Von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated solid microcystic serous adenomas masquerading as pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States Surgery
(Impact Factor: 3.38).
10/2012; 152(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2012.08.010
Patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) commonly develop pancreatic cysts and neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs or PNETs). Solid microcystic serous adenoma (SMSA), a rare neoplasm described in VHL patients, can be mistaken for PNEN on imaging.
Clinical, pathologic, and radiologic data were reviewed on VHL patients who underwent surgery for a preoperative diagnosis of PNEN since 1994 at 1 institution. Blinded to the pathologic diagnoses, radiologists reassessed available imaging.
For 55 patients, 79 pancreatectomies were performed for presumed PNENs. Ten (18%) patients underwent 12 (15%) resections for neoplasms diagnosed as SMSA on final pathology. The average size of a SMSA leading to operation was 3.6 ± 0.4 cm. Four out of 11 SMSAs were still mistaken for PNENs when imaging was reassessed. The mean FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value was greater for 17 PNENs (12.1 ± 1.2) compared with 6 SMSAs (4.2 ± 0.5; P = .002). The mean doubling time of SMSAs and PNENs was similar. Seven (15%) patients with pathologically proven PNENs had malignant disease.
SMSAs can mimic PNENs on nonfunctional imaging; FDG-PET may help to differentiate them. A high index of suspicion is needed to minimize operations performed for SMSA and to counsel VHL patients of their risks of undergoing operation for a lesion with no known malignant potential.
Available from: Marie-Pierre Vullierme
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ABSTRACT: Background: Management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is challenging because of the malignant potential and difficulty in predicting prognosis. Objective: Compare the long-term outcome of resected VHL-PNET and sporadic PNET. Methods: Data of all patients with VHL (n = 23) operated on for nonmetastatic PNET were reviewed. Patient characteristics and recurrence-free survival rates were compared with those in patients operated on for sporadic PNET, matched for tumor size, stage, and Ki-67 index. Results: Patients in both groups had similar demographic characteristics, except that patients with VHL were younger (36 vs 56 years, P < 0.0001). Median tumor size was 30 mm. Median Ki-67 index was 3% and 4% in the VHL and sporadic groups (P = 0.95), respectively, and lymph node metastases were present in 43% and 30% of cases, respectively (P = 0.45). Sixteen (70%) patients with VHL had multiple PNET; lesions less than 15 mm were left in place in 11 patients. Median postoperative follow-up was 107 months (interquartile range, 57-124 months) and 71 months (interquartile range, 58-131 months) in the VHL and control groups, respectively. Median recurrence-free survival could not have been estimated in the VHL group due to the low number of events (hazard ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-22.6; P = 0.013). Five patients with VHL died (3 from VHL-related tumors including 1 from PNET), whereas only one control patient died due to unrelated causes. Conclusions: The long-term outcome of resected VHL-PNET is better than that of sporadic PNET. PNET less than 15 mm left in place did not progress. A parenchyma-sparing surgical strategy seems appropriate in patients with VHL-PNET, who may develop more life-threatening tumors of other organs.
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von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors in the central nervous system and visceral organs. In this study, we describe clinical features of pancreatic involvement in VHL disease, of which there have been few reported studies to date.
We reviewed medical records of 63 VHL patients, diagnosed at Asan Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2013. Demographic, genetic, and radiologic features, and the clinical course of VHL patients with pancreatic involvement were retrospectively analyzed.
Among the 63 VHL patients, 55 (87.4%) had VHL-associated pancreatic lesions (male: female, 31:24; median age at onset, 33 years; range, 12-67 years). These presented as single simple cysts (n = 5, 9.1%), multiple simple cysts (n = 14, 25.5%), serous cystadenoma (n = 29, 52.7%), or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (n = 17, 30.9%). Genetic tests were performed on 35 of the 55 patients (63.6%) and VHL gene mutations were observed in 28 of them (80%). Of the 55 patients, 11 received surgical treatment, 2 received endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol ablation therapy as local treatment for NET, and 42 patients were followed regularly without intervention (20%, 3.6%, and 76.4%, respectively).
Pancreatic involvement in VHL disease is common, with a prevalence of 87.4%. Serial screening imaging studies for the early detection of VHL-associated NET are necessary in individuals at risk of VHL disease. A large-scale epidemiological study of VHL disease is needed to examine the natural course of the disease and the prognosis for pancreatic involvement.
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