New Approaches in Alternative Donor Transplantation

Department of Pathology, Medical School, Stanford University.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.4). 10/2012; 19(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.10.027
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a matched related donor (MRD) is the preferred therapy for many adults with acute leukemia. Yet most patients do not have matched siblings, and the numbers who do will continue to drop as the average number of children per couple in the United States continues to decline. Recent reports show little difference in the outcomes of matched related and matched unrelated transplants for acute leukemia. Additionally, survival rates at 3-5 years after transplant appear to be generally similar following matched related, matched unrelated, single antigen mismatched unrelated, double cord blood and, perhaps even after haplo-identical transplants. Nevertheless, there are differences between stem cell sources that should be considered in the choice of donor. The following review provides some perspective on the identification of the best stem cell sources for patients who do not have matches within their families.
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, haplo-cord stem cell transplantation (SCT) using myeloablative or reduced intensive conditioning regimens has been shown to result in reliable and fast engraftment of neutrophils and platelets comparable to HLA-matched donors and much faster than after cord stem cell transplant. Haplo-cord SCT also has a low incidence of early non-relapse mortality, low incidences of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), and excellent graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effects. Favorable long-term outcomes for high-risk patients with hematologic malignancies have been reported, including older patients. Haplo-cord SCT will likely overcome the limitations of cell dose during cord stem cell selection and might significantly expand the use of cord stem cell transplant in the adult population. The comparable survival outcomes of matched related donor (MRD), matched unrelated donor (MUD), and haplo-cord stem cell transplant strongly argue that haplo-cord SCT should be considered as effective alternative stem cell transplant for high-risk patients lacking standard donors. Further improvement in supportive care and incorporation of a better understanding of the human fetal immune development into the haplo-cord SCT are required to further improve this strategy.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports