Mechanism of 5′ Topoisomerase II DNA adduct repair by mammalian Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2)

Laboratory of Structural Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, US National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, North Carolina, USA.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 13.31). 10/2012; 19(12). DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.2418
Source: PubMed


The topoisomerase II (topo II) DNA incision-and-ligation cycle can be poisoned (for example following treatment with cancer chemotherapeutics) to generate cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with topo II covalently conjugated to DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) protects genomic integrity by reversing 5'-phosphotyrosyl-linked topo II-DNA adducts. Here, X-ray structures of mouse Tdp2-DNA complexes reveal that Tdp2 β-2-helix-β DNA damage-binding 'grasp', helical 'cap' and DNA lesion-binding elements fuse to form an elongated protein-DNA conjugate substrate-interaction groove. The Tdp2 DNA-binding surface is highly tailored for engagement of 5'-adducted single-stranded DNA ends and restricts nonspecific endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic processing. Structural, mutational and functional analyses support a single-metal ion catalytic mechanism for the exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase (EEP) nuclease superfamily and establish a molecular framework for targeted small-molecule blockade of Tdp2-mediated resistance to anticancer topoisomerase drugs.

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Available from: R. Scott Williams, Jun 11, 2014
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    • "Both enzymes share specific amino acid motifs bearing some of the catalytic residues (Table 1). Moreover, the scissile phosphate in TDP2 is located identically to that in APE1, but the sugar and base are on the opposite side of the phosphodiester (Fig. 2C) [77] [78]. In other words, TDP2 does not flip out the nucleotide, unlike APE1. "
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    ABSTRACT: To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure twice these nucleases act as molecular level transformers that typically reshape the DNA and sometimes themselves to achieve extraordinary specificity and efficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · DNA repair
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    • "In contrast to the viral RNA isolated from virions, the ‘clicked’ VPg was not released from the RNA by the TDP2 enzyme in the in vitro unlinkase assay (Figure 3F). Most likely, the absence of the aromatic ring adjacent to the phosphodiester bond, which plays an important role in ligand recognition by TDP2 (37–39), results in the ‘non-cleavable’ linkage. However, as result of the low sensitivity of the dot blot analysis, we were unable to confirm the presence of VPg following transfection of cells with modified genomic RNA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. A unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (VPg) as primer for viral RNA synthesis. As a consequence, all newly formed viral RNA molecules possess a covalently linked VPg peptide. It is known that VPg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral RNA by a host protein, called TDP2, but it is still unclear whether the release of VPg is necessary to initiate RNA translation. To study the possible requirement of VPg release for RNA translation, we developed a novel method to modify the genomic viral RNA with VPg linked via a 'non-cleavable' bond. We coupled an azide-modified VPg peptide to an RNA primer harboring a cyclooctyne [bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN)] by a copper-free 'click' reaction, leading to a VPg-triazole-RNA construct that was 'non-cleavable' by TDP2. We successfully ligated the VPg-RNA complex to the viral genomic RNA, directed by base pairing. We show that the lack of VPg unlinkase does not influence RNA translation or replication. Thus, the release of the VPg from the incoming viral RNA is not a prerequisite for RNA translation or replication.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and persistence are sustained by a nuclear episome, the covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, which serves as the transcriptional template for all viral RNAs. CCC DNA is converted from a relaxed circular (RC) DNA in the virion early during infection as well as from RC DNA in intracellular progeny nucleocapsids via an intracellular amplification pathway. Current antiviral therapies suppress viral replication but cannot eliminate CCC DNA. Thus, persistence of CCC DNA remains an obstacle toward curing chronic HBV infection. Unfortunately, very little is known about how CCC DNA is formed. CCC DNA formation requires removal of the virally encoded reverse transcriptase (RT) protein from the 5' end of the minus strand of RC DNA. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-2 (Tdp2) was recently identified as the enzyme responsible for cleavage of tyrosyl-5' DNA linkages formed between topoisomerase II and cellular DNA. Because the RT-DNA linkage is also a 5' DNA-phosphotyrosyl bond, it has been hypothesized that Tdp2 might be one of several elusive host factors required for CCC DNA formation. Therefore, we examined the role of Tdp2 in RC DNA deproteination and CCC DNA formation. We demonstrated Tdp2 can cleave the tyrosyl-minus strand DNA linkage using authentic HBV RC DNA isolated from nucleocapsids and using RT covalently linked to short minus strand DNA produced in vitro. On the other hand, our results showed that Tdp2 gene knockout did not block CCC DNA formation during HBV infection of permissive human hepatoma cells and did not prevent intracellular amplification of duck hepatitis B virus CCC DNA. These results indicate that although Tdp2 can remove the RT covalently linked to the 5' end of the HBV minus strand DNA in vitro, this protein might not be required for CCC DNA formation in vivo.
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