Stockpiling oral cholera vaccine

Control of Epidemic Diseases Unit, Pandemic and Epidemic Diseases Department, World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland .
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation (Impact Factor: 5.09). 10/2012; 90(10):714. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.112433
Source: PubMed
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    • "In October 2009, the World Health Organization’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended that oral cholera vaccination should be considered as a reactive strategy during outbreaks, in addition to the already recommended preventive use of oral cholera vaccination in endemic areas [1]. The WHO has initiated the development of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile, which will supply the vaccine in areas of emergency need [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In the second half of 2013, the WHO and partners are launching a 2 million global OCV stockpile, making it the third vaccine for which such a global mechanism is available to the countries.11 The two existing global stockpiles are for the yellow fever and meningococcal vaccines. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deployment of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) on the Island of Hispaniola has been considered since the emergence of the disease in October of 2010. At that time, emergency response focused on the time-tested measures of treatment to prevent deaths and sanitation to diminish transmission. Use of the limited amount of vaccine available in the global market was recommended for demonstration activities, which were carried out in 2012. As transmission continues, vaccination was recommended in Haiti as one component of a comprehensive initiative supported by an international coalition to eliminate cholera on the Island of Hispaniola. Leveraging its delivery to strengthen other cholera prevention measures and immunization services, a phased OCV introduction is pursued in accordance with global vaccine supply. Not mutually exclusive or sequential deployment options include routine immunization for children over the age of 1 year and campaigns in vulnerable metropolitan areas or rural areas with limited access to health services.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Current topics in microbiology and immunology
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