Lamin A Ser404 Is a Nuclear Target of Akt Phosphorylation in C2C12 Cells

Department of Anatomy and Histology and CIPro Proteomics Centre, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Del Pozzo 71, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 4.25). 10/2008; 7(11):4727-35. DOI: 10.1021/pr800262g
Source: PubMed


Akt/PKB is a central activator of multiple signaling pathways coupled with a large number of stimuli. Although both localization and activity of Akt in the nuclear compartment are well-documented, most Akt substrates identified so far are located in the cytoplasm, while nuclear substrates have remained elusive. A proteomic-based search for nuclear substrates of Akt was undertaken, exploiting 2D-electrophoresis/MS in combination with an anti-Akt phosphosubstrate antibody. This analysis indicated lamin A/C as a putative substrate of Akt in C2C12 cells. In vitro phosphorylation of endogenous lamin A/C by recombinant Akt further validated this result. Moreover, by phosphopeptide analysis and point mutation, we established that lamin A/C is phosphorylated by Akt at Ser404, in an evolutionary conserved Akt motif. To delve deeper into this, we raised an antibody against the lamin A Ser404 phosphopeptide which allowed us to determine that phosphorylation of lamin A Ser404 is triggered by the well-known Akt activator insulin, and is therefore to be regarded as a physiological response. Remarkably, expression of S404A lamin A in primary cells from healthy tissue caused the nuclear abnormalities that are a hallmark of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) cells. Indeed, it is known that mutations at several sites in lamin A/C cause autosomal dominant EDMD. Very importantly, we show here that Akt failed to phosphorylate lamin A/C in primary cells from an EDMD-2 patient with lamin A/C mutated in the Akt consensus motif. Together, our data demonstrate that lamin A/C is a novel signaling target of Akt, and implicate Akt phosphorylation of lamin A/C in the correct function of the nuclear lamina.

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Available from: Alberto Bavelloni
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    • "For instance, Kuga developed monoclonal antibodies against five specific phosphorylation sites (Thr-14, Ser-17, Ser-385, Ser-387, and Ser-401) of lamin B2 and used these antibodies to study dynamic changes at these phospho-sites in lamin B2/B1 throughout the cell cycle [31]. However, only a few phosphoepitope-specific antibodies against lamin A/C, including those against phospho-Ser-22, phospho-Ser-392, phospho-Ser-404 [8], and phospho-Ser-458 [30], have been reported, although the antibody raised against the phospho-Ser-17 of lamin B2 should also be included since it recognizes the homologous residue (phospho-Ser-22) in lamin A/C [31]. Our current study demonstrates that the P-STM antibody represents a useful tool for investigating the Thr-19 phosphorylation of lamin A/C in living cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lamins A and C, two major structural components of the nuclear lamina that determine nuclear shape and size, are phosphoproteins. Phosphorylation of lamin A/C is cell cycle-dependent and is involved in regulating the assembly--disassembly of lamin filaments during mitosis. We previously reported that P-STM, a phosphoepitope-specific antibody raised against the autophosphorylation site of p21-activated kinase 2, recognizes a number of phosphoproteins, including lamins A and C, in mitotic HeLa cells. Here, using recombinant proteins and synthetic phosphopeptides containing potential lamin A/C phosphorylation sites in conjunction with in vitro phosphorylation assays, we determined the lamin A/C phosphoepitope(s) recognized by P-STM. We found that phosphorylation of Thr-19 is required for generating the P-STM phosphoepitope in lamin A/C and showed that it could be created in vitro by p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase (CDK1)-catalyzed phosphorylation of lamin A/C immunoprecipitated from unsynchronized HeLa S3 cells. To further explore changes in lamin A/C phosphorylation in living cells, we precisely quantified the phosphorylation levels of Thr-19 and other sites in lamin A/C isolated from HeLa S3 cells at interphase and mitosis using the SILAC method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that the levels of phosphorylated Thr-19, Ser-22 and Ser-392 in both lamins A and C, and Ser-636 in lamin A only, increased ~2- to 6-fold in mitotic HeLa S3 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that P-STM is a useful tool for detecting Thr-19-phosphorylated lamin A/C in cells and reveal quantitative changes in the phosphorylation status of major lamin A/C phosphorylation sites during mitosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · BMC Biochemistry
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    • "It was also suggested that phosphorylation could regulate lamin binding to chromatin [34]. In mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 lamin A is phosphorylated at S404 by Akt kinase in response to insulin [35]. Phosphorylation of human lamin A (S392) and B1 (S393) by cdk5 kinase can directly cause neuronal cell death observed in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lamins' functions are regulated by phosphorylation at specific sites but our understanding of the role of such modifications is practically limited to the function of cdc 2 (cdk1) kinase sites in depolymerization of the nuclear lamina during mitosis. In our study we used Drosophila lamin Dm (B-type) to examine the function of particular phosphorylation sites using pseudophosphorylated mutants mimicking single phosphorylation at experimentally confirmed in vivo phosphosites (S(25)E, S(45)E, T(435)E, S(595)E). We also analyzed lamin C (A-type) and its mutant S(37)E representing the N-terminal cdc2 (mitotic) site as well as lamin Dm R(64)H mutant as a control, non-polymerizing lamin. In the polymerization assay we could observe different effects of N-terminal cdc2 site pseudophosphorylation on A- and B-type lamins: lamin Dm S(45)E mutant was insoluble, in contrast to lamin C S(37)E. Lamin Dm T(435)E (C-terminal cdc2 site) and R(64)H were soluble in vitro. We also confirmed that none of the single phosphorylation site modifications affected the chromatin binding of lamin Dm, in contrast to the lamin C N-terminal cdc2 site. In vivo, all lamin Dm mutants were incorporated efficiently into the nuclear lamina in transfected Drosophila S2 and HeLa cells, although significant amounts of S(45)E and T(435)E were also located in cytoplasm. When farnesylation incompetent mutants were expressed in HeLa cells, lamin Dm T(435)E was cytoplasmic and showed higher mobility in FRAP assay.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Phosphorylation of lamins at S404 is specifically triggered by Akt in the PI3-kinase insulin pathway and it has been implicated in proper nuclear lamina organization [Cenni et al., 2008]. Interestingly , the EDMD2 LMNA R401C mutation, within the Akt consensus site of lamin A, reduces protein phosphorylation [Cenni et al., 2008]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Laminopathies are genetic diseases due to mutations or altered post-translational processing of nuclear envelope/lamina proteins. The majority of laminopathies are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, encoding lamin A/C, but manifest as diverse pathologies including muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, neuropathy, and progeroid syndromes. Lamin-binding proteins implicated in laminopathies include lamin B2, nuclear envelope proteins such as emerin, MAN1, LBR, and nesprins, the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3, the lamina-associated polypeptide, LAP2alpha and the transcriptional regulator FHL1. Thus, the altered functionality of a nuclear proteins network appears to be involved in the onset of laminopathic diseases. The functional interplay among different proteins involved in this network implies signaling partners. The signaling effectors may either modify nuclear envelope proteins and their binding properties, or use nuclear envelope/lamina proteins as platforms to regulate signal transduction. In this review, both aspects of lamin-linked signaling are presented and the major pathways so far implicated in laminopathies are summarized.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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