Validation of the Cutaneous Lupus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI) using physician- and patient-assessed health outcome measures
Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address: .Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 4.45). 10/2012; 68(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2012.08.035
BACKGROUND: The Cutaneous Lupus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI) has not been validated using rheumatologist-conducted disease activity and damage assessments, especially cutaneous assessments. Active skin disease and skin damage may have substantial effects on patient-reported outcomes and on body image. OBJECTIVE: We sought to validate the CLASI against: (1) physician-assessed disease activity and damage measures; and (2) patient-reported assessment of quality of life and body image. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 31 patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Cutaneous disease activity and damage were measured by using the CLASI. Disease activity (using the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [SLE] Disease Activity Index [SLEDAI}), damage (Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics-American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), quality of life (LupusPRO), and body image (Body Image Quality of Life Inventory) were obtained. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were ascertained. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 42.3 (12.8) years; 97% were women. The mean (SD) CLASI activity and damage scores were 10.5 (7.4) and 9.9 (9.5). Correlations noted were: total CLASI activity and SLEDAI-rash (r = 0.42, P = .02), CLASI-mucosal and SLEDAI-mucosal (r = 0.65, P = .001), CLASI-recent hair loss and SLEDAI-alopecia (r = 0.61, P = .001), and total CLASI activity and LupusPRO symptoms domain (r = -0.38, P = .04). Total CLASI-damage correlated with SDI-scarring/alopecia (r = 0.51, P = .004), SDI-extensive scarring/panniculum (r = 0.55, P = .003), and SDI-skin ulceration (r = 0.36, P = .05). CLASI scalp scarring correlated with SDI-skin scarring/alopecia (r = 0.94, P = .001). CLASI activity on the face and nose was associated with significant concerns on the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include small sample size. CONCLUSION: CLASI activity and damage scores correlate with physician-assessed cutaneous activity and damage in cutaneous lupus erythematosus in patients with SLE. Cutaneous activity in visible areas may generate body image concerns.
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ABSTRACT: Accurately measuring lupus disease activity has been a demanding and still unresolved task, considering the complex multisystem nature of the disease and its variability over time and between patients. Various available tools for measurement of lupus disease activity may detect clinical improvement and/or deterioration and can be global or organ-focused. Several measures have demonstrated validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change in observational studies, and some were found useful in randomized controlled trials. Evaluation of their content and metric properties and critical review of their strengths and weaknesses facilitates selection of the appropriate tool according to the outcome of interest, and forms the basis for their optimization. In this review, we highlight recent progress in lupus disease activity measures and point to future directions in this field, with a focus on novel composite measurements derived by combining outcome measures in ways that might compensate for their individual deficiencies.
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a wide range of dermatologic manifestations, which may or may not be associated with the development of systemic disease. Cutaneous lupus is divided into several sub-types, including acute CLE (ACLE), sub-acute CLE (SCLE) and chronic CLE (CCLE). CCLE includes discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), LE profundus (LEP), chilblain cutaneous lupus and lupus tumidus. The diagnosis of these diseases requires proper classification of the sub-type, through a combination of physical examination, laboratory studies, histology, antibody serology and occasionally direct immunofluorescence, while ensuring to exclude systemic disease. The treatment of cutaneous lupus consists of patient education on proper sun protection along with appropriate topical and systemic agents. Systemic agents are indicated in cases of widespread, scarring or treatment-refractory disease. In this chapter, we discuss issues in classification and diagnosis of the various sub-types of CLE, as well as provide an update on therapeutic management.
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous Lupus Erythematous (CLE) is an autoimmune disease in which patients may present with isolated skin findings or have CLE associated with underlying systemic disease. The most significant recent studies on its pathogenesis and therapeutic management are reviewed here. Patients with subacute and Discoid Lupus Erythematous had elevated Interferon score, about a third of all cases of SCLE could be attributed to previous drug exposure, and smoking may be more closely associated with CLE than Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE). An underlying genetic defect in some subsets of CLE patients may also be shared with SLE. Efficacy of antimalarial therapy is enhanced by increasing treatment duration or maintaining higher blood drug concentrations. Combination antimalarials that include quinacrine, thalidomide analogs, and Mycophenalate Mofetil may also be effective in refractory CLE. The pathogenesis of CLE remains unclear, and is likely multifactorial. Identified associations with subsets of CLE suggest future research questions in CLE pathogenesis. Subsets of CLE associated with interface dermatitis may share an underlying genetic defect in interferon signaling with SLE. The Cutaneous Lupus Disease Area and Severity Index is a valuable and widely used tool allowing standardized assessment and reporting of cutaneous disease activity and damage. More evidence is available to guide treatment of refractory CLE, but larger studies are needed.Video abstract available: See the Video Supplementary Digital Content 1 (SDC1, http://links.lww.com/COR/A4).
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