Prevalence of serum antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus 1, and feline calicivirus in cats entering a Florida animal shelter
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 11/2012; 241(10):1320-5. DOI: 10.2460/javma.241.10.1320
Objective-To determine the proportion of cats entering a Florida animal shelter with serum antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-347 cats admitted to a Florida animal shelter. Procedures-Within 24 hours after admission to the animal shelter, blood samples were collected from all cats ≥ 8 weeks of age. Serum antibody titers against FPV were determined via a hemagglutination inhibition assay, and those against FHV1 and FCV were determined via virus neutralization assays. Age, sex, environment (urban or rural), source (stray or previously owned), evidence of previous caregiving, health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, transfer, return to owner, or euthanasia) were evaluated as potential factors associated with antibody seropositivity. Results-Of 347 cats, 138 (39.8%), 38 (11.0%), and 127 (36.6%) had antibody titers ≥ 40, ≥ 8, and ≥ 32 (ie, seropositive) against FPV, FHV1, and FCV, respectively. Factors associated with seropositivity included being neutered, age ≥ 6 months, and being relinquished by an owner. On multivariable analysis, health status at shelter admission, environment, vaccination at shelter admission, and outcome were not associated with seropositivity. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Most cats were seronegative for antibodies against FPV, FHV1, and FCV at the time of admission to an animal shelter. These findings supported current guidelines that recommend vaccination of all cats immediately after admission to animal shelters, regardless of the source or physical condition.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe a series of confirmed and suspected cases of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and in-contact cats in an adoption-guarantee shelter in an FPV-endemic area by reviewing shelter records over a 10-month period (January-October 2010). Cats were divided into three groups: in-contact group - asymptomatic cats that were housed with a FPV fecal antigen (Ag)-positive cat/kitten as part of a litter group (n = 66); FPV-survivors group (FPV-infected survivors) - tested FPV fecal Ag-positive and showed clinical signs of FPV, but survived (n = 27); FPV-non-survivors group (FPV-infected non-survivors) - showed clinical signs of FPV and either tested FPV fecal Ag-positive or were housed with an Ag-positive family member, but did not survive (n = 52). Ages ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, but most were <6 months old (in-contact group: 79%; group: 70%; FPV-non-survivors group: 85%). A seasonal peak occurred over summer, but cases occurred year-round. Anorexia, dehydration, fever and diarrhea predominated in the FPV-survivors group, and death was preceded by clinical signs of circulatory shock in the FPV-non-survivors group. Housing litters of kittens with their mother was not associated with improved outcome, perhaps because in this population clinical FPV infection was relatively common in queens arriving at the shelter with susceptible litters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleeping and resting respiratory rates are commonly measured variables in patients with cardiac disease. However, little information is available on these variables in healthy client-owned cats or cats with subclinical heart disease (SHD). Therefore, we examined and characterized the sleeping respiratory rate (SRR) and resting respiratory rate (RRR) in 59 echocardiographically normal (EN) and 28 apparently healthy (AH) cats, and 54 SHD cats acquired by the cat owners in the home environment on 8-10 separate occasions. The within-cat mean sleeping respiratory rate (SRRmean) in EN cats, AH cats and SHD cats with mild or moderate left atrial (LA) enlargement (as defined by quantiles of the ratio of the LA to the Aorta [LA:AO]) was consistently <30 breaths/min; median SRRmean approximated 21 breaths/min. The SRRmean of SHD cats with severe LA enlargement sometimes exceeded 30 breaths/min, and was higher than SRRmean of other SHD cats (P <0.05). The within-cat mean resting respiratory rate was consistently higher than SRRmean (P <0.05). Age and geographic location, but not bodyweight, affected SRRmean in EN and AH cats. Within-cat SRR and within-cat RRR did not vary markedly from day-to-day, as evidenced by a low within-cat coefficient of variation. Data acquisition was considered easy or non-problematic by most participants. Our data provide useful guidelines for SRR and RRR, obtained in the home environment, in healthy cats and cats with subclinical heart disease, and might prove useful in managing cats with clinical heart disease. Cats with SRRmean >30 breaths/min and cats with multiple SRR measurements >30 breaths/min likely warrant additional evaluation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Feline panleukopenia is a frequent and commonly fatal disease of cats. Recent published studies have raised suspicions that some cats fail to develop antibodies after vaccination. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) in cats in Southern Germany, and to identify factors that are associated with a lack of antibodies. In total, 350 cats presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet were randomly included in the study. Information regarding signalment, origin, environment, lifestyle, housing conditions, health status, chronic diseases, glucocorticoid therapy, and vaccination status were collected. Antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition test. Asymptomatic chi-squared tests and univariable logistic regression were used to investigate associations between a lack of antibodies and the different variables. Associations determined to be statistically significant at P<0.1 were verified by a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of the 350 cats, 103 (29.4%) had no antibodies against FPV. Chronic kidney disease, neoplasia, glucocorticoid therapy, and vaccination status were significantly associated with a lack of antibodies. The cats with no antibodies were likely to have inadequate immunity against panleukopenia and those with chronic diseases or receiving glucocorticoids were less likely to be protected.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.