Gastroesophageal Reflux, Esophageal Function, Gastric Emptying, and the Relationship to Dysphagia before and after Antireflux Surgery in Children

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: .
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 10/2012; 162(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.045
Source: PubMed


To assess gastroesophageal reflux (GER), esophageal motility, and gastric emptying in children before and after laparoscopic fundoplication and to identify functional measures associated with postoperative dysphagia.

Study design:
Combined impedance-manometry, 24-hour pH-impedance, and gastric-emptying breath tests were performed before and after laparoscopic anterior partial fundoplication. Impedance-manometry studies were analyzed with the use of conventional analysis methods and a novel automated impedance manometry (AIM) analysis.

Children with therapy resistent GER disease (n = 25) were assessed before fundoplication, of whom 10 (median age 6.4 years; range, 1.1-17.1 years; 7 male; 4 with neurologic impairment) underwent fundoplication. GER episodes reduced from 97 (69-172) to 66 (18-87)/24 hours (P = .012). Peristaltic contractions were unaltered. Complete lower esophageal sphincter relaxations decreased after fundoplication (92% [76%-100%] vs 65% [29%-91%], P = .038). Four (40%) patients developed postoperative dysphagia, which was transient in 2. In those patients, preoperative gastric emptying was delayed compared with patients without postoperative dysphagia, 96 minutes (71-104 minutes) versus 48 minutes (26-68 minutes), P = .032, and AIM analysis derived dysphagia risk index was greater (56 [15-105] vs 2 [2-6] P = .016). Two patients underwent a repeat fundoplication.

Fundoplication in children reduced GER without altering esophageal motility. Four patients who developed dysphagia demonstrated slower gastric emptying and greater dysplasia risk index preoperatively. AIM analysis may allow detection of subtle esophageal abnormalities potentially leading to postoperative dysphagia.

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    • "The etiology of postoperative dysphagia is obscure; postoperative transient edema or esophageal hypomotility is thought to be the most possible cause [4]. The manometric studies carried out in patients state a decrease in esophageal motility [5] or no motility changes [6] pre and postoperatively . Recently, there is no definitive explanation for the etiology. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of Nissen fundoplication to the pacemaker cells of an intestinal system and the serotonin receptors on an ICC membrane. Sixteen adult male rats were taken into study. Rats were divided in to the following two groups. Nissen fundoplication was performed to study group (Group 1) and no surgical procedures were applied to control group (group 2). The rats who were subjected to surgery and the rats without surgery were sacrificed on to postoperative 14 days. Specimens for the pathologic analysis were obtained from upper esophagus (group A) and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) (group B). Distribution of ICC and 5HT-3A were evaluated separately. There was a significant difference (p=0.01, p=0.02, respectively) regarding number of cells stained with CD117 between the group 1B-2B and group 2A-2B. Also there was a significant difference between (p=0, 01, p=0,01 respectively) number of cells stained with 5HT-3A in groups 1A-1B and 2A-2B. However, no correlation was detected between group 1B-2B for 5HT-3A. A reduction in the number of ICC was observed in esophagogastric junctions of the fundoplication group but 5HT-3A distribution did not show a significant difference. A decrease in the number of ICC may be effective at postfundoplication dysphagia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim: Patients with non-obstructive dysphagia (NOD) report symptoms of impaired esophageal bolus transit without evidence of bolus stasis. In such patients, manometric investigation may diagnose esophageal motility disorders; however, many have normal motor patterns. We hypothesized that patients with NOD would demonstrate evidence of high flow-resistance during bolus passage which in turn would relate to the reporting of bolus hold up perception. Methods: Esophageal pressure-impedance recordings of 5 mL liquid and viscous swallows from 18 NOD patients (11 male; 19-71 years) and 17 control subjects (9 male; 25-60 years) were analyzed. The relationship between intrabolus pressure and bolus flow timing in the esophagus was assessed using the pressure flow index (PFI). Bolus perception was assessed swallow by swallow using standardized descriptors. Results: NOD patients were characterized by a higher PFI than controls. The PFI defined a pressure-flow abnormality in all patients who appeared normal based on the assessment esophageal motor patterns and bolus clearance. The PFI was higher for individual swallows during which subjects reported perception of bolus passage. Conclusion: Bolus flow-resistance is higher in NOD patients compared with controls as well as higher in relation to perception of bolus transit, suggesting the presence of an esophageal motility disorder despite normal findings on conventional analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The utility of combined oesophageal pressure-impedance recording has been enhanced by automation of data analysis. Objective: To understand how oesophageal function as measured by automated impedance manometry (AIM) pressure-flow analysis varies with bolus characteristics and subjective perception of bolus passage. Methods: Oesophageal pressure-impedance recordings of 5 and 10 ml liquid or viscous swallows and 2 and 4 cm solid swallows from 20 healthy control subjects (five male; 25-73 years) were analysed. Metrics indicative of bolus pressurization (intrabolus pressure and intrabolus pressure slope) were derived. Bolus flow resistance, the relationship between bolus pressurization and flow timing, was assessed using a pressure-flow index. Bolus retention was assessed using the ratio of nadir impedance to peak pressure impedance (impedance ratio). Subjective perception of bolus passage was assessed swallow by swallow. Results: Viscosity increased the bolus flow resistance and reduced bolus clearance. Responses to boluses of larger volume and more viscous consistency revealed a positive correlation between bolus pressurization and oesophageal peak pressure. Flow resistance was higher in subjects who perceived bolus hold up of solids. Conclusions: Bolus volume and bolus type alter oesophageal function and impact AIM analysis metrics descriptive of oesophageal function. Perception of bolus transit was associated with heightened bolus pressurization relative to bolus flow.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · United European Gastroenterology Journal
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