Management of Nutritional Rickets in Indian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital and Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.26). 10/2012; 59(2). DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fms058
Source: PubMed


Introduction: Rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. However, recent studies have implicated dietary calcium deficiency in its etiology. Information on relative efficacy of calcium, vitamin D or both together in healing of rickets is limited.Objective: To study effect of treatment with calcium, vitamin D or a combination of these two on healing of nutritional rickets in young children.Design: Randomized controlled trial.Methods: Sixty-seven cases of nutritional rickets in the age group of 6 months to 5 years were randomly allocated to receive vitamin D (600 000 IU single intramuscular dose), calcium (75 mg/kg/day elemental calcium orally) or a combination of the above two for a period of 12 weeks. The demographic parameters, nutritional status, dietary calcium and phytate intake were assessed for all. Radiographs (wrist and knee) and biochemical parameters (serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and parathyroid hormone) were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks for evidence of healing.Results: Mean dietary intake of calcium in all cases was low (204 ± 129 mg/day). Mean serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol D level was 15.9 ± 12.4 ng/ml, and 82.1% of patients had serum vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, indicative of vitamin D deficiency. After 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, radiological and biochemical evidence of healing rickets was observed in all treatment groups, albeit to a variable extent. The combined end point of normal serum alkaline phosphatase and complete radiological healing at 12 weeks was observed in 50% subjects on combination therapy as compared with 15.7% subjects on vitamin D alone and 11.7% on calcium alone.Conclusions: Children with rickets had a low serum vitamin D level and a low dietary calcium intake. The best therapeutic response was seen with a combination of vitamin D and calcium than either of them given alone.Trial registration number: CTRI/2010/091/000448.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Methods: Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. Results: No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Conclusion: Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets.
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