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The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), originating in Australia, has been rapidly spreading in eucalyptus plantations in the Southern Hemisphere, in-cluding South Africa, Zimbabwe, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile. In Brazil, it was detected in 2008 in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. Due to incomplete knowledge about the biology of this pest, the present study evaluated the bioecology of T. peregrinus in different eucalyptus species and hybrids. The genetic materials utilized were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, '1277' (Hybrid E. grandis x camaldulensis—HGC), 'VM-1' (Hybrid E. urophylla x camaldulensis—HUC) and 'H-13' (Hybrid E. urophylla x grandis—HUG). The experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled chamber at a temperature of 26±1°C, r.h. 0 70%±10% and 12 h photophase. The biology of different genotypes indicated that the species E. uro-phylla and E. grandis are the most suitable for the development and reproduction of T. peregrinus, although all treatments enabled the bronze bug to develop and produce descendants. T. peregrinus developed and repro-duced in the principal vegetal materials planted in the southern, central-west and northeastern regions of Brazil, constituting a potentially damaging insect pest to euca-lyptus plantations.
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Biology of Thaumastocoris peregrinus in different eucalyptus
species and hybrids
Everton Pires Soliman &Carlos F. Wilcken &
Jaqueline M. Pereira &Thaíse K. R. Dias &
Bruno Zaché &Mário H. F. A. Dal Pogetto &
Leonardo R. Barbosa
Received: 18 September 2011 /Accepted: 25 February 2012 /Published online: 21 March 2012
# Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Abstract ThebronzebugThaumastocoris peregrinus
Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae),
originating in Australia, has been rapidly spreading in
eucalyptus plantations in the Southern Hemisphere, in-
cluding South Africa, Zimbabwe, Argentina, Uruguay,
Paraguay and Chile. In Brazil, it was detected in 2008 in
the states of Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. Due to
incomplete knowledge about the biology of this pest, the
present study evaluated the bioecology of T. pe regr inus
in different eucalyptus species and hybrids. The genetic
materials utilized were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E.
urophylla,E. grandis,1277(Hybrid E. grandis x
camaldulensisHGC), VM-1(Hybrid E. urophylla x
camaldulensisHUC) and H-13(Hybrid E. urophylla
xgrandisHUG). The experiment was conducted in a
climate-controlled chamber at a temperature of 26 ± 1°C,
r.h . 070% ± 10% and 12 h photophase. The biology of
different genotypes indicated that the species E. uro-
phylla and E. grandis are the most suitable for the
development and reproduction of T. peregrinus, although
all treatments enabled the bronze bug to develop and
produce descendants. T. pere grinus developed and repro-
duced in the principal vegetal materials planted in the
southern, central-west and northeastern regions of Brazil,
constituting a potentially damaging insect pest to euca-
lyptus plantations.
Keywords Bronze bug .Development .Exotic pests
The recent increase in international trade, mainly of
vegetal products, has generated concern due to the pos-
sibility of threats by introducing exotic pests (Dias
2000). In this context, eucalyptus forests have been
seriously threatened by exotic invasive pests in the last
two decades (Wingfield et al. 2001;2008).
When attacked by insects, forest plantations can suffer
a significant reduction in the quantity and quality of wood
produced (Candy et al. 1992;Ohmart1990; Shepherd
1994; Zobel et al. 1987). In recent years some exotic
species have compromised Brazilian plantations, such as
the redgum lerp psyllid. In 2008, the eucalyptus bronze
bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé
2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), was detected in
Brazil (Wilcken et al. 2010).
The damage caused by T. pe regr i n us to eucalyptus
trees includes silvering chlorosis followed by the bronz-
ing and drying of leaves. These symptoms occur due to
the bugs feeding habit, which punctures the leaves and
Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230
DOI 10.1007/s12600-012-0226-4
E. P. Soliman (*):C. F. Wilcken :J. M. Pereira :
T. K. R. Dias :B. Zaché :M. H. F. A. Dal Pogetto
Department of Vegetable Production of the São Paulo State
University (UNESP),
Campus of Botucatu 18603-970 SP, Brazil
L. R. Barbosa
EMBRAPA Forestry,
Colombo, PR, Brazil
twigs to suck the sap, leaving them chlorotic (Button
2007; Wilcken et al. 2008;2010).
The hemipterans from the family Thaumastocoridae
correspond to small phytophagous bugs (Carpintero and
Dellapé 2006; Jacobs and Neser 2005). Biological data
on insects in the Thaumastocoridae family are scarce
(Cassis et al. 1999). Most of the studies have been of
species of the subfamily Xylastodorinae, which occurs
in South America feeding on palms (Noack and Rose
2007). Recently Noack et al. (2011)publishedasys-
tematic revision of Thaumastocoris and described nine
new species.
Some biological parameters of species of the Thau-
mastocorinae and Xylastodorinae subfamilies were
studied over the years (Couturier et al.2002; Drake
and Slater 1957;Hill1988;Kumar1963;Slater1973).
The first study of the biology of the genus Thaumasto-
coris was conducted by Noack and Rose (2007), but it
was performed at variable temperatures on the species
Eucalyptus scoparia, for use in urban forestry and isless
representative than the species used in large forest plan-
tations of South America.
Knowledge of the biological aspects of T. pe regr i n us
constitutes a basic and essential tool for developing
strategies for monitoring and control. In this context
the present study aimed to determine the biological
development of T. peregrinus in different eucalyptus
species and hybrids planted in Brazil.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted under laboratory conditions.
The species and hybrids of eucalyptus used in the ex-
periment were provided by the forest species arboretum,
situated in an experimental area of the School of Agro-
nomic SciencesUNESPCampus of Botucatu. The
collected leaves were transported to the laboratory,
cleaned in running water, dried, and cut in discs of
3.2 cm diam with a hole-puncher.
The eucalyptus species and hybrids used were E.
camaldulensis,E. urophylla,E. grandis, and the follow-
ing clones: 1277(Hybrid E. grandis xcamaldulensis
HGC), VM-1(Hybrid E. urophylla xcamaldulensis
HUC) and H-13(Hybrid E. urophylla xgrandis
The study was initiated utilizing eggs collected in the
field, and methodology adapted from Firmino-Winckler
et al. (2009), but with several modifications due to
peculiarities of T. peregrinus. The leaves, containing
the egg masses, were cut and placed in petri dishes
15 cm in diam, on a leaf of the eucalyptus species to
be tested. Through daily observations the newly hatched
nymphs were transferred to the assay, for a total of 100
nymphs per treatment. The experiment was carried out
in a climate-controlled chamber with a temperature of
26±1°C, 12-h photophase and 60± 10% r.h.
Nymph phase Newly hatched nymphs were placed
singly on a eucalyptus leaf disc 3.2 cm in diam, placed
in a petri dish 3.5 cm in diam containing a slide of
distilled water used to maintain leaf turgor. The dishes
were placed in plastic trays 26 cm long x 17 cm wide x
13 cm high, covered with a perforated lid and lined
with voile tissue for aeration. Every 2 days the insects
were transferred to a new leaf and observed daily
under a stereoscopic microscope. The duration and
viability of instars were evaluated.
Adult phase The newly emerged adults were sexed and
paired to obtain clutches. The couples were maintained
on petri dishes 6.2 cm in diam with perforated lids, re-
covered with a 50% plastic screen containing eucalyptus
leaf discs (3.2 cm in diam) on water-retaining gel diluted
at 1 g of gel per 400 ml of distilled water. The leaf discs
were changed when the females oviposited or when they
were resected. Based on the behavior of the species in
laying eggs on irregular surfaces in a natural environ-
ment and on the facility in evaluations, a double-faced
tape containing filter paper on its exterior face was
utilized for counting eggs laid. This procedure enabled
oviposition by the females onto the center of the leaf to
facilitate the evaluation and reduce the losses of eggs
that had been laid on the edge of the leaf disc in contact
with water. The evaluations were performed daily
throughout the lifespan of the adults to determine: pre-
oviposition period, daily and total oviposition, and lon-
gevity of the males and females.
Egg phase During the daily observation of the pairs, the
egg masses obtained were separated and maintained on
a leaf disc in a petri dish 3.5 cm in diam (similar to those
utilized in the nymph phase) to determine the incubation
period and egg viability.
Statistical analysis The experiment was conducted uti-
lizing a completely randomized delineation, with the
treatments represented by six eucalyptus genotypes, with
224 Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230
Table 1 Average duration (D, in days) and viability (V, in%), of Thaumastocoris peregrinus instars and nymph stage reared in different eucalyptus genotypes (temperature 26± 1°C;
60± 10% r.h.; 12-h photophase)
Parameter evaluated Treatment C.V.
E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. grandis H-13(HUG) 1277(HGC) VM-1(HUC)
first instar 3.34 bc
99 99 3.13 ab 100 100 2.96 a 100 100 3.32 bc 100 100 3.53 c 100 100 3.07 ab 99 99 13.59
second instar 2.71 b 83 83.8 2.87 bc 97 97 2.65 b 95 95 2.96 c 98 98 2.29 a 97 97 2.82 bc 98 99 16.77
third instar 2.50 a 82 98.8 2.84 bc 97 100 2.59 ab 91 95.8 2.47 a 98 100 2.89 c 96 99 2.27 a 96 98 19.97
fourth instar 2.95 b 77 93.9 3.03 b 94 96.9 2.85 b 88 96.7 3.02 b 96 98 2.41 a 92 95.8 2.94 b 96 100 14.07
fifth instar 4.17 a 76 98.7 4.70 b 88 93.6 4.75 b 87 98.9 4.25 a 96 100 4.23 a 91 98.9 4.27 a 93 96.9 11.27
Nymph stage 15.59 ab 76 76 16.56 d 88 88 15.80 bc 87 87 16.02 c 96 96 15.34 a 91 91 15.37 ab 93 93 4.76
Nymph stageMale 15.61 a A 38 16.33 c A 43 15.72 ab A 43 16.04 bc A 48 15.28 a A 47 15.46 a A 46 4.68
Nymph stageFemale 15.56 abc A 38 16.78 d B 45 15.89 bc A 44 16.00 c A 48 15.41 ab A 44 15.27 a A 48 4.78
n0number of insects
Coefficient of variation
Means followed by a common lower-case letter (on a line) or the same upper-case letter (within a column) do not differ from each other by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P0.05)
Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230 225
100 repetitions (nymph phase). The data were submitted
to analysis of variance and the means compared by the
Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (P0.05).
Nymph phase The bronze bug nymphs have a body
flattened dorsoventrally and a hind wing visible from
the fourth instar, with significant growth during the
fifth instar.
The mean duration of first instar presented a differ-
ence between the extreme values observed, varying from
2.96 days for E. grandis to 3.53 days for clone 1277
(HGC). For the other genotypes no significant differ-
ences were observed (Table 1). In general, the minimum
duration was 2 days, registered in E. urophylla,E.
camaldulensis and E. grandis,whereasthemaximum
was 5 daysin E. urophylla and clone H-13(HUG).
The shorter mean duration of the second instar was
verified in clone 1277, which was statistically distinct
from clone H-13, with the results obtained in the other
genotypes evaluated being considered intermediate. In
the third and fourth nymph stages, only clone 1277
differed from the other treatments, tending toward a
longer and shorter duration, respectively (Table 1).
When compared with the mean duration of earlier
instars, the fifth instar was relatively prolonged in all
treatments. The longer mean durations were obtained in
E. grandis and E. camaldulensis, and were significantly
distinct from the other treatments (Table 1).
The duration of nymph period of T. peregrinus,
from the hatching of the egg until the emergence of
the adult, varied from 14 to 20 days for the different
eucalyptus genotypes. The mean duration in the E.
camaldulensis nymph stage was different from all
other treatments. On the other hand, clone 1277
had the shortest mean duration (Table 1).
The mean nymph period among males was longer in
E. camaldulensis, and differed from the other treatments
with the exception of clone H-13. Among the females,
the longest nymph period was also in E. camaldulensis,
and differed significantly from the others. The females
obtained in the clones VM-1,1277and E. urophylla
had the fastest nymph development, of 15.27, 15.41 and
15.56 days, respectively (Table 1).
The lowest nymph viability, after the five instars,
was observed among the nymphs maintained in E.
urophylla (76%) and the highest among nymphs of
clone H-13(96%); the other treatments exhibited
viabilities between 87% and 93%. The nymph viabil-
ity of all treatments was greater than 75%.
Adult phase The adults have brownish coloration, with
the females and males able to be sexed through ventral
observation of the lower part of the abdomen, where the
males possess a genital capsule that opens to the right
from a ventral perspective. The females are typically
larger than the males, with a round abdomen, in contrast
to the malesthat possess a narrow abdomen. Martinez
and Bianchi (2010) and Noack et al. (2011) describe and
provide details of sexual dimorphism.
The sexual proportion was approximately 1:1 (male:
female), as observed in E. urophylla and in the clone
H-13. Only in the clone 1277was the number of
males higher than that of females, whereas in the other
treatments the number of females was slightly greater
(Table 2).
The pre-oviposition period was determined from the
emergence date of the females until the laying of the first
egg. The shortest period was verified in E. grandis,and
there were no significant differences among E. urophylla,
H-13and 1277. Nevertheless, females maintained in
E. camaldulensis had the longest period for oviposition
initiation, followed by VM-1(HUC) (Table 3).
The greatest egg production per female was ob-
served in E. grandis and E. urophylla (Table 3). The
mean number of viable eggs per female indicates the
true reproductive capacity, which is allied with the
number of descendants generated. In this manner, E.
urophylla and E. grandis differed significantly from
the other materials tested (Table 3).
Table 2 Number of males and females and M:F ratio of Thau-
mastocoris peregrinus maintained on leaves of different euca-
lyptus species and hybrids (temperature 26±1°C; 60 ± 10% r.h.;
12-h photophase; Botucatu, SP, 2010)
Treatment Frequency M : F n
Male Female
E. urophylla 38 38 1.00 76
E. camaldulensis 43 45 0.96 88
E. grandis 43 44 0.98 87
H-13 (urograndis) 48 48 1.00 96
1277 (gracam) 47 44 1.07 91
VM-1 (urocam) 46 48 0.96 94
n0number of insects
226 Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230
The mean reproduction values under all the treat-
ments reveal that the number of eggs per clutch was
relatively greater at the beginning of the evaluations
and subsequently decreased. The highest number of
eggs per clutch was nine for E. urophylla followed by
eight in E. grandis,H-13and 1277, and seven in E.
camaldulensis and VM-1.
Regarding the number of surviving females (n), egg
production for the clone VM-1peaked between the first
and fifth clutches (n027) and at the 22nd clutch (n02); in
clone 1277it peaked at the sixth and ninth clutches
(n014); in H-13at the 3rd clutch (n042); in E. grandis
from the second until the 17th clutch (n041) and after the
34thclutch(n02); E urophylla from the 16th to 22nd
clutches (n024); and E. camaldulensis only at the begin-
ning, around the third clutch (n045) (Fig. 1).
The average male longevity was extremely re-
duced in the clone 1277, and the males fed E.
urophylla had the longest period, with no differ-
ence among the other treatments (Table 3). The
mean female longevity was greater in eucalyptus
species (E. urophylla,E. camaldulensis and E.
able3). The longevity of males and
females showed no significant difference except
for clone 1277. On average, all the males had a
longer lifespan than the females (Table 3).
The mean longevity of adults varied from 4 to
78 days among the eucalyptus genotypes tested. For
mean total longevity of males and females, the clone
1277had the shortest and E. urophylla had the
longest duration (Table 3).
Table 3 Mean duration of pre-oviposition and longevity (D, in days), and number of eggs (Q) of Thaumastocoris peregrinus raised on
different eucalyptus genotypes (temperature 26±1°C; 60 ± 10% r.h.; 12-h photophase; Botucatu, SP, 2010)
Parameter evaluated Treatment C.V
E. urophylla E. camaldulensis E. grandis H-13(HUG) 1277(HGC) VM-1(HUC)
D/Q n
D/Q n D/Q n D/Q n D/Q n D/Q n
Pre-oviposition 6.58 ab
36 10.53 c 36 5.49 a 41 6.47 ab 43 6.56 ab 27 8.17 bc 36 31.86
Eggs/female 71.75 b 36 23.00 a 36 75.00 b 41 25.42 a 43 30.93 a 27 23.28 a 36 63.80
Viable eggs/female 64.36 b 36 19.33 a 36 63.66 b 41 22.30 a 43 28.96 a 25 19.94 a 36 65.60
Adult longevity 42.08 d 76 32.63 cd 88 35.36 cd 87 27.25 b 96 14.30 a 91 25.52 b 93 49.58
Longevitymale 51.78 c A 38 36.07 b A 43 39.67 b A 43 40.06 b A 48 15.66 a A 47 34.11 b A 46 41.55
Longevityfemale 32.17 b B 38 29.33 b B 45 31.14 b B 44 14.44 a B 48 12.86 a A 44 17.08 a B 48 38.35
n0number of insects
Coefficient of variation
Means followed by a common lower-case letter (on the line) or the same upper-case letter (within a column) do not differ from each
other by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P0.05)
Fig. 1 Mean number of
eggs per clutch of Thau-
mastocoris peregrinus
maintained on leaves from
different eucalyptus species
and hybrids. [Temperature
26± 1°C, 60 ± 10% r.h.,
12-h photophase; Botucatu,
SP, Brazil, 2010]
Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230 227
Total lifespan The lifespan of T. peregrinus was de-
termined starting from the hatching of the nymph until
the adult death. Under the different treatments the total
lifespan of males varied from 19 to 99 days, and was
longer than that of females. The total cycle of males
was longer in E. urophylla than in the others, particu-
larly the clone 1277(Table 4). The total cycle of
females, in all treatments, varied from 19 to 77 days.
Egg phase The eggs possess a round flat form, and
when recently laid they have a bright black color, with
a slight depression in the center, shifting to opaque
black with an elevated depression in the center after
the hatching of the nymph. A nymph hatches from the
egg by the operculum, which opens like a lid. In some
eggs, even after the nymphs have hatched, the oper-
culum is not prominent and apparently the egg was
closed; but it is easily removed with a small brush or
air jet.
The incubation period was analyzed from the laying
of the egg clutch until the nymph hatching. This period
varied from 4 to 9 days for the different eucalyptus
genotypes but in clones 1277and H-13no egg
hatched in fewer than 4 days or more than 9 days,
respectively. The average period of incubation was more
rapid in VM-1, and slower in 1277(Table 5).
The mean egg viability was obtained by calculating
the difference between the total number of eggs laid
and the total number of nymphs hatched. E. urophylla
and clone H-13provided the highest viability and E.
camaldulensis the lowest (Table 5).
The females maintained in E. grandis laid the most
eggs, and E. camaldulensis the least (Table 5).
Nymph phase The nymphs possessed red eyes, a char-
acteristic also observed in Discocoris drakei (Couturier
et al. 2002), antennae with final antennomers darker
than the rest of the antenna, similar to Martinez and
Bianchis(2010) observation, and a round red spot at
the center of the primary uromeres of the abdomen.
The nymph phase of T. peregrinus had five instars,
similar to the findings of Noack and Rose (2007), and
the same number as observed in other Thaumastocor-
idae such as Thaumastocoris petilus Drake and Slater,
Baclozygum brachypterum Slater (Slater 1973)and
Discocoris drakei (Couturier et al. 2002), in addition
to other hemipterans of forestry importance, including
Leptopharsa heveae (Tingidae), a pest in rubber trees
(Cividanes et al. 2004).
Noack and Rose (2007) obtained the highest average
of 4.6 days for the duration of the first instar at a
temperature varying from 17° to 20°C in Eucalyptus
scoparia. The mean durations of the first and final
instars were longer than those of the intermediate
instars, results similar to those obtained by Noack and
Rose (2007)inE. scoparia at variable temperatures.
The mean duration of the nymph period for all the
materials tested was 15.8 days, superior to that reported
by Firmino-Winckler et al.(2009)forGlycaspis brim-
blecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) of 15.1 days but less
Table 5 Incubation period and viability of Thaumastocoris per-
egrinus eggs maintained on leaves of different eucalyptus species
and hybrids (temperature 26± 1°C; 60± 10% r.h.; 12-h photophase;
Botucatu, SP, 2010)
Treatment Incubation
period (days)
N° of eggs
N° of
E.urophylla 6.32 2317 36 89.7
E. camaldulensis 6.12 699 36 84.4
E. grandis 6.31 2610 41 84.9
H-13(HUG) 6.19 959 43 87.7
1277(HGC) 6.45 724 25 86.7
VM-1(HUC) 5.98 718 36 85.7
Table 4 Total cycle duration of males, females and total (days)
of Thaumastocoris peregrinus) maintained on leaves of different
eucalyptus species and hybrids (temperature 26± 1°C; 60 ± 10%
r.h.; 12-h photophase; Botucatu, SP, 2010)
Treatment Total cycle (days)
Male n
Female n Total n
E.urophylla 67.39 c
38 47.72 b 38 57.67 c 76
E. camaldulensis 52.40 b 43 46.11 b 45 49.18 c 88
E. grandis 55.40 b 43 47.02 b 44 51.16 c 87
H-13(HUG) 56.10 b 48 30.44 a 48 43.27 b 96
1277(HGC) 30.94 a 47 28.27 a 44 29.64 a 91
VM-1(HUC) 49.57 b 46 32.35 a 48 40.88 b 93
C. V.
(%) 27.42 21.70 30.83
n0number of insects
Within columns, numbers followed by the same lower-case
letter do not differ from each other by the Kruskal-Wallis test
Coefficient of variation
228 Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230
than the 20 days obtained for T. pe regr inus by Noack
and Rose (2007).
The sexes differed significantly in mean duration of
nymph period only among the males and females fed
E. camaldulensis (Table 1).
In E. urophylla the phase most susceptible to mor-
tality was the second instar, but in E. camaldulensis
the critical period occurred in the fifth instar (Table 1).
In the other genotypes utilized in the assay the mor-
tality was distributed in all nymph stages, contrary to
Noack and Rose (2007) who observed the first nymph
stage as the most sensitive to mortality. This difference
is probably related to the methodology employed.
Adult phase The mean pre-oviposition period obtained
by Noack and Rose (2007) was 8.5 days, similar only to
the VM-1treatment.
The number of eggs produced by the female indicates
an elevated capacity for reproduction, but in the exper-
imental conditions it was verified that the true reproduc-
tive capacity was inferior since a portion of the eggs
were infertile. The elevated number of eggs produced by
Thaumastocoridae, according to Kumar (1963), is due
to the physiological capacity of the females, since they
possess two ovaries with three ovarioles each.
Hill and Schaefer (2000) reported that Baclozygum
depressum females laid an average of 1.25 eggs per day
whereas Crosa (2008) emphasizes that each T. peregrinus
female lays a daily mean of 2 eggs, but in the species
studied by us this value was much higher (Fig. 1).
The total egg production per female obtained by
Noack and Rose (2007) was 45.5, higher than the levels
observed in the clones 1277,VM-1and H-13and in
E. camaldulensis, but females of the species B. depres-
sum can lay up to 80 eggs (Hill and Schaefer 2000).
The longevity of males reported by Noack and Rose
(2007) ranged from 2 to 38 days, with a mean of 16 days,
a finding similar to that of clone 1277(Table 3). For
Xylastodoris luteolus,alsobelongingtothesubfamily
Thaumastocorinae, the longevity of adults varies from
23 to 37 days (Hill and Schaefer 2000).
Noack and Rose (2007) found a mean longevity of
15 days in E. scoparia, similar to the average values
observed in the hybrids of the present study (Table 3). In
general, all the males had a longer life cycle than the
females (Table 3), which may be an inherent character-
istic of the species or, according to de Queiroz and
Milward-de-Azevedo (1991), may be due to reproduc-
tive stress.
Lifespan duration In the eucalyptus species studied,
the duration of the adult phase lasted longer than in the
clones. Crosa (2008) verified that the longevity of
females was approximately 30 days, slightly greater
than the duration of approximately 20 days reported
by Noack and Rose (2007), but in the latter work the
temperature varied from 17
to 20°C.
The data obtained suggest the possibility that T. pe r-
egrinus males maintained principally on three species,
E. grandis,E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis,could
mate with females emerging from the second genera-
tion, given that the egg incubation and nymph periods
were approximately 6 and 15 days, respectively.
Egg phase The eggs of T. peregrinus are black
(Jacobs and Neser 2005) and relatively large in rela-
tion to the size of the female, as observed in other
species of the subfamily Thaumastocorinae such as
Discocoris drakei Slater & Ashlock (Couturier et al.
2002) and Xylastodorus luteolus (Hill 1988; Hill and
Schaefer 2000).
In the field, females of T. peregrinus lay eggs together,
forming great egg masses (Jacobs and Neser 2005;
Wilcken et al. 2010); and in Brazil the clutch was verified
principally on irregular surfaces, suggesting thigmotro-
pism. These irregular surfaces can be present on euca-
lyptus fruit, branches, stems or leaves. In the leaves the
clutches are found near the main vein, on leaf limb
deformations or at locations close to the egg clutches of
other insects such as the redgum lerp psyllid G. brimble-
combei, and associated with eggs laid by other T. pe re-
grinus females. In the present article, this thigmotropism
hypothesis was proven by using the oviposition director
placed on the leaf offered in the adult phase.
The eggs viability in all treatments was higher
than 80%, in contrast to the data of Noack and
Rose (2007), who obtained only 19% viability in
E. scoparia. This difference may be due to the
experimental conditions, mainly by maintaining
the eggs in plates with high relative humidity.
However, other causes could be the use of differ-
ent eucalyptus species than other authors.
In conclusion, species and hybrid clones of eucalyp-
tus affect the longevity and reproductive capacity of T.
peregrinus;E. urophylla and E. grandis are the species
most suitable for the development and reproduction of T.
peregrinus; and the bronze bug reproduces and generates
fertile descendants in the genetic base of the predominant
eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.
Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230 229
Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to CAPES, CNPq
and IPEF for financial aid, and to the researchers Gonzalo
Martinez (Uruguay) and Ann Noack (Australia) who assisted
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230 Phytoparasitica (2012) 40:223230
... Different Eucalyptus genotypes show variations in resistance to various diseases and insect pests (Avila et al. 2022;Chen et al. 2002;Dos Santos et al. 2018;Naidoo et al. 2018Naidoo et al. , 2014Santadino et al. 2017b;Smith et al. 2007Smith et al. , 2018, including T. peregrinus (Avila et al. 2022;Corley et al. 2020;Cuello et al. 2019;González et al. 2009;Martínez et al. 2017;Martins and Zarbin 2013;Saavedra et al. 2015;San Román et al. 2009;Santadino et al. 2017b;Soliman et al. 2012;Wilcken et al. 2010). Some Eucalyptus species such as E. tereticornis (Cuello et al. 2019), E. grandis (Soliman et al. 2012) and E. globulus were reported as susceptible to T. pereginus, E. robusta as resistant (Corley et al. 2020), and yet others as E. fastigata and E. regnans were reported as suitable at the beginning of the insect life cycle, but prevented the completion of the cycle later on (Saavedra et al. 2015). ...
... Different Eucalyptus genotypes show variations in resistance to various diseases and insect pests (Avila et al. 2022;Chen et al. 2002;Dos Santos et al. 2018;Naidoo et al. 2018Naidoo et al. , 2014Santadino et al. 2017b;Smith et al. 2007Smith et al. , 2018, including T. peregrinus (Avila et al. 2022;Corley et al. 2020;Cuello et al. 2019;González et al. 2009;Martínez et al. 2017;Martins and Zarbin 2013;Saavedra et al. 2015;San Román et al. 2009;Santadino et al. 2017b;Soliman et al. 2012;Wilcken et al. 2010). Some Eucalyptus species such as E. tereticornis (Cuello et al. 2019), E. grandis (Soliman et al. 2012) and E. globulus were reported as susceptible to T. pereginus, E. robusta as resistant (Corley et al. 2020), and yet others as E. fastigata and E. regnans were reported as suitable at the beginning of the insect life cycle, but prevented the completion of the cycle later on (Saavedra et al. 2015). In the same direction, in field surveys T. peregrinus has been recorded on some Eucalyptus species but not in others. ...
... The leaf extracts were analyzed by a protocol designed ad-hoc based on previous reports, by (Boland et al. 2006;Brussa 1994); suitable host for T. peregrinus (Soliman et al. 2012) E. robusta Construction use (heavy engineering) (Boland et al. 2006;Brussa 1994). Thaumastocoris peregrinus does not develop well in laboratory conditions (G. ...
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Eucalyptus species are among the most planted trees in forestry production, an ever-increasing commercial activity worldwide. Forestry expansion demands a continuous search for preventive and sanitary measures against pests and diseases. Massive application of phytosanitary products is incompatible with the forestry sector, so forest health management must be based on other principles. In this context, studies on insect plant relationships mediated by plant metabolites may contribute information relevant to plant resistance and genotype selection. In this study, we analyzed the leaf metabolome of four Eucalyptus species commonly planted in southern South America, to correlate this chemical information with feeding preference of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), an important pest of eucalypt plantations. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses were performed on polar and non-polar leaf extracts from Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus robusta, and Eucalyptus tereticornis (Myrtaceae). Feeding preferences were assessed in two-choice laboratory bioassays resulting in a preference gradient of the four plant species. Moreover, a performance bioassay where we contrasted survival and development time between the most and least preferred plants, showed a clear correlation with preference both in survival and developmental time of the most susceptible nymph instar. We found that species with high or low feeding preferences differ significantly in several foliar metabolites, which may be acting as feeding stimulants or deterrents for T. peregrinus. These findings may provide useful criteria for choosing Eucalyptus genotypes when planting in bronze bug infested areas.
... Besides commercially important plantations, ornamental Eucalyptus may also suffer considerable disfigurement by the effects of this species (e.g. leaf discoloration), which may even lead to the death of saplings (Soliman et al. 2012). ...
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Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé, 2006, originally from Australia, has become a cosmopolitan alien species associated with Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). In this study, the species is recorded for the first time in Cyprus from the Limassol district and the Akrotiri UK Sovereign Base Area. The adverse socioeconomic impacts of the species on the island are briefly discussed.
... It has been subsequently spread by human agency to New Zealand ( (Hodel et al. 2016). In these areas it can be a pest of ornamental Eucalyptus and Corymbia plantings, causing leaf silvering and loss, canopy thinning, and in some cases branch dieback (Soliman et al. 2012). Because this species seems to attack a range of host plants across several genera in the family Myrtaceae, it is plausible that it could also feed on Metrosideros, known to Native Hawaiians as ʻōhiʻa, the dominant species of canopy-forming tree in Hawaiian forests across a variety of elevations and precipitation regimes. ...
... La xinxa de l'eucaliptus presenta un cicle vital curt, d'entre un i dos mesos en funció de la temperatura (vegeu, per exemple, Barbosa et al., 2019), de manera que pot tenir diverses generacions a l'any (Jacobs & Neser, 2005). Al llarg de la seva vida, cada femella és capaç de pondre uns 60 ous o més i tot, depenent de la temperatura i de la planta hoste (vegeu, per exemple, Soliman et al., 2012). Les nimfes, que neixen al cap d'uns sis dies, assoleixen l'estat adult en poc més de dues setmanes, període durant el qual passen per cinc estadis (Noack & Rose, 2007). ...
... Management of defoliating caterpillars in Eucalyptus crops is achieved mainly with insecticides Guedes et al., 2000) and the use of beneficial insects such as parasitoids (Oliveira et al., 2008;Pereira et al., 2008) and predators (Soares et al., 2009). Resistant Eucalyptus species and hybrids are another alternative to control phytophagous insects, including borers (Hanks et al., 1991), the bronze bug (Soliman et al., 2012), red gum lerp psyllid (Pereira et al., 2013), and caterpillars such as T. arnobia (Jesus et al., 2015). ...
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The defoliating caterpillar Sarsina violascens causes economic losses in Brazilian Eucalyptus crops. Information on the susceptibility of Eucalyptus species and hybrids to insect pests is scarce. As such, this study aimed to assess the development of S. violascens on Eucalyptus species and hybrids under laboratory conditions. Neonate caterpillars were reared on leaves of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis and E. globulus; and hybrids of E. urophylla x E.urophylla, E. urophylla × E. grandis, E. grandis × E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis. Biological parameters such as instar and larval phase duration, pupal weight, adult longevity and fecundity, and eclosion rate were evaluated. Eucalyptus globulus is not an S. violascens host, leading to 100% larval mortality in the first instar. Eucalyptus grandis extended the larval phase of the insect and decreased larval survivorship and female pupal weight, resulting in high levels of deformity in adults and low egg eclosion, in addition to exhibiting significant antibiosis to S. violascens. Eucalyptus camaldulensis and VM-1 extended the larval period and reduced pupal weight. Eucalyptus urophylla was better suited to the development and reproduction of S. violascens than other Eucalyptus species and hybrids. E. grandis is a promising source of resistance to S. violascens. The use of resistant species and hybrids contributes to pest management, reducing the need for chemical control.
... This invasive insect pest has a gregarious and sucking habit, lays eggs in clusters and it has caused intense defoliation in eucalyptus trees [3,7,8]. Symptoms caused by this pest include silvering, tanning and leaf drying due to sap sucking, followed by defoliation of susceptible genotypes [4,9,10]. In addition, reduction in tree diameter, height and volume, besides losses in eucalyptus wood yield of up to 10 to 15%, were recorded in eucalypt plantations infested by T. peregrinus [3,4]. ...
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Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), native to Australia, is the most promising biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae), an exotic Eucalyptus spp. pest in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the courtship behaviour, mating and oviposition of unmated or mated C. noackae females parasitizing T. peregrinus eggs utilizing the same rearing system used in biological control programmes in Brazil. The mating behaviour of eleven C. noackae unmated couples was observed and the time taken for males and females to find each other in polystyrene vials and the duration and number of copulations were recorded. Ten unmated or mated females were placed individually in vials with 10 T. peregrinus eggs each, and oviposition behaviour, percentage of eggs inserted and parasitized, viability and sex ratio of emerged C. noackae were recorded. This species lacked defined courtship behaviour and mated in less than an hour after adults' emergence. The time spent finding the first host, evaluating and inserting the ovipositor was similar for mated and unmated C. noackae females, as well as the frequency of inserted and parasitized eggs and their viability. Mated females took less time to find other host eggs and the sex ratio is female-biased. Occurrence of arrhenotokous parthenogenesis was confirmed. The ability of C. noackae to mate and lay eggs in less than one hour and parasitism of T. peregrinus eggs by females can improve the parasitoid mass rearing and biological control of T. peregrinus. PLOS ONE PLOS ONE |
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Insect pests introduced in eucalyptus plantations in Brazil are mostly of Australian origin, but native microorganisms have potential for their management. High quality biopesticide production based on entomopathogenic fungi depends on adequate technologies. The objective of this study was to evaluate Mycoharvester® equipment to harvest and separating particles to obtain pure Metarhizium anisopliae conidia to manage Thaumastocoris peregri-nus Carpintero & Dellapé , 2006 (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae). The Mycoharvester® version 5b harvested and separated M. anisopliae spores. The pure conidia were suspended in Tween 80® (0.1%) and calibrated to the concentrations of 1 x 10^6 , 10^7 , 10^8 and 10^9 conidia/ ml to evaluate the pathogenicity, lethal concentration 50 and 90 (LC 50 , LC 90) and lethal time 50 and 90 (LT 50 , LT 90) of this fungus to T. peregrinus. This equipment harvested 85% of the conidia from rice, with production of 4.8 ± 0.38 x 10^9 conidia/g dry mass of substrate + fungus. The water content of 6.36% of the single spore powder (pure conidia) separated by the Mycoharvester® was lower than that of the agglomerated product. The product harvested at the concentrations of 10^8 and 10^9 conidia/ml caused high mortality to T. peregrinus third instar nymphs and adults. The separation of conidia produced by solid-state fermentation with the Mycoharvester® is an important step toward optimizing the fungal production system of pure conidia, and to formulate biopesticides for insect pest management.
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The area of planted forests in Brazil, a world reference in technology, is approximately 9.0 million hectares, mainly to produce raw material for paper and cellulose, coal, and furniture. The Brazilian pulp industry produced 19.7 million tons in 2019, 75% of which exported, in addition to 10.5 million tons of paper. Forestry activity creates jobs and contributes socially, economically, and environmentally, preserving native forests. The Eucalyptus genus, originally from Australia, Tasmania, and other islands in the Oceania, occupies 77% of the total area of forests planted in Brazil in climatic and ecological conditions suitable for its rapid growth and reaching the highest productivity rates in the world. Pests reduce productivity of the Brazilian forest plantations. Most forest crops are of exotic forest species with low biodiversity and the Eucalyptus is of the same botanical family (Myrtaceae) as many native Brazilian plants, increasing the chances of damage by native insects. The expansion of the cultivated area increases the number of pests in population outbreaks, with emphasis on native ones, such as leaf-cutting ants and defoliating caterpillars, in addition to introduced exotic, such as Glycaspis brimblecombei, Leptocybe invasa, and Thaumastocoris peregrinus and beetles of the genus Gonipterus. The management of forest pests can reduce losses in forest crops with economic interest and preservation of the environment. The knowledge of the biology of the pests and their consequences and correctly interpreting the environmental factors allow implementing management tactics in integrated pest control. This chapter presents an overview of the main eucalyptus pests, detailing biology, injury, damage, monitoring and management.
This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. It has 14 sessions addressing the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods: (i) Accidental introductions of biocontrol agens: positive and negative aspects; (ii) The importance of pre and post release genetics in biological control; (iii) How well do we understand non-target impacts in arthropod biological control; (iv) Regulation and access and benefit sharing policies relevant for classical biological control approaches; (v) The role of native and alien natural enemy diversity in biological control; (vi) Frontiers in forest insect control; (vii) Biocontrol marketplace I; (viii) Weed and arthropod biological control: mutual benefits and challenges; (ix) Maximizing opportunities for biological control in Asia's rapidly changing agro-environments; (x) Biological control based integrated pest management: does it work?; (xi) Exploring the compatibility of arthropod biological control and pesticides: models and data; (xii) Successes and uptake of arthropod biological control in developing countries; (xiii) Socio-economic impacts of biological control; (xiv) Biocontrol marketplace II.
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The colony of C. albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) was established from larvae and adults colected in the "Estação para Pesquisa Parasitológica W.O. Neitz" area at UFRRJ and Seropedica District, Itaguai, Rio de Janeiro. (Latitude: 22º45'S; Longitude: 43º41'W and Altitude: 33 metres). The biological aspects of this species were studied in climatized chambers regulated at 60±10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The duration and the viability of the larval and pupal stages of C. albiceps was 5,2 and 4,53 days; 95,75% and 94%, respectively. An effect of group was observed on the larvae at the first and second instar. The average weight of mature larvae was around 75 mg, varying between 12,2 to 120 mg. Only mature larvae with average weight higher than 42 mg have originated adults. Oviposition peaks between the sixth and tenth days pos-emergence were observed. Survival curves of the males and females were estimated using the Weibull model.
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The rubber tree lacebug, Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor, was studied aiming to determine its thermal requirements, biology and the population fluctuation of nymphs and adults in rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müell Arg. Experiments were conducted in climatic chambers at 15°C, 20°C, 25°C, 27°C and 30°C using rubber tree seedlings clone RRIM 600 as host plant. The population fluctuation was obtained by sampling north and south sides of rubber trees clone PB 235, considering leaves of internal and external parts located in the top, middle and basal sections of the trees. The temperature of 15°C was inadequate for the embryonic development of L. heveae. The shortest lacebug pre-oviposition period was observed at the high temperatures of 27°C and 30ºC, however the female fecundity was not altered at the temperature gradient of 20°C to 30ºC. The estimated lower developmental thermal thresholds and thermal constants of the egg and nymphal phases and of the biological cycle were 11.5/141.4, 8.3/234.6 and 9.8°C/370.4 degree-day, respectively. A population peak of adults and nymphs occurred in 30/03/99; another peak of adults was also observed in 04/06/99 and nymphs in 19/10/99. The thermal requirements provided the prevision of thirteen generations of L. heveae from October/1998 to November/1999.
Baclozygum brachypterum sp. n. is described from Western Australia. The fifth instar nymphs of this species and of Thaumastocoris petilus Drake and Slater are described and compared with each other and with nymphs of other thaumastocorids. The taxonomic and phylogenetic significance of nymphal and adult characters of Thaumastocorinae and Xylastodorinae are considered. The feeding habits of thaumastocorids are discussed.
The genus Thaumastocoris is revised. Nine new species are described (T. busso, T. freomooreae, T. kalaako, T. majeri, T. nadeli, T. ohallorani, T. roy, T. safordi, and T. slateri) and the five previously described species are redescribed. A diagnostic key to species is provided, supported with illustrations of key character systems and maps depicting their distributional range. Host plants are tabulated, and biology and host plant associations are discussed.
THE INSECT THAUMASTOCORIS AUSTRALICUS Kirkaldy is reported from South Africa, where it probably is a recent arrival from Australia. The species was originally described from Queensland, but in recent years has taken on pest proportions on some local and planted Eucalyptus species in Sydney, New South Wales. In Gauteng province, South Africa, these gregarious, leaf-sucking bugs primarily infest introduced river red gum trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.), causing, or contributing to, discoloration of the leaves, dieback of branches or mortality of entire trees. Several other Eucalyptus species also serve as hosts for T. australicus and some are heavily infested and severely damaged. There are confirmed reports of their presence in Gauteng, Mpumalanga and North West provinces but they are possibly already widely distributed in South Africa. Their known distribution in Australia and the localities where they already thrive in South Africa suggest that few climatic regions in southern Africa would be unsuitable for the bugs. The mature and immature insects are of nuisance value and are irritating and hard to dislodge when they fall onto people from infested trees. The possible threats to forestry and beekeeping industries have not been evaluated, but are potentially severe. No effective control measures currently exist and no insecticides have been registered for use against the pest.
The area of intensively-managed eucalypt plantations in Australia is expanding and may increase more rapidly in the next decade. Some of the insect problems associated with these plantations are likely to be different and may even have a greater economic impact than those occurring in native forests. The attitudes of forest managers towards insect problems associated with eucalypt plantations are discussed. The limited knowledge of the ecology of eucalypt-feeding insects in Australia is highlighted and insect problems that have occurred, and those likely to occur in eucalypt plantations, are discussed. The integrated management approach to insect problems in eucalypt plantations is emphasised and important areas for research are identified.
Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé is a new pest of Eucalyptus in Sydney and southern South Africa and has recently arrived in Argentina. Recently another as yet undescribed species of this genus was discovered and is an emerging pest of Corymbia in Sydney. Laboratory studies were undertaken to elucidate life history parameters of both species such as instar duration, adult longevity and reproductive potential. At 17-22 °C the eggs of both species hatched in approximately six days. The duration of the five stadia were similar in both species: with T. peregrinus taking approximately 4.6, 3.5, 3.3, 3.7 and 5.3 days, while T. sp. 4.7, 3.4, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.2 days. The adult males and females of both Thaumastocoris spp. can live for approximately 40 days and females can produce at least 60 eggs during that time. The laying of virgin eggs is reported for this genus.