized in clusters, floating in an amorphous extracellular matrix.
This is the first pilot study to investigate the potential role of confocal laser imaging as a diagnostic tool in breast diseases. Further studies are required to validate these results and establish the clinical impact of this technique.
"The technique can help detect the disease at an early stage and reduce the biopsy rate, for an instant classification. In addition, treatment is immediate after neoplastic lesions are detected, thus reducing the time and cost for repeat endoscopy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can provide in vivo subcellular resolution images of esophageal lesions. However, the learning curve in interpreting CLE images of precancerous or early-stage esophageal squamous cancer is unknown. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement for differentiating esophageal lesions in CLE images among experienced and inexperienced observers and to assess the learning curve.
After a short training, 8 experienced and 14 inexperienced endoscopists evaluated in sequence 4 sets of high-quality CLE images. Their diagnoses were corrected and discussed after each set. For each image, the diagnostic results, confidence in diagnosis, quality and time to evaluate were recorded.
Overall, diagnostic accuracy was greater for the second, third, fourth set of images as compared with the initial set (odds ratio [OR] 2.01, 95% CI 1.22–3.31; 7.95, 3.74–16.87; and 6.45, 3.14–13.27), respectively, with no difference between the third and fourth sets in accuracy (p = 0.67). Previous experience affected the diagnostic accuracy only in the first set of images (OR 3.70, 1.87–7.29, p<0.001). Inter-observer agreement was higher for experienced than inexperienced endoscopists (0.732 vs. 0.666, p<0.01)
CLE is a promising technology that can be quickly learned after a short training period; previous experience is associated with diagnostic accuracy only at the initial stage of learning.