Serum Iron, Copper and Zinc status in maternal and cord blood

Department of Biochemistry, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, India.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2004; 19(2):48-52. DOI: 10.1007/BF02894257
Source: PubMed


Pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients like Iron, Copper, Zinc etc. and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and out come of pregnancy. With this consideration, the study was conducted on 80 mothers and newborns and 20 age matched control women. Out of 80 mothers, 34 had Iron deficiency anemia and their Hb levels were below 9.0 gm/d(1). Pregnant women had significantly lower Iron and Zinc levels while Copper and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) were significantly higher (P<0.001). Newborns had significantly elevated Iron and Zinc levels and low levels of Copper and TIBC as compared to their mothers irrespective of Iron deficiency anemia. Micronutrient status of newborn was found to be dependent on their mother's micronutrient status. Besides, results also suggest micronutrient interactions, which are reflected in Iron/Zinc, Iron/Copper and Zinc/Copper ratios. In view of this, there is need for proper, adequate and balanced micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to affect a healthy outcome.

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    • "During pregnancy, there is a decline in circulating Zn and this increases as the pregnancy progresses possibly due to decrease in Zn binding and increased transfer of Zn from the mother to the fetus.[20] Zn is essential for proper growth of fetus and the fall in Zn during pregnancy could also be a physiological response to expanded maternal blood volume.[21] "
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    ABSTRACT: In developing countries, nutritional deficiency of essential trace elements is a common health problem, particularly among pregnant women because of increased requirements of various nutrients. Accordingly, this study was initiated to compare trace elements status in women with or without pre-eclampsia. In this study, serum trace elements including zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 60 patients and 60 healthy subjects. There was no significant difference in the values of Cu between two groups (P > 0.05). A significant difference in Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were observed between patients with pre-eclampsia and control group (P < 0.001, P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were found to be 76.49 ± 17.62 μg/ dl, 8.82 ± 2.10 μg/ dl, 8.65 ± 2.14 mg/dl and 1.51 ± 0.34 mg/dl in Pre-eclamptic cases, and these values were found statistically lower compared to the controls (100.61 ± 20.12 μg/dl, 10.47 ± 2.78 μg/dl, 9.77 ± 3.02 mg/dl and 1.78 ± 0.27 mg/dl, respectively). While Cu levels were 118.28 ± 16.92 and 116.55 ± 15.23 μg/dl in the patients and the healthy subjects, respectively. In addition, no significant difference was found between two groups with respect to Hemoglobin Concentration (HbC) and Total White Blood Cell Count (TWBC) (P>0.05). Our findings indicate that the levels of Zn, Se, Ca and Mg are significantly altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. This research shows that these deficiencies can not due to hemodilution.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of research in medical sciences
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    • "Pregnancy has been associated with increased demands of all nutrients including copper and zinc and deficiency of any of these could affect the course and outcomes of pregnancy (Upadhyaya et al., 2004). Although no study has identified the role of copper deficiency in pregnancy-induced hypertension, of copper or zinc was associated with adverse significantly higher prevalence of hypertension i n pregnancy outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially during pregnancy have been identified as important public health problem especially in economically disadvantaged settings. To determine the effect of maternal deficiencies of copper and zinc on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant Nigerians, 349 pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27.04±2.75 years) recruited at gestational age of < 25 week (mean; 21.8±3.14 wks) were evaluated for plasma copper and zinc using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The women were followed-up till delivery during which maternal morbidity and foetal outcomes were recorded. Both maternal sociodemographic and obstetric data were obtained by questionnaire. One hundred and sixty (45.8%) women were zinc deficient (mean = 2.65±1.16 μmol/l), 58.2% were deficient in copper (mean = 3.26±1.80 μmol/l), 23.8% were deficient in both copper and zinc while 18.6% were not deficient in either copper or zinc. There was comparative prevalence of illness in copper-deficient and copper-adequate mothers, except for hypertension which was significantly (p = 0.021) higher in the former. Significantly (p = 0.026) higher proportion of zinc adequate pregnant women suffered upper respiratory tract infections and malaria when compared with their zinc deficient counterparts. However, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in mothers who were zinc deficient. Both plasma copper and zinc status had no significant effect on foetal outcome. The reason for the lack of effect of copper and zinc deficiencies on foetal outcomes in the presence of adverse maternal outcomes remained unknown.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of various trace elements are altered during pregnancy with changes in the mother’s physiology and the requirements of growing fetus. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to learn the changes of micronutrients Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn) Magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) of pregnant woman and their relations with newborns levels. Serum levels of iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium and copper of 162 pregnant women and their newborns were determined by an inductively couple plasma mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). The results showed that majority (41 %) of pregnant women were in age group 26–36 years 55 % had high school and diploma levels of education and the total income ranged between 3 and 5 Rials million per month There was significant difference in iron levels during first, second and third trimesters, 76.0 ± 17.8, 63.5 ± 15.2 and 70.1 ± 14.4 μg/dl respectively. Significant difference was shown in zinc levels 79.5 ± 15, 74.5 ± 16.1, and 65.3 ± 14.9 μg/dl during three trimesters. Copper levels during pregnancy were significantly different (130.9 ± 43.5, 172.0 ± 38.94, 193.2 ± 28.5 μg/dl. The serum levels of calcium and magnesium during pregnancy were constant (Ca: 8.96 ± 0.48, 8.86 ± 0.47, 8.91 ± 0.42 mg/dl and Mg: 2.10 ± 0.21, 2.08 ± 0.28, 2.09 ± 0.29 mg/dl). Results showed that 13 % of pregnant women had hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia. Thirty eight percent and 42 % of pregnant women had iron and zinc deficiency respectively. In this study, unlike zinc, no pregnant women were found deficient in serum copper levels. Calcium, iron, zinc, copper and magnesium levels in the newborn’s cord blood were 8.93 ± 0.43, 106.0 ± 26.1, 85.35 ± 16.6, 57.04 ± 13.8 and 1.99 ± 0.27 mg/dl respectively. In the present study the levels of iron and zinc in cord blood were higher than the levels of iron and zinc in maternal serum. The mean level of copper in cord blood serum in the current study was lower than maternal values. The mean serum calcium and magnesium in the serum cord blood and in the serum of the pregnant women were similar.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
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