Can we vaccinate against Type 1 diabetes?
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material to stimulate the immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a disease. As the most successful prophylactic in medical history, there is now an emerging interest as to whether vaccination can be applied in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. These are diseases of failed immune regulation; vaccination in this context aims to exploit the power of antigenic material to stimulate immune homeostasis in the form of active, adaptive, regulatory immune responses. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that could benefit from the therapeutic potential of vaccination. The major conditions necessary to make prophylaxis feasible are in place; the self antigens are known, the failure of existing immune regulation has been demonstrated, early studies of vaccine approaches have proved safe, and the preclinical prodrome of the disease can be easily detected by simple blood tests. Challenges for future implementation include finding the best mode of delivery and the best blend of adjunctive therapies that create the favorable conditions required for a vaccine to be effective.