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We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtopodion from the coastal area of Bushehr Province in southern Iran based on morphometric and pholidotic data. Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. belongs to the agamuroides-group and the key characters to distinguish this species from all other members of the group are the lower number of ventrals and the extremely slender habitus with long and delicate legs. Resulting from pholidosis, the observed presence of sexual dimorphism, and distribu-tion we suggest a close relationship with C. gastropholis, which is also reviewed herein.
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22 Accepted by S. Carranza: 30 May 2011; published: 20 Jun. 2011
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 2924: 2232 (2011)
A new species of angular-toed gecko, genus Cyrtopodion (Squamata: Gekkoni-
dae), from southern Iran
Department of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.
C., Iran
Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany
FTEHCR (Farhang Torki Ecology and Herpetology Center for Research), 68319-16589, P. O. Box 68315-139, Nourabad City,
Lorestan Province, Iran
Corresponding author. E-mail:
We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtopodion from the coastal area of Bushehr Province in southern Iran based on
morphometric and pholidotic data. Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. belongs to the agamuroides-group and the key characters
to distinguish this species from all other members of the group are the lower number of ventrals and the extremely slender
habitus with long and delicate legs. Resulting from pholidosis, the observed presence of sexual dimorphism, and distribu-
tion we suggest a close relationship with C. gastropholis, which is also reviewed herein.
Key words: Cyrtopodion agamuroides-group, sexual dimorphism, taxonomy
The taxonomy of the species-rich genus Cyrtopodion Fitzinger, 1843 still is very unstable. Several groups have
been defined for the Iranian species (Anderson 1999) and are largely concordant to the described subgenera Cyr-
topodion, Mediodactylus and Tenuidactylus (Szczerbak and Golubev 1984, Böhme 1985, Kluge 1985). The most
important exception is the placement of C. agamuroides and C. gastropholis into an own group (named agamuroi-
des-group). These two species were even thought to be members of the genus Agamura (e.g. Minton 1966, Kluge
1991), which share the slender, long-legged habitus. Correspondingly, subsequent authors did not assign them to
any of the subgenera of Cyrtopodion, but listed them as incertae sedis (e.g. Sindaco and Jeremcenko 2008). Molec-
ular phylogenetics showed that Cyrtopodion is paraphyletic with respect to Agamura and Bunopus, and conse-
quently, Mediodactylus was elevated to full generic status (
ervenka et al. 2008) as already proposed by other
authors (Kluge 1991, Macey et al. 2000). Though the remaining taxa of Cyrtopodion are monophyletic, the rela-
tionships between the genus Agamura and the subgenera Cyrtopodion and Tenuidactylus, as well as the agamuroi-
des-group, are not yet resolved satisfactorily. Each of them represents a distinct clade within Cyrtopodion sensu
lato (
ervenka et al. 2008), which supports the isolated position of the agamuroides-group as realized by Anderson
(1999). Two recently described species—C. golubevi and C. persepolense—were assigned to the agamuroides-
group and it was assumed that this group is a large complex composed of eight to ten cryptic species not described
yet (Nazarov et al. 2009).
Here we describe a new Cyrtopodion species from a coastal area in southern Iran. This species clearly belongs
to the agamuroides-group as currently defined (Anderson 1999, Nazarov et al. 2009), adding a little more knowl-
edge to the presumably underestimated diversity of the Iranian gecko fauna in general and this group in particular.
Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 23
Material and methods
We examined a set of 13 morphometric, twelve meristic and three categorical characters and compared these char-
acters with specimens of C. gastropholis, including the type series (see appendix), and took the data given for C.
agamuroides, C. golubevi and C. persepolense by Nazarov et al. (2009) into account for our analyses. Specimens
were deposited in the herpetological collection of the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig in
Bonn, Germany (ZFMK) and in the private collection of F. Ahmadzadeh (FA).
The following characters were used for morphological analysis, abbreviations and measurement details are
given in parentheses: snout-vent length (SvL; from tip of the snout to cloaca), tail length (TaL; from cloaca to tip of
the tail, only measured when not partially or completely missing), head length (HeL; from tip of the snout to rear of
the skull), head width (HeW; at widest point), neck width (NeW; at narrowest point), snout length (SnL; from tip of
the snout to anterior margin of the orbit), orbit diameter (OrD; from anterior to posterior margin of orbit), ear length
(EaL; at widest point of the ear opening), orbit-ear distance (OeD; from posterior margin of the orbit to anterior
margin of the ear opening), length of upper forelimb (UfL; from shoulder to elbow), length of lower forelimb (LfL;
from elbow to carpus), length of upper hindlimb (UhL; from pelvis to knee), length of lower hindlimb (LhL; from
knee to heel). All measurements were taken with digital callipers to the nearest 0.1 mm by the second author.
For better comparison of the species, several ratios were calculated. These are head ratio (HeR; head width
divided by head length), neck ratio (NeR; neck width divided by head width), orbit ratio (OrR; orbit diameter
divided by snout length), forelimb ratio (FlR, sum of upper and lower forelimb length divided by snout-vent
length), and hindlimb ratio (HlR; analogous to FlR).
Meristic and categorical characters include number of transverse ventral scales (TVe; across midbody), number
of longitudinal ventral scales (LVe; between mental and cloaca), number of subdigital lamellae of fourth finger
(SLm), number of subdigital lamellae of fourth toe (SLp), number of active preanal pores (PPo; in males only),
number of postcloacal tubercles (CTu, both sides summarized), number of supralabials (SLa), number of infralabi-
als (ILa), number of internasals (INa; all scales between the nasals that border the rostral), number of postmentals
(PMe); number of transverse dorsal tubercles (DTu; across midbody), number of longitudinal rows of transversely
enlarged subcaudals (SCa), anterior pair of postmentals in contact (PMC), presence of enlarged femoral scales
(EFS), nasals swollen (NAS).
Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov.
(Figs. 1 to 5)
Holotype. ZFMK 91834 (field no. 138), adult male, collected 4.5 km SW of Nayband village at a distance of
approx. 300 m to coast of Persian Gulf, 27°21’9.5’’ N, 52°37’56.5’’ E, 108 m above sea level, Bushehr Province,
southern Iran, on 14 July 2007 by F. Ahmadzadeh.
Paratypes. ZFMK 91835 (field no. 190), adult female, same locality and collection data as the holotype;
ZFMK 91836, adult male, same locality as the holotype, collected on 30 June 2010 by F. Ahmadzadeh.
Other specimens. FA 1001, adult male, same locality as the holotype, collected on 30 June 2010 by F.
Diagnosis. A small and slender Cyrtopodion species of the agamuroides-group with angular-shaped toes and a
maximal snout-vent length of 46.9 mm. Limbs are very long and thin, so that knee and elbow—at least in males—
meet when pressed alongside the straightened body. The head width is less than two thirds of the head length and
the neck is about half as wide as the head, underlining the overall appearance, which is even more delicate than in
the other species of the agamuroides-group. The eyes are large in relation to the short snout, which is barely longer
than the diameter of the orbit (fig. 2). Due to the swollen nasals, the nostrils seem to be mounted. Postmentals are
distinctly larger than the posterior gular scales, whereas Agamura has small, indistinguishable postmentals. The
anterior pair of postmentals may be in contact or separated from each other by a diminutive median scale (fig. 2).
Ventrals are large, with ten to twelve scales transversely across midbody (fig. 3), which is less in number than in the
related species (14 to 18 in C. gastropholis, 22 to 28 in C. golubevi, 28 to 32 in C. persepolense, and 28 to 38 in C.
agamuroides). Longitudinally, there are 98 to 104 scales between the mental and the vent, which is at the upper end
of the variation observed within C. gastropholis and less than in the remaining species. Subdigital lamellae are not
24 · Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press
tuberculous as in Bunopus. Numbers under the fourth finger and fourth toe range from 22 to 24 and 25 to 28,
respectively. Males possess four active preanal pores (fig. 4), separating the species from C. agamuroides which
has only two. The subfemoral scales are larger than the surrounding scales, but no femoral pores or femoral tuber-
cles are developed, distinguishing it from all members of the subgenus Tenuidactylus. Dorsal tubercles are roundish
and equal to or larger than interspaces (versus trihedral and smaller than interspaces in the subgenus Cyrtopodion)
and arranged in nine rows along the back. The tail is whorled and distinct caudal tubercles are present, both charac-
ters further discriminating this species from Agamura. The tubercles form the terminal row of each whorl opposed
to being located in the middle of each whorl as in Mediodactylus. The subcaudal scalation is homogenous, a char-
acter practicable to distinguish all members of the agamuroides-group from the otherwise similar C. kirmanense
which has a heterogeneous scalation under the tail. Subcaudals are arranged in a single row of transversely
enlarged scales, as in C. gastropholis and C. golubevi, whereas, in C. persepolense the enlarged subcaudals are
bifurcated and form a double row. In contrast, C. agamuroides does not have distinctly enlarged subcaudals. A
comparison of the diagnostic characters of the agamuroides-group is shown in table 1.
TABLE 1. Comparison of diagnostic characters within the Cyrtopodion agamuroides-group. Character abbreviations as
explained in the text. Values given (except for the categorical characters) are mean value, standard deviation and range. Values
for C. golubevi, C. persepolense and C. agamuroides were calculated using the data presented by Nazarov et al. (2009).
kiabii gastropholis golubevi persepolense agamuroides
n4 10 9 11 3
SvL 44.2±2.4
HeR 0.615±0.019
NeR 0.536±0.029
OrR 0.960±0.011
FlR 0.465±0.013
HlR 0.613±0.038
TVe 11.0.8
LVe 101.5±2.5
SLm 22.8±1.0
SLp 26.5±1.3
PPo 4.0±0.0
SLa 11.8±0.3
ILa 9.4±0.5
DTu 9.0±0.0
SCa 1.0±0.0
PMC yes/no yes/no yes no yes/no
EFS yes yes yes no no
NAS yes yes yes no yes
Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 25
FIGURE 1. Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. in life.
FIGURE 2. Dorsal (a), lateral (b) and ventral (c) views of the head of the holotype of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. Scale bars
represent 2 mm.
Description of holotype. Snout-vent length 46.9 mm, tail length 46.3 mm with the distal 26 mm regenerated.
Forelimbs (measured from shoulder to carpus) are approximately half as long as the distance between snout and
vent and hindlimbs (measured from pelvic hinge to carpus) are two thirds of the snout-vent length. The head is 1.6
times longer than wide and twice as wide as the neck. The orbit is nearly as large as the snout length. The nostril is
26 · Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press
pierced just above the suture of the rostral and first labial, contacting both and further surrounded by three smaller
nasals. These scales around the nostril appear to be swollen. The rostral is large and has a long median groove from
its posterior end to nearly the tip of the snout. Three internasals are bordering posteriorly with the median one
being slightly embedded into the rostral groove. Numbers of supralabials total eleven and twelve on left and right
side, respectively; ten infralabials on each side. The mental shield is large and triangular to pentagonal, followed
posteriorly by three pairs of large postmentals, with the median pair divided from each other by a diminutive scale.
There are twelve ventrals transversely across midbody and 104 ventrals in a longitudinal median row between
mental and cloaca. 22 subdigital lamellae under the fourth finger and 26 under the fourth toe. The obviously adult
male specimen has four active preanal pores within very large scales, no femoral pores are present, but subfemoral
scales are enlarged. The scales directly behind the preanal pores are also larger than other surrounding scales. Two
postcloacal tubercles are located on each side of the base of the tail. Nine rows of dorsal tubercles run across the
middle of the back. These tubercles are roundish and often slightly keeled. The distance between tubercles is equal
to or larger than the size of the tubercles. The surface of the femur is also marked with round tubercles. Original tail
with one row of plate-like, transversely enlarged subcaudal scales, two of these per whorl. The dorsal and lateral
tail scalation is heterogeneous, small granular scales are mixed with larger, trihedral tubercles, the latter arranged in
rows consisting of six tubercles around the tail. The tubercles located in the terminal row of each whorl are the
most prominent.
FIGURE 3. Dorsal (a) and ventral (b) scalation of the holotype of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. and comparison of the ventral
scalation with the holotype of C. gastropholis (c). Scale bars represent 2 mm.
FIGURE 4. Anal region of the female paratype (a) and the male holotype (b) of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. Scale bars repre-
sent 2 mm.
Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 27
FIGURE 5. Dorsal views of the female paratype (left) male holotype (right) of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov., illustrating mor-
phometric differences between sexes. Scale bar represents 1 cm.
The dorsal colouration consists of a light, sandy brown ground with darker blotches on the back, which are
arranged in seven bands between neck and groin; limbs and original part of the tail with brown crossbars, which are
much more distinct in the latter. The ventral side is uniformly whitish coloured.
Variation. All paratypes and the additional specimen are generally similar to the holotype concerning morpho-
metrics, pholidosis and colouration. Notable variation of scale characters includes the internasals, which are only
two in number in all of these specimens in contrast to three in the holotype. The arrangement of the internasals is
not symmetrical, but rather one of the two scales is slightly enlarged and projecting into the rostral as does the
third, median internasal of the holotype. In ZFMK 91836 and FA 1001, the median pair of postmentals is bordering
each other and not divided by a diminutive scale. Ventrals are even less in the paratypes than in the holotype, rang-
ing from ten to eleven when counted transversely and from 98 to 102 when counted longitudinally. The female
paratype ZFMK 91835 differs in some morphometric characters: the head is relatively shorter and the neck rela-
tively wider than in the male types. Furthermore, the legs are slightly shorter (fig. 5). Complete measurements of
all specimens are presented in table 2.
28 · Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press
TABLE 2. Measurements for Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. Character abbreviations as explained in the text. Values for metric
characters are given in mm. Asterisk indicates regenerated tail.
Distribution. So far, the species is only known from the type locality.
Etymology. We name this new species in honour of Dr. Bahram Hassanzadeh Kiabi (Shahid Beheshti Univer-
sity of Tehran, Iran) to appreciate his indefatigable work as an ecologist who contributed greatly to the knowledge
of Persian wildlife.
Ecological notes. The collected specimens were found in two abandoned buildings, situated in a cliffy, but not
mountainous area approximately 100 m from the coast of the Persian Gulf (fig. 6). Activity was only observed dur-
ing night and we assume this species to be strictly nocturnal as Cyrtopodion species are in general. Sympatric liz-
ard and snake species comprise Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Hemidactylus persicus, Pristurus rupestris, Asaccus sp.,
Laudakia nupta, and Echis carinatus.
ZFMK 91834 ZFMK 91835 ZFMK 91836 FA 1001
holotype paratype paratype
sex male female male male
SvL46.945 43.541.3
HeW 8.1 7.9 7.5 7.3
NeW 4.2 4.5 3.8 4.0
SnL 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1
OrD 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.9
EaL 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2
OeD 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6
UfL 10.5 9.7 9.9 9.3
TVe 12 11 10 11
LVe 104 102 102 98
12 12
ILa 10 9 9
PMC no no yes yes
EFS yes yes yes yes
NAS yes yes yes yes
Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 29
FIGURE 6. Habitat of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov.
FIGURE 7. Distribution of Cyrtopodion kiabii sp. nov. (star) and C. gastropholis (circles). The blank circle marks the dubious
locality of the latter species discussed in the text. Names of single localities are as follows: Basht (1), Chahak (2), Bandar-e-
Gonaveh (3), Kazerun (4), Dalaki (5), Bushgan (6), Fasa (7), Khos Hangan (8), Nayband (9).
30 · Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press
We observed a sexual dimorphism in C. kiabii: males have a more slender body, a relatively longer head, a nar-
rower neck and slightly longer legs than the female. This is based on a single female available for examination.
Nevertheless, we consider it plausible, especially as the same dimorphism was also detected in a larger series of C.
gastropholis. At least for these two species, this does not affect the diagnostic quality of the characters, as differ-
ences between sexes are minor compared to differences between species. Apparently, this sexual dimorphism is not
present in C. golubevi and C. persepolense, but females of these two species seem to grow larger than males (com-
pare morphometric data given by Nazarov et al. 2009). However, some morphometric characters can be problem-
atic for the identification of juveniles, e.g. the overlap of the variation in the neck ratio of C. kiabii and C.
gastropholis (see table 2) is solely due to a juvenile specimen of C. gastropholis. There are no obvious differences
between sexes in scalation, except for the preanal pores, which are also present in females, but are less developed
and not active as in males (fig. 4). Probably owing to that circumstance, Szczerbak & Golubev (1996) erroneously
considered the holotype of C. gastropholis to be a male.
Bearing the findings on the phylogeny of Cyrtopodion inferred from molecular data (
ervenka et al. 2008) in
mind, we do not assign C. kiabii to any of the described subgenera of Cyrtopodion, but place it into the informal
agamuroides-group. The only autapomorphy of this group is the darkly pigmented peritoneum (Anderson 1999).
Nazarov et al. (2009) further characterize it by several morphometric traits and the relatively low number of prea-
nal pores. A key character to identify C. kiabii is the low number of large ventrals across midbody, which are
twelve or less. Otherwise, it can be distinguished from the remaining species of the agamuroides-group by having
more subdigital lamellae under the fourth finger and toe, and by a more slender habitus and relatively longer legs
(see table 1). Identification of the currently described members of this group is reliable even if one only compares a
set of two characters, namely the number of ventral scales across midbody and subcaudal scalation. Within the aga-
muroides-group, we suggest a close relationship of C. kiabii and C. gastropholis. This is based on distributional
proximity, the probably exclusive presence of sexual dimorphism, and – most notably – on pholidosis. Especially
the low numbers of both transversely and longitudinally counted ventral scales shared by these two species could
be considered as an autapomorphy.
As this character is crucial for identification, it is necessary to comment on a problem associated with C. gas-
tropholis. In the original description Werner (1917) counted ten ventral rows in the holotype and ten to 14 in the six
paratypes. As already noted by other authors (Wettstein 1951, Anderson 1999), this is below the actual numbers,
because Werner may have only considered the very large median ventrals. Unaware of the problematics associated
with the type series of C. agamuroides (Szczerbak and Golubev 1996, Nazarov et al. 2009), Wettstein (1951) syn-
onymized C. gastropholis with C. agamuroides solely based on the number of ventrals, which he by mistake
thought to be equal in both species. However, C. agamuroides possesses 28 or more ventrals and differs in further
characters (e.g. subcaudal scalation and number of preanal pores) from C. gastropholis and all other members of
the agamuroides-group (Nazarov et al. 2009). A re-examination of the type series of C. gastropholis showed that
typical C. gastropholis have 16 to 18 ventrals. We examined further material from Bushgan, Bushehr Province,
which could be identified as C. gastropholis and features a range of 14 to 17 transverse ventrals. Nazarov et al.
(2009) examined specimens of C. gastropholis from Basht, Kazerun and Fasa (all in Fars Province) with 16 to 19
Although not mentioned in the original description, Werners specimens originate from “between Kazerun-Shi-
raz-Persepolis” in Fars Province according to their label. Hence, the distributional range of C. gastropholis proba-
bly includes that of C. persepolense, but both species are clearly distinct in scalation. The most prominent
differences are the single row of subcaudals in C. gastropholis (versus two rows in C. persepolense), the lower
number of ventrals and the presence of enlarged subfemoral scales and swollen nasals in C. gastropholis.
The documented occurrence in Fars Province disproves the suggestion that the latter species might be restricted
to Bushehr Province (Leviton et al. 1992). In contrast, we would not be surprised, if the localities published for C.
gastropholis from the coastal plains of Bushehr Province (Anderson 1999,
ervenka et al. 2008, Frynta et al. 1997)
would actually refer to C. kiabii, as earlier authors might have been misguided by Werners original diagnosis. If
so, C. gastropholis would be restricted to the Zagros Mountains. The single record of C. gastropholis from Hor-
mozgan Province (
ervenka et al. 2008) is far to the east of the species’ known range. Most certainly, this repre-
sents another species and our assumption is supported by the phylogeny produced by the same study. Whether this
Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press · 31
species is C. kiabii or not remains unclear until further research is conducted. For now, we consider C. gastropholis
to occur at all the localities in question, as C. kiabii is only known with certainty from its type locality (fig. 7). Sim-
ilar cases might apply for the records of C. agamuroides from Fars Province, which should either turn out to be C.
persepolense or yet another new species.
Besides the puzzling taxonomy, another common error associated with C. gastropholis is the spelling “gastrop-
hole,” but since “gastropholis” (ancient greek, from gastron and pholis) obviously is a noun in apposition it must
not be conjugated.
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iháková, J., Sádlo, J., Hodková, Z., Kaftan, M., Kodym, P., Král, D., Pitule, V. & Šejna, V. (1997)
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252 pp.
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Minton, S.A. Jr. (1966) A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural His-
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from South Iran. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 16, 311–324.
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gekkonov (Reptilia, Gekkonidae, Tenuidactylus gen. n.). Vestnik Zoologii, 1984(2), 50–56. [in Russian with English
Szczerbak, N.N. & Golubev, M.L. (1996) Gecko Fauna of the USSR and Contiguous Regions. SSAR, 233 pp.
Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. (2008) The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, 579 pp.
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32 · Zootaxa 2924 © 2011 Magnolia Press
Besides the specimens of C. kiabii already mentioned in detail in the text, we examined material of C. gastropholis for compar-
ison (see table 3). This includes the type series, formerly in the collection of the Museum Göttingen, of which three para-
types are lost. Two specimens of C. gastropholis in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences (CAS 100472-
100473) have the same locality and collectors data as the types and may originate from that series. Unfortunately, we were
not able to examine these two specimens in the course of this work.
[Appendix] TABLE 3. Measurements for Cyrtopodion gastropholis. Character abbreviations as explained in the text. Values
for metric characters are given in mm.
FA 191
holotype paratype paratype paratype
between Kazerun-Shiraz-Persepolis Bushgan, Bushehr Province
sex female female female male female male female male juvenile female
SvL 49.2 47.4 42.6 47.8 44.7 50.0 49.5 31.8 46.6
HeL 13.0 13.2 12.6 12.8 12.5 12.0 12.8 13.1 9.3 11.8
HeW 9.1 9.1 8.9 8.3 9.0 8.5 9.2 9.4 6.3 8.4
NeW 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.8 4.9 6.8 6.0 3.4 6.0
SnL 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.6 4.4 5.0 4.9 3.4 4.4
OrD 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.0 3.8 4.1 4.2 3.1 3.5
EaL 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 0.9 1.3
OeD 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.5 3.5 2.1 3.1
UfL 10.3 10.4 9.9 10.5 9.6 8.5 10.3 9.8 6.3 8.5
LfL 8.9 9.2 9.3 10.2 9.2 7.9 9.6 9.8 5.7 8.6
UhL 12.5 13.1 11.5 12.3 11.8 11.8 12.7 12.4 8.1 11.7
LhL 12.6 11.3 12.2 11.6 11.6 11.5 11.9 12.6 8.2 11.4
LVe 93 101 96 94 94 99 100 84
SLm 20 18 18 22 21 20 22 21 20
PPo 4 –4–4––
CTu4 4 4 4 444444
12 12
ILa 9 9
9 999999
DTu 10 9 9 10 10 10 12 9 11
SCa1 1 111111
PMC yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes
EFS yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
NAS yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
... Description style follows Mirza et al. (2018) with some modifications. Comparison with congeners was made with data available in the literature (Ahmadzadeh et al. 2011;Baig 1998;Duda & Sahi 1978;Khan 1988Khan , 1991Khan , 2003Khan & Tasnim 1990;Nazarov et al. 2012). ...
Cyrtopodion aravallense (Gill, 1997) is a poorly known species, known only from the holotype and original description. I reexamined the holotype housed in the museum of Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai and find some discrepancies between the original description and the holotype. Here, I redescribe the holotype of C. aravallense in greater detail and provide a revised diagnosis of the species. It is distinguished from all its congeners in having enlarged, regularly arranged transverse rows of 15 trihedral tubercles; 25-26 midbody scale rows across belly; 102 midventral scales; males with 6 precloacal pores, 7-8 femoral pores on each side separated by 3-5 poreless scales between precloacal and femoral pores.
... During the last few years many new invertebrate (Moradmand & Jager 2011;Esmaeili-Rineh et al. 2016;Malek hosseini et al. 2016;Mirshamsi et al. 2016;Moradmand et al. 2016) and vertebrate taxa (Rastegar-Pouyani 1996;Rastegar-Pouyani et al. 2006;Ahmadzadeh et al. 2011;Fathinia et al. 2011;Kazemi et al. 2011;Rajabizadeh et al. 2011;Torki et al. 2011a,b;Rajabizadeh et al. 2012;Nazarov et al. 2009;Nazarov et al. 2012;Gholamifard et al. 2016;Rajabizadeh et al. 2016;Safaei-Mahroo et al. 2016) have been described along one side, or at both sides of the Zagros Mountains range. To understand the causes of these speciation processes along the Zagros range one should bear in mind different scenarios affected by geological, orogenic, vicariant and glacial events. ...
A new colubrid snake, Rhynchocalamus ilamensis sp. nov., is described from Ilam province, western Iran. The new species differs from other described congeners using both morphological and molecular analyses. Morphologically, the head and neck color patterns are the most obvious distinguishing traits of this species from its congeners. The new species is separated from other species of Rhynchocalamus by a genetic distance of 9–13% in the mitochondrial Cytb gene, with R. satunini and R. melanocephalus as the closest and farthest relatives, respectively. As well, a color-based revised key to the genus is provided.
... In the present paper, an up-to-date identification key on the lizards of Iran is presented. Since then two families (including Sphaerodactylidae and Phyllodactylidae), seven genera (including Paralaudakia, Saara, Pseudoceramodactylus, Microgecko, Tenuidactylus, Mediodactylus and Parsigecko) and 26 species (Phrynocephalus ahvazicus, Ophiomorus maranjabensis, Eremias isfahanica, Eremias kopetdaghica, Eremias papenfussi, Eremias suphani, Eremias scripta, Acanthodactylus cantoris, Darevskia kopetdaghica, Darevskia schaekeli, Darevskia caspica, Darevskia kami, Asaccus iranicus, Asaccus zagrosicus, Asaccus granularis, Asaccus andersoni, Rhinogekko femoralis, Tropiocolotes naybandensis, Cyrtopodion hormozganum, Cyrtopodion golubevi, Cyrtopodion kiabii, Cyrtopodion persepolense, Mediodactylus ilamensis, Mediodactylus stevenandersoni, Microgecko chabaharensis, Varanus nesterovi) have been described, elevated, resurrected or added to the fauna of Iran (Gamble et al.a,b 2008;Böhme et al. 2009 andTorki ,2010 andNazarov et al. a, b 2010;Rajabizadeh 2010;Torki et al. a,b 2011;Fujita and Papenfuss 2011;Mozaffari et al. 2011;Fathinia et al. 2011 andMelnikov et al. 2011;Ahmadzadeh et al. 2011Ahmadzadeh et al. , 2012Ahmadzadeh et al. and 2013Haidari et al. 2012;Baig et al. (2012); Bauer et al. 2013;Wilms et al. 2013;Bahmani et al. 2014;Rastegar-Pouyani et al. 2015 andGholamifard et al. 2016;Safaei-Mahroo et al. 2016;Maleki & Anderson 2015). ...
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During recent years several lizard taxa have been added to the faunal list of Iran. Descriptions and new records are scattered in different publications in the herpetological literature. We here present species accounts for 152 species belonging to 43 genera and 10 families up to July 2016. The most diverse family is Lacertidae with 9 genera, 49 species and 2 subspecies, followed by Gekkonidae with 13 genera and 43 species, Agamidae with 5 genera, 18 species and 4 subspecies, Scincidae with 7 genera, 18 species and 2 subspecies, Phyllodactylidae with 1 genus and 10 species, Sphaerodactylidae with 2 genera and 4 species, Varanidae with 1 genus, 3 species and 2 subspecies, Uromastycidae with 2 genera and 3 species, Eublepharidae with 1 genus and 3 species, and Anguidae with 2 genera and 2 species. The current paper provides a dichotomous key including all of the currently recognized lizards of Iran.
We describe a new species of naked-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtopodion Fitzinger, 1843, from the Dahod and Panchmahal districts of Gujarat state, India. The new species is diagnosable by the following suite of characters: a medium-sized Cyrtopodion (adult, snout to vent length up to 50 mm); dorsal scalation on trunk granular, intermixed with enlarged, regularly arranged transverse rows of 15 trihedral tubercles; 6 transverse rows of tubercles on the second segment of the tail; midbody scale rows across belly 20-22; midventral scales 89-97; males with a continuous series of 29-33 precloacal-femoral pores. The new species, Cyrtopodion vindhya sp. nov. is the fifth endemic species of reptile described in the last 15 years from the state of Gujarat that highlights the rich and unique diversity of this understudied region.
Acanthodactylus boskianus is a widespread species in Northern Africa and Western Asia. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to study populations of A. boskianus from the Zagros Mountains in western Iran, the easternmost limit of the species' distribution. Our morphological and genetic data indicate that populations of A. boskianus in Iran are distinct from other populations of A. boskianus. Therefore, we describe the Iranian populations as Acanthodactylus zagrosicus sp. nov. The new species is the third endemic species of Acanthodactylus in Iran and the ninth Acanthodactylus species distributed in Iran overall. According to our surveys, this species is distributed widely in the Zagros Mountains including Kermanshah, Lorestan, Ilam, and Khuzestan Provinces.
A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard is described from the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. The genus Lakigecko gen.n. can be distinguished from other genera of the Middle East by the combination of the following characters: depressed tail, strongly flattened head and body, eye ellipsoid (more horizontal), and approximately circular whorls of tubercles (strongly spinose and keeled).
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During past years different studies have attempted to describe the tetrapod fauna of Iran, most of which have focused on the herpetofauna. However there is no coherent study of the endemic species of Tetrapoda in Iran. In this study, we provide a list of endemic species of Tetrapoda in Iran, mention their habitat, distribution, their conservation status (IUCN) and important biological note. Eighty endemic species of Tetrapoda occur in Iran, of which 82.50% are reptiles. Thirty-eight species (47.50% of total endemic species of Tetrapoda) have no submitted data to IUCN; of which 35 species are reptiles. Additional studies are needed to provide data about the conservation status of tetrapod fauna of Iran, especially the endemic fauna.
The genus Agamura was previously known from four species occurring on the Iranian Plateau, but was recently revised as a monotypic genus that excluded three species. In the present study, we examined different populations of Agamura persica morphologically. We found that A. persica shows geographic variation with respect to two groups, with the eastern population considered as A. cruralis and A. persica proposed for the western population. Separation between the two populations of A. persica was verified based upon ANOVA results for many morphological characters, including Head Height (HH), Interorbital distance (IO), Forelimb length (FLL), Number of scales across widest part of abdomen (NSA), Loreal scales (LOS), and Number of scales that separate two adjacent tubercles (NTV). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) based on metric and meristic characters confirmed the revision of the genus Agamura. Multivariate analysis indicated that all studied OTUs were assigned to the correct classification and have significantly different morphological characters.
Aim Lizards are ancestrally diurnal, and most of them remain so. Nocturnality is common among lizards, but the environmental factors associated with lizard nocturnal activity are still unknown. Here, we contrasted the ambient temperature and productivity hypotheses, where we predicted that cold temperatures will pose a stonger limit to nocturnal species richness than diurnal lizards. Moreover, we contrasted the relative importance of annual, day and night mean temperatures to pinpoint the drivers of nocturnal lizard richness. Location Mainland Eurasia. Methods We collected distribution range and activity time data for all 1,113 lizard species found throughout mainland Eurasia. This represents the largest geographical scope to date, for studies of lizard species richness. We examined the spatial patterns of nocturnal species richness in relationship to diurnal species richness across environmental gradients of ambient temperature and productivity. Results Nocturnal lizards are richest in the tropics and in deserts, and their richness decreases with latitude. However, nocturnal lizards are absent from the highest latitudes and coldest regions inhabited by lizards. Diurnal and nocturnal lizards respond in a similar manner to climatic factors. Ambient temperature has a strong influence on both, whereas productivity is more tightly related to the proportion of nocturnal species. Main conclusions Nocturnality is widespread among Eurasian lizards. However, nocturnal lizards are absent from invariably cold regions, and low temperatures seem to be a limiting factor for lizard activity period. We suggest that the year‐round warm nights of the tropics reduce the cost of being active at night and open the nocturnal niche for many lizards. In hot deserts, the combination of hot days and aridity increases the cost of diurnal activity, whereas nocturnal activity provides a shelter from these extreme conditions.
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The phylogenetic relationships of geckos formerly regarded as Cyrtodactylus are estimated using allozymic data from 18 loci. Three genera are used as potential outgroup taxa, Gekko, Nactus, and Teratoscincus (three species). Allozymic data are coded in two ways for phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic analysis of the data, when coded for the presence or absence of alleles, produces a robust phylogenetic hypothesis depicting sampled species of Cyrtopodion and Mediodactylus as separate monophyletic groups. A similar topology is recovered from analysis of the data when allele combinations are coded as character states and step matrices are used. Full generic status of Cyrtopodion and Mediodactylus is recommended. Mediodactylus russowi from the Ili River Valley of Kazakhstan and the Junggar Depression of China may represent a distinct species, based on a number of fixed and frequency differences when compared with Mediodactylus russowi from the Kara Kum Desert of Turkmenistan, but further work is needed. Phylogenetic relationships within Cyrtopodion and Mediodactylus suggest hypotheses of area relationships for the fauna of Central Asia.
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Two new species of Cyrtopodion genus belonging to «agamuroides – gastrophole» group are described from South Iran. The first one, Cyrtopodion golubevi sp. nov., was collected in Sistan-Baluchestan Province in South-East Iran. This species is different from other Iranian Cyrtopodion sensu lato by size, coloration and pholidosis characters, and similar to C. gastrophole in several characters (enlarged subcaudal plates, less number of ventral scales at midbody). The second species, Cyrtopodion persepolense sp. nov. is originated from Fars Province in South-West Iran and closely resembles C. gastrophole but differs by subcaudal scalation: lack of enlarged median series of subcaudal plates and higher number of scales across the middle of belly (26 – 35 vs. 16 – 18).
A review is given of the tortuous history of the name Gonydactylus Kuhl and Van Hasselt, 1822. It is concluded that the name is invalid. Goniodactylus and Gonyodactylus are unjustified emendations. As type-species Cyrtodactylus pulchella Gray, 1827, is selected, making Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827, a junior objective synonym and protecting Tarentola Gray, 1825. A lectotype for Cyrtodactylus marmorata Gray, 1831, is designated. The nomenclatural consequences of the subgeneric division of Cyrtopodion Fitzinger, 1843, are examined.
Representatives of the gekkonid genus Cyrtopodion and related genera form a highly diversified group of Palearctic geckos, whose taxonomy is still unstable and phylogeny little known. This study tries to improve this situation by attempting to reconstruct the phylogeny based on two molecular markers (partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes) in the Middle Eastern species of the genus Cyrtopodion and members of the genera Agamura and Bunopus. The results support the monophyly of the species groups within the genus Cyrtopodion as defined by Anderson (1999), but relationships between these groups remain largely unresolved. The kotschyi group (= subgenus Mediodactylus) is not closely related to the rest of the genus Cyrtopodion and should be treated as an autonomous genus. Agamura persica forms a monophyletic group with agamuroides + caspium + scabrum species groups. The genus Bunopus does not seem to be closely related to this clade. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings and stress the importance of further molecular studies in Palearctic geckos.
Zur Nomenklatur der paläarktischen Bogenfingergeckos, Gattung Tenuidactylus Szczerbak & GolubevReptilia: Gekkonidae) Bonner zoologische Beiträge Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Middle Eastern geckos of the genus Cyrtopo-dion and their selected relatives
  • W Böhme
Böhme, W. (1985) Zur Nomenklatur der paläarktischen Bogenfingergeckos, Gattung Tenuidactylus Szczerbak & Golubev 1984 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Bonner zoologische Beiträge, 36, 95–98. Červenka, J., Kratochvíl, L. & Frynta, D. (2008) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Middle Eastern geckos of the genus Cyrtopo-dion and their selected relatives. Zootaxa, 1931, 25–36
Reptilien aus Persien (Provinz Fars) Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien
  • F Werner
Werner, F. (1917) Reptilien aus Persien (Provinz Fars). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 67, 191–220.
Ergebnisse der österreichischen Iran-Expedition 1949–50 Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung 1 TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private
  • O Wettstein
Wettstein, O. (1951) Ergebnisse der österreichischen Iran-Expedition 1949–50. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung 1, 160, 427–448. TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited.