Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines

Department of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 10/2012; 145(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.043
Source: PubMed


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a common spice and also a widely used medicinal plant in ancient China. Ginger is an ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to; GGT). GGT has been proved to have antiviral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). However, it is unknown whether ginger is effective against HRSV. AIM OF THE STUDY: To find a readily available agent to manage HRSV infection, the authors tested the hypothesis that ginger can effectively decrease HRSV-induced plaque formation in respiratory mucosal cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of hot water extracts of fresh and dried gingers on HRSV was tested by plaque reduction assay in both human upper (HEp-2) and low (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Ability of ginger to stimulate anti-viral cytokines was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Fresh ginger dose-dependently inhibited HRSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cell lines (p<0.0001). In contrast, dried ginger didn't show any dose-dependent inhibition. 300μg/ml fresh ginger could decrease the plaque counts to 19.7% (A549) and 27.0% (HEp-2) of that of the control group. Fresh ginger was more effective when given before viral inoculation (p<0.0001), particularly on A549 cells. 300μg/ml fresh ginger could decrease the plaque formation to 12.9% when given before viral inoculation. Fresh ginger dose-dependently inhibited viral attachment (p<0.0001) and internalization (p<0.0001). Fresh ginger of high concentration could stimulate mucosal cells to secrete IFN-β that possibly contributed to counteracting viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: Fresh, but not dried, ginger is effective against HRSV-induced plaque formation on airway epithelium by blocking viral attachment and internalization.

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Available from: Jung San Chang, Sep 01, 2014
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    • "Likewise, 6-gingerol has been reported to possess several therapeutic activities including antiviral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) (Chang et al., 2013), antiinflammatory in bronchitis and other respiratory tract infections (Chanda et al., 2009; Lee et al., 1984). It is also reported as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive, radio-protective and gastro-protective against ulceration (Chang et al., 2013). Multi-drug combination therapy is now common for a number of diseases and the herb–drug interactions should be given considerable attention in clinical practice. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Trikatu is a very well known 'Rasayana' in Ayurveda and widely used as a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in India. It consists of three well known plants, viz., Piper longum (PL), Piper nigrum (PN) and Zingiber officinale (ZO) in equal ratio. Trikatu has been prescribed for cough, cold, fever, asthma, respiratory problems and improvement of digestive disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of individual ingredients of trikatu namely PL, PN, and ZO and formulations [Marketed formulation (MF) and laboratory formulation (LF)] on drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), to assess its herb-drug interaction potential through cytochrome P450 inhibition assays. Further this work was aimed to develop an RP-HPLC method for the identification and quantification of piperine and 6-gingerol in the crude drug trikatu. Materials and methods: Enzyme inhibition effect of LF, MF, PL, PN and ZO was explored through CYP450-CO complex assay using rat liver microsomes (RLM) and a fluorescence screening method using individual isoenzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6). The RP-HPLC method was developed for the identification and quantification of piperine and 6-gingerol in LF, MF and individual plant materials at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Results: RP-HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of piperine and 6-gingerol in LF and MF [Piperine: 7.89±2.12% (w/w) (MF), 6.70±2.13% (w/w) (LF)]; [6-gingerol: 5.3±1.21% (w/w) (MF), 4.95±2.34% (w/w) (LF)]. Inhibitory potential of MF and LF in CYP450-CO complex assay was found to be 37.54±3.12% (MF) and 35.12±2.31% (LF) and against CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was estimated to be IC50 251.30±3.98 and 245.23±1.92μg/mL and IC50 225.50±1.02 and 223.254±0.92μg/mL respectively. Conclusions: Different concentrations of the trikatu formulation and its individual components showed significantly (p<0.001) less inhibitory activity on individual isoenzymes as compared to the positive control. The crude drug exhibited inhibitory potential against the CYP450 enzymes in a concentration dependent manner. Outcome of the present study demonstrated that trikatu has less interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Leguminosae) has been used in herbal medicine and food supplement worldwide for centuries. Licorice is a common ingredient of several prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine which have been proved to inhibit infection of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). There are two preparations of licorice, Radix Glycyrrhizae and Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata. However, it is unknown whether licorice or which preparation of licorice is effective against HRSV, nor is its active constituent.
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    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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