Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children exposed to secondhand smoke: A logistic regression analysis of secondary data
Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California Street, Suite 340, San Francisco, CA 94118, United States. Electronic address: .International journal of nursing studies (Impact Factor: 2.9). 10/2012; 50(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.10.002
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature examines the association of postnatal secondhand smoke exposure with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but the findings are mixed. OBJECTIVE: We compare prevalence of ADHD in children aged 4-15 years who were exposed to postnatal secondhand smoke with prevalence in those who were not exposed, and examine the association of postnatal secondhand smoke exposure with ADHD using both reported and cotinine-measured secondhand smoke exposure. DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyze secondary data from the 1999-2004 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. PARTICIPANTS: Analyses using reported secondhand smoke exposure and cotinine-measured exposure included 6283 and 6033 children aged 4-15 respectively, including 419 and 404 children who either had a reported physician diagnosis of ADHD or were taking stimulant medications. METHODS: The association of secondhand smoke exposure with ADHD was examined by two multiple logistic regression models that differ in the secondhand smoke measurement used. RESULTS: After controlling for maternal smoking during pregnancy, gender, age, race/ethnicity, preschool attendance, health insurance coverage, and exposure to lead, children with reported secondhand smoke exposure at home were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio=1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.0) than those who were not exposed. After controlling for these covariates, children with detectable cotinine levels were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio=1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.5) than those with non-detectable levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that secondhand smoke exposure in children is strongly associated with ADHD independent of other risk factors and this association is robust using both measurements of secondhand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism underlying this association. Nurses and other healthcare professionals can play an important role in encouraging parents to quit smoking to reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke and their risk of ADHD.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine smoking habits in relation to the reproductive events of pregnancy and menopause and clarify the reasons for smoking cessation among ex-smokers. This is a cross-sectional study based on a baseline survey of a prospective cohort study. From 2001 to 2007, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 49,927 female nurses from all 47 prefectures in Japan. Logistic regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted odds ratios. Of the respondents, 17.2% were current smokers, 11.6% ex-smokers and 69.8% had never smoked. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was 7.8%. Among ex-smokers, 30.3% gave "reproductive events" as their reason for smoking cessation. Current smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before menopause was significantly related to onset of menopause. Women's smoking habits have mutual relationships with reproductive events such as pregnancy and menopause. Although "reproductive events" were an important reason for smoking cessation among women, 7.8% of women still smoked during pregnancy. Smoking was correlated with onset of menopause. Support for smoking cessation is an important healthcare issue throughout women's lifetimes.
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ABSTRACT: Healthcare and mortality costs of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home among non-smokers in California were estimated for the year 2009. Costs were estimated with an epidemiological model using California SHS home exposure rates and published relative risks. Healthcare costs included nine conditions, and mortality was estimated for four perinatal and three adult conditions. Three mortality-related measures were estimated: deaths, years of potential life lost (YPLL) and the value of lost productivity. SHS-attributable healthcare costs totalled over $241 million. The most costly conditions for children and adolescents were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ($7.8 million) and middle ear disease ($5.6 million). For adults, the most costly conditions were ischaemic heart disease (IHD) ($130.0 million) and asthma ($67.4 million). Deaths of 821 Californians were attributable to SHS exposure in the home, including 27 infants whose mothers smoked while pregnant and 700 adults who died from IHD. These deaths represented a loss of over 13 000 YPLL and $119 million in lost productivity. The economic impact of SHS exposure in the home totalled $360 million in California in 2009. Policies that reduce exposure to SHS at home have great potential for reducing healthcare and mortality costs.
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