Article

Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland

Department of Poultry Diseases, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, Olsztyn 10-719, Poland.
The Veterinary record 10/2012; 171(22). DOI: 10.1136/vr.100932
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

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    • "). Paramyxovirosis much more often occurs as an associated infection with pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection (Stenzel et al. 2012). The most common neural signs that occur during infections with PPMV-1 include head and neck 180 o twists (torticollis ), imbalance, paralysis of wings and legs or difficulties in food intake. "
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious and devastating viral disease of poultry and other birds that has a worldwide distribution. ND in pigeons is called paramyxovirosis and is caused by antigenic "pigeon variant" of the virus (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1, PPMV-1). During PPMV-1 infections, central nervous system symptoms and sometimes high mortality are observed. In the case of infection with viscerotropic strains which exhibit specific affinity for the kidneys, the first observed sign is polyuria, and neural symptoms appear only in individual birds in the flock. Due to the similarity of symptoms of paramyxovirosis to the pigeon herpes virus infection (PHV), sodium chloride poisoning, overdose of ronidazole or vitamin B1 deficiency, it is necessary to perform laboratory tests to make a correct diagnosis. After virus isolation PPMV-1 can be detected initially by haemagglutination assay (HA). PPMV-1 can be confirmed by conventional serological tests such a haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) or molecular-based techniques. In the prophylaxis of paramyxovirosis in pigeons, inactivated vaccines are used, administered by subcutaneous injection in various prevention programs. However, vaccination should be only one component of a strategy of PPMV-1 control, on a par with effective biosecurity and proper, effective methods of prevention and diagnostics of paramyxovirosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Polish journal of veterinary sciences
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    • "pigeon herpesvirus ) and/or bacterial (e.g. Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae) secondary infections (Abadie et al., 2001; Raue et al., 2005; Stenzel et al., 2012; Woods et al., 1993, 1994). As with BFDV, PiCV is transmitted mainly horizontally through the ingestion or inhalation of virus-contaminated faecal material and feather dust (Woods et al., 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) has a ~2kb genome circular single stranded DNA genome. All but one of the known PiCV isolates have been found infecting pigeons in various parts of the world. In this study we screened 324 swab and tissue samples from Polish pigeons and recovered 30 complete genomes, 16 of which came from birds displaying no obvious pathology. Together with 17 other publically available PiCV complete genomes sampled throughout the Northern Hemisphere and Australia, we find that PiCV displays a similar degree of genetic diversity to that of the related Psittacine infecting circovirus species, Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). We show that, as is the case with its pathology and epidemiology, PiCV also displays patterns of recombination, genomic secondary structure and natural selection that are generally very similar to those of BFDV. It is likely that breeding facilities play a significant role in the emergence of new recombinant PiCV variants and given that ~50% of the domestic pigeon population is infected subclinically, all pigeon breeding stocks should be routinely screened for this virus.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of General Virology
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    • "The majority of disease cases involve bacterial infections associated with circoviral infections. Caused by pigeon circovirus Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS) is a treatable condition and it is recommended to use protective treatment with antibiotics (Raue et al. 2005, Stenzel et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the drug-resistance to the selected antibiotics in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and beta-haemolytic coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from pigeons bred in Poland. In the case of E. coli, tetracyclines and amoxicillin were least effective. In the staphylococci, the highest resistance was detected for oxytetracycline and quinolones and 5% were resistant to methicillin. The lowest drug-resistance was reported for Salmonella typhimurium. © 2014 Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Veterinary Sciences & University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Polish journal of veterinary sciences
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